10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them)

10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them)

10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them)

jyoungblood.com – The purpose of education is to help you to reach your potential. To make sure this occurs, it’s important to set educational goals. Determining what you should learn and how to accomplish your objectives helps create the foundation for reaching your educational goals.

In this article, we take a look at examples of educational goals, along with ways you can achieve them.

Examples of 10 educational goals

Education goals

put into words what you’d like to achieve after a certain amount of time, such as after completing a course or a program. It explains the skills, competencies and qualities you hope to possess by that time.

This process usually involves identifying objectives, choosing attainable short-term goals and then creating a plan for achieving those goals. Here are 10 examples:

1. Think positive to stay focused

Positive thinking

can make it easier for you to focus on tasks that need to be done and learn new information. For instance, if you approach learning better writing skills with a positive mindset, you may be more likely to stay focused since you’re open to the experience.

To maintain a positive mindset toward learning, here are a few things you can do:

  • Set and track your own learning goals

  • Manage your stress

  • Be open to new ideas and approaches

  • Visualize a positive outcome

  • Learn from your mistakes

Related: SMART Goals: Definition and Examples

2. Stay resilient

Resiliency refers to the ability to adapt after encountering a challenge. It’s important to acknowledge the challenge or difficulty in order to find a way to overcome it. Resiliency helps you accept the issue and find steps to move past it while staying positive.

Here are a few ways to improve your resiliency:

  • Find a sense of purpose in your life

  • Establish positive beliefs in your abilities

  • Build a strong network

  • Embrace change

  • Develop your problem-solving skills

Related: Interview Question: “What Are Your Future Goals?”

3. Make time to read

Reading can help you to develop critical thinking skills, which are important to make well-reasoned decisions. Reading requires you to think and process information in ways you may not experience in other forms of entertainment. You can read fiction, autobiographies or journals on any topic that interests you. While you read, take notes to keep your mind focused on the text.

Here are a few tips that can help you make time to read every single day:

  • Read first thing in the morning or before bed

  • Always keep a magazine, newspaper or book in your bag in your bag

  • Use bus or subway time to catch up on reading

  • Find material that you find interesting

  • Set reminders for reading

Related: 7 Simple Strategies To Improve Reading Comprehension

4. Manage your time

Good time-management skills help you to prioritize tasks so you’re able to complete work and assignments on time. You should also plan ahead, set aside the time you need for assignments and projects and stay focused to better use that time.

Here are some tips to effectively manage your time and improve your study:

  • Create a daily, weekly and monthly schedule

  • Avoid distractions while you’re studying

  • Set goals for every study session

  • Start working on projects or tasks early

  • Make a project plan

  • Work on one task at a time

  • Start early in the day

Related: Time-Management Skills: Definition and Examples

5. Find time to relax

Finding time to relax can help you to stay focused and motivated. Giving yourself time to do something you enjoy or practice self-care can help instill balance in your life. When you take a break, you can usually return to your task with a renewed focus and a fresh perspective.

Here are a few ways you can relax:

  • Get quality rest

  • Practice the 50/10 rule (50 minutes of work followed by a 10-minute break)

  • Plan your meals a week in advance

  • Schedule time for your hobbies and interests

  • Take breaks during difficult projects

Related: 8 Steps for How To Stop Overthinking at Work

6. Strive for excellence

You should strive for excellence in your work by setting and then exceeding goals. Excellence is about striving to be better, with the end goal of providing consistent quality work. To achieve excellence in your day to day, you need to spend time practicing and developing new skills.

Here are a few tips to develop the habit of excellence:

  • Explore new ideas

  • Do more than what’s expected of you

  • Take risks

  • Surround yourself with positive people

  • Build a trusted connection with a mentor

Related: How To Take Pride in Your Work in 7 Steps

7. Build a strong network

Networking is about building and nurturing long-term relationships with the people you meet. When you invest time in building meaningful relationships (personal and professional) you create a network of people you can rely on throughout your career.

Networking allows you to develop and improve your skill set, while staying up-to-date about the job market, meeting prospective mentors and gaining access to resources that can promote your development.

Here are a few tips to build a strong network:

  • Take the first step by reaching out

  • Listen to advice and tips

  • Treat people with dignity and respect

  • Learn to trust more

  • Give and take constructive feedback

  • Have empathy

Related: Building Rapport: Tips and Examples

8. Build good study habits

One of the most important parts of academic success is practicing good study habits. Developing and maintaining good study habits can help you to increase your competence, confidence and self-esteem.

Good study habits can also help to reduce your anxiety about deadlines and/or tests. You may also be able to reduce the number of hours that you spend studying, leaving more time for other important things in your life.

Here are a few steps you can take to build good study habits:

  • Plan when you are going to study

  • Create a consistent, daily study routine

  • Set a study session goal to help achieve your overall academic goal

  • Avoid procrastination

  • Create an environment conducive to studying

  • Spread material throughout several study sessions

Related: Top 10 Study Skills and Techniques

9. Attend seminars or training

A seminar is an expert-led educational meeting that focuses on a specific topic or discipline. Seminars are an ideal opportunity for you to study a topic in-depth. By asking questions, paying attention to the speaker and writing notes, you can leave a seminar with a wide range of knowledge in a specific field.

Along with having access to experts, seminars also allow you to meet other people who share your interests and build connections. Seminar discussions give you an opportunity to debate issues related to the field, exchange ideas and share experiences. Meeting new people can offer solutions to common problems, encouragement and advice for how to handle challenges.

Related: What Is On-the-Job Training?

10. Develop patience to achieve your goals

Being patient can help you realize that consistent reflection and hard work can produce successful outcomes. Many goals you need to reach often take time and patience can help you continually produce excellent work.

Here are a few tips to overcome impatience:

  • Be more mindful of your thoughts and reactions to what is going on around you

  • Calm your mind so that you can think more clearly about your situation

  • Practice deep breathing and mindfulness techniques

  • Set milestones and reward yourself when you reach them

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

Children must be taught good behavior so they can live and work well in society when they grow up. Good teaching includes rewards for good behavior. Your child’s age should guide your choice of ways to teach. Some tips to help you teach your child are listed below.

DO:

  • Encourage your child and give lots of affection.
  • Reward good behavior. Praise your child and give extra attention when he or she does something right. Give a reward for good behavior.
  • Your child will copy your actions and words. Act and speak the way you want your child to act and speak.
  • Be kind, but firm.
  • Remove temptations (like breakable items) before children get into trouble. Preventing bad behavior is always easier than correcting a problem.
  • Ignore some small problems or annoying behaviors. Bigger problems need to be corrected, especially if the child’s bad behavior might be harmful or dangerous.
  • Be consistent. Always treat a bad behavior the same way, or your child will learn that he or she can sometimes “get away with it.”
  • Correct your child soon after the bad behavior occurs, but wait until your anger has passed. Counting to 10 before you say something or do something may help reduce your anger so you are in control of yourself.
  • Make rules that are right for your child’s age. Rules work best for children who are school-aged. Younger children (infants and toddlers) don’t understand rules yet. They are still learning what a rule is.
  • Use “time-out” for children between 18 months and five years of age. Time-out may help correct bad behaviors like tantrums, whining, fighting, and arguing. To use time-out, put your child in a chair with no toys or TV. Don’t speak to your child during time-out. Time-out should last one minute for each year of the child’s age. For example, a four-year-old should be in time-out for four minutes. Your child should be quiet for at least 15 seconds before timeout ends.
  • Correct older children by taking away things they like (TV or video games, or time with friends).
  • Remember to tell your child that the behavior was bad, but the child isn’t “bad.”

 

DON’T:

  • Don’t nag or talk about bad behavior too much. Children ignore nagging.
  • Don’t try reasoning to get your point across to children younger than three or four years. They won’t understand.
  • Don’t criticize your child.
  • Don’t call your child names.
  • Don’t call your child “bad.” Only the behavior is bad.
  • Don’t scold too often. Scolding makes children anxious and may make them ignore you. It may also worsen the behavior. Never scold your child during time-out.
  • Don’t spank. Spanking teaches your child that it’s okay to hit someone in order to solve a problem. Never spank a child who is younger than 18 months. It doesn’t help, and you may hurt the child. Never spank a child when you’re angry. Never hit your child with an object.
  • Don’t pull your child’s hair, jerk an arm, or shake your child.

 

Where can I find more information about teaching good behavior to my children?

 

Here are two books you might find at your public library or local bookstore:

Touchpoints: Your Child’s Emotional and Behavioral Development, a book written by T. Berry Brazelton. Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company in 1992. The chapter on discipline is very helpful (see pages 252 to 260).

Parenting: Guide to Positive Discipline, a book written by Paula Spencer. Published by Ballantine Books in 2001.

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is the theory that all behaviors are learned by interacting with the environment. This differs from other theories, which state that behaviors are an innate part of biology. As a branch of psychology, it seeks to predict and control behavior. It assumes that there is no difference between humans and other biological organisms and their ability to learn in response to the environment. It wants to find the simplest explanation possible rather than get conflated with many variables and complexities.

Criticisms

Despite its contributions to psychology, behaviorism has many criticisms. Because it assumes that nearly everything an organism learns comes from how it interacts with its environment, many holes can arise due to the complex nature of human psychology. Many other fields point out these conflicts. For example, in humanism, humanity’s ability to make decisions with free will plays a key role in understanding psychology, and behaviorism ignores the idea entirely because of its core principles. Biological psychology theorizes that every behavior comes from an organic source, which lies on the other end of the spectrum from behaviorism that states that everything comes from external stimuli. Behaviorism also does not take into account memory, problem-solving, critical thinking, etc., all of which play a key role in how humans make decisions and interact with the environment.

Pros and Cons of Behaviorism

While it might not paint a complete picture of psychology, it is still possible to learn more about an individual’s mind based on their principles. For example, if someone lives next to a railroad and always eats exactly when the train is roaring by, they will find that if the train goes by and they don’t eat, they will get hungry. People can learn how they respond to particular stimuli and how it affects them, rather than living by them and never knowing why they’re always suddenly hungry right when the train goes by. The main advantages of this theory are that it can generate predictable outcomes, which can be measured and tested. It can be used in therapy to help shift behaviors away from negative ones to positive ones. One of the biggest shortcomings of this theory, though, is that it doesn’t take into account critical thinking and decision-making skills. Once the person notices they get hungry when the train goes by, they aren’t stuck living that way forever. They can make a change if they desire, eating at a different time of the day instead. This is the concept of free will, which happens when a person does whatever they wish. Rather, behaviorism seeks to explain every choice that is made through responses to external stimuli.

B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner began his career as a writer, though returned to college to receive a Ph. D. in psychology, and then went on to become a professor at several institutions, but became the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology in 1958 and held the position until his retirement in 1974. He founded the theory of Radical Behaviorism following the establishment of behaviorism by John Watson in 1913. Because things within the mind like beliefs and memories could not be empirically defined, he dismissed them entirely. Thus, adopting the theory that every observable response comes from an external stimulus, completely outside of what is felt within the mind. In his novels Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity, he argued that humanity should seek to craft their environment to optimize behaviors and forget concepts of free will. Additionally, he continued to refine the theory of operant conditioning, based on Thorndike’s Law of Effect, furthering his theory of behaviorism by developing explanations for more intricate things like superstitions and complex chains of behavior.

 

Behaviorism in the Classroom

 

How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide

How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide

How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide

www.jyoungblood.com – Fly high above the clouds and see the world from a unique perspective as you launch an exciting, rewarding, and challenging career as a pilot. Find out how you can become a pilot.

Key career takeaways

  • Salary of A$2,558* (median rate per week)
  • Moderate expected job growth. Retention is high among pilots meaning those in the role tend to stay for longer periods of time.
  • This is a very highly skilled profession with a small employment force
  • By 2035, the International Air Transport Association estimates there will be twice the number of passengers as 2016 (from 3.8 billion to 7.2 billion)

*Data sourced from JobOutlook.gov.au

Few careers spark as much intrigue, excitement, romance and adventure as a pilot. Since the early days of aviation, becoming a pilot and experiencing life within the cockpit of some of the most technologically advanced machines on the planet, has been the dream of many. But what do you need to do to become a private or commercial pilot?

What it takes to become a pilot

If you’re the type of person that can handle high-pressure situations calmly, can process mathematical and physics-based problems, possess great English reading, writing and comprehension skills, make good decisions under pressure and have the ability to understand technical details, a career as a pilot could be your calling.

And, through Swinburne’s industry-linked flight school, becoming a pilot can be more than just a dream — it can be your reality.

3 steps to becoming a pilot

Step 1 – Complete a skills assessment test and medical test

Yep, the rumours are true. You need to have pretty good eyesight to become a pilot. The good news is, it doesn’t have to be perfect — as long as your eyes can be corrected to 20/20 with glasses or contacts. So how do you find out if you’re eligible?

In Victoria, Swinburne is the only university that offers you the opportunity to study a Bachelor of Aviation to become a commercial pilot. Prior to selection into the course, shortlisted students are required to complete a skills assessment test with CAE Melbourne Flight Training in late November. This is a computer-based assessment that covers pilot aptitude, hand-eye coordination, motor skills and spatial awareness.

Students must also gain their Class 1 medical certificate from the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) to be able to undertake practical flying lessons.

Step 2 – Study a Bachelor of Aviation degree

Before you can jump inside the cockpit, you’ll also need a thorough understanding of what it takes to fly an aircraft. This includes knowledge of the aviation industry, basic flight operations and attaining key analytical skills.

Delivered in accordance with CASA requirements, our Bachelor of Aviation degree, alongside our Graduate Certificate of Aviation (Piloting) (which you’ll study concurrently), will set you on the path to becoming a commercial or professional pilot.

We also offer the option to combine your aviation degree with a Bachelor of Business. This four year double degree will open doors in the aviation industry outside of becoming a pilot.

With our Bachelor of Aviation degree, you will gain flight experience. You’ll undertake commercial flying training with CAE Melbourne Flight Training at Moorabbin Airport, with access to over 45 aircraft as well as state-of-the-art simulators. Moorabbin Airport has over 295,000 aircraft movements each year, making it one of Australia’s busiest airports. What this means for you – train here, be ready to work anywhere.

While in this course, you’ll start clocking up the 35 required hours to gain your private pilot licence (PPL) and the 150 hours you need for your commercial pilot licence (CPL). As you will be under the supervision of a flight instructor at all times (including while flying solo) you won’t need a licence to fly as a student pilot.

At Swinburne, we proudly provide cadet pilot training for Jetstar. The cadetship program trains future First and Second Officers to fly Jetstar Airbus A320 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft.

Gain your licences

Once you’ve completed your Bachelor of Aviation you’ll have earned all the relevant licences to get you flying. In fact, the course is designed to take graduates beyond the requirements for the CASA Air Transport Pilot Licence theory examination, and CPL and Multi-engine Aeroplane Instrument Endorsement practical tests.

This does not mean you’ll be flying with big commercial airlines… yet! See step three.

Step 3 – Commercial pilot 1.500 flight hours

If you wish to become a commercial pilot and fly aircraft such as the Airbus A380s, Boeing 747s and 777s, you will need to complete 1,500 hours of flight time after you complete your Bachelor of Aviation. It’s a standard set by the airlines to ensure the safety of their millions of customers.

Becoming a commercial pilot for a major airline involves a lot of very important flight hours, which is why we are partnered with Qantas so that our students who are selected into the Qantas Future Pilot Program work towards their 1,500 hours through QantasLink — the airline’s regional brand.

To get your flight time up, you may also find opportunities with small charter companies who look for pilots to run scenic routes for tourists and even skydive runs.

With your 1,500 hours secured, you’ll be ready for your first big commercial gig.

Are you eligible for a scholarship?

Swinburne scholarships are about providing opportunity, promoting equity, and recognising excellence and achievement.

We offer the following aviation scholarships:

  • Australian Federation of Air Pilots and Australian Air Pilots Mutual Benefit Fund Scholarship
  • International Aviation Women’s Association Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Aviation Tour Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Flight Instructor Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Professional Development Initiative Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Professional Undergraduate Research Grant
  • Sir Reginald Ansett Scholarship – Aviation

We also offer the Vice Chancellor’s Excellence Scholarship for students leaving Yr 12 so make sure you check to see if you’re eligible.

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have

www.jyoungblood.com – If there is one thing that is guaranteed to get your students excited, it’s a good science experiment! While some experiments require expensive lab equipment or dangerous chemicals, there are plenty of cool projects you can do with regular household items.

Regardless of how empty your cabinets may be, we think you are likely to have at least some of these things lying around at home. Watch as your students engineer a bridge, solve environmental issues, explore polymers, or work with static electricity. We’ve rounded up a big collection of easy science experiments that anybody can try, and kids are going to love them!

1. Amplify a smartphone

DIY smartphone amplifier made from paper cups

No Bluetooth speaker? No problem! Put together your own from paper cups and toilet paper tubes.

2. Send a teabag flying

Empty tea bags burning into ashes

Hot air rises, and this experiment can prove it! You’ll want to supervise kids with fire, of course. For more safety, try this one outside!

3. Taste the rainbow

Skittles form a circle around a plate. The colors are bleeding toward the center of the plate. (easy science experiments)

Teach your students about diffusion while creating a beautiful and tasty rainbow! You’ll definitely want to have extra Skittles on hand so your class can enjoy a few as well!

4. Watch the water rise

Two side-by-side shots of an upside-down glass over a candle in a bowl of water, with water pulled up into the glass in the second picture

Learn about Charles’s Law with this simple experiment. As the candle burns, using up oxygen and heating the air in the glass, the water rises as if by magic.

5. Set raisins dancing

Raisins floating in a glass of fizzy water

This is a fun version of the classic baking soda and vinegar experiment, perfect for the younger crowd. The bubbly mixture causes raisins to dance around in the water.

6. Race a balloon-powered car

Car made from cardboard with bottlecap wheels and powered by a blue balloon

Kids will be amazed when they learn they can put together this awesome racer using cardboard and bottle-cap wheels. The balloon-powered “engine” is so much fun too.

7. Crystallize your own rock candy

Colorful rock candy on wood sticks

Crystal science experiments teach kids about supersaturated solutions. This one is easy to do at home, and the results are absolutely delicious!

8. Make elephant-sized toothpaste

children are seen from the shoulders down standing behind three bottles that are overflowing with red, yellow, and green fluid. (easy science experiments)

This fun project uses yeast and a hydrogen peroxide solution to create overflowing “elephant toothpaste.” You can also add an extra fun layer by having the kids create toothpaste wrappers for their plastic bottles.

9. Repel glitter with dish soap

Square dish filled with water and glitter, showing how a drop of dish soap repels the glitter

Everyone knows that glitter is just like germs—it gets everywhere and is so hard to get rid of! Use that to your advantage and show kids how soap fights glitter and germs.

10. Blow the biggest bubbles you can

Girl making an enormous bubble with string and wire (Easy Science Experiments)

Add a few simple ingredients to dish soap solution to create the largest bubbles you’ve ever seen! Kids learn about surface tension as they engineer these bubble-blowing wands.

11. Make neon flowers

Eight daisies are shown in different neon colors. The water in the vases they are in are the same color as the daisies. (easy science experiments)

We love how simple this project is to re-create since all you’ll need are some gerbera daisies, food coloring, glasses, and water. The end result is just so beautiful!

12. Build a Ferris wheel

Miniature Ferris Wheel built out of colorful wood craft sticks

You’ve probably ridden on a Ferris wheel, but can you build one? Stock up on wood craft sticks and find out! Play around with different designs to see which one works best.

13. Learn about capillary action

Glasses of colored water with paper towel strips leading from one to the next

Kids will be amazed as they watch the colored water move from glass to glass, and you’ll love the easy and inexpensive setup. Gather some water, paper towels, and food coloring to teach the scientific magic of capillary action.

14. Demonstrate the “magic” leakproof bag

Plastic bag full of water with pencils stuck through it (Easy Science Experiments)

So simple and so amazing! All you need is a zip-top plastic bag, sharp pencils, and some water to blow your kids’ minds. Once they’re suitably impressed, teach them how the “trick” works by explaining the chemistry of polymers.

15. Design a cell phone stand

Basic cell phone stand made from wood craft sticks, paper clips, and rubber bands (Sixth Grade Science)

Use your engineering skills and items from around the house to design and build a cell phone stand.

16. Give a balloon face a beard

A pink balloon has a face drawn on it. It is hovering over a plate with salt and pepper on it (easy science experiments)

Equally educational and fun, this experiment will teach kids about static electricity using everyday materials. Kids will undoubtedly get a kick out of creating beards on their balloon person!

17. Re-create the water cycle in a bag

Plastic bag of blue water with a sun and clouds drawn on it (Easy Science Experiments)

You can do so many easy science experiments with a simple zip-top bag! Fill one partway with water and set it on a sunny windowsill to see how the water evaporates up and eventually “rains” down.

18. Conduct an egg drop

Egg surrounded by paper straws taped into place

Put all their engineering skills to the test with an egg drop! Challenge kids to build a container from stuff they find around the house that will protect an egg from a long fall (this is especially fun to do from upper-story windows).

19. Engineer a drinking straw roller coaster

Student building a roller coaster of drinking straws for a ping pong ball (Fourth Grade Science)

STEM challenges are always a hit with kids. We love this one, which only requires basic supplies like drinking straws.

20. Use apple slices to learn about oxidation

Several apple slices are shown on a clear plate. There are cards that label what they have been immersed in (including salt water, sugar water, etc.) (easy science experiments)

Have students make predictions about what will happen to apple slices when immersed in different liquids, then put those predictions to the test! Finally, have them record their observations.

21. Build a solar oven

Solar oven built from a pizza box with s’mores inside

Explore the power of the sun when you build your own solar ovens and use them to cook some yummy treats. This experiment takes a little more time and effort, but the results are always impressive. The link below has complete instructions.

Law of Supply Defined

Law of Supply Defined

Law of Supply Defined

The law of supply is an economic theory that predicts how the price of goods and services affects their supply. It says that as prices rise, businesses will increase the amount of goods and services that they make available. Though the law of supply can be useful when making business decisions, it doesn’t take into account other factors that can affect supply, such as changes in production costs and the competitive environment. Still, understanding the law of supply, as well the exceptions to the law and other relevant factors, can help companies determine how to price their products and services and adjust their supply to maximize profits.

What Is the Law of Supply?

The law of supply is a basic economic concept. It states that an increase in the price of goods or services results in an increase in their supply. Supply is defined as the quantity of goods or services that suppliers are willing and able to provide to customers. The law works like this: Rising prices mean that products become more profitable, assuming other factors such as production costs remain constant. The prospect of higher profits therefore motivates businesses to supply more of these products. Existing suppliers may increase the supply of more profitable products at the expense of less profitable ones. In addition, new suppliers may enter the market, further increasing the overall supply.

Key Takeaways

The law of supply states that an increase in the price of goods or services results in an increase in the quantity that suppliers make available to the market.
Existing suppliers increase production of higher-priced goods to maximize profits, while new suppliers may also enter the market.
The law of supply assumes that all other factors remain constant. In practice, many other factors can play into supply decisions, including rising production costs and market competition.

Law of Supply Explained

Consider the example of a pizzeria that sells pasta dishes as well as pizzas. If the price of pizza rises, and with it the profit per pie, the business may focus its resources on increasing the production of pizza — while decreasing the production of pasta offerings. As the price keeps rising, the pizzeria continues to increase the pizza supply because it can increase its profits by doing so. This relationship can be represented graphically as a supply curve, which shows the number of pizzas produced at different prices.

Law of Supply Defined

As prices and output continue to increase, the supplier eventually reaches the maximum quantity that it can provide with its existing equipment — it can’t make any more pizzas because its ovens are already full at all times. The pizzeria may then decide to invest in an additional pizza oven to increase its supply. Meanwhile, other entrepreneurs establish new pizzerias because the higher prices justify the startup costs. This further increases the market supply.

How Does the Law of Supply Work?

The law of supply applies to services and labor as well as goods — a higher price can increase the supply. For example, employees may be more likely to work overtime if they’re paid at a higher hourly rate. Professions that offer relatively high salaries, such as software engineering, may attract more people to educational programs that ultimately increase the supply of qualified job applicants.

In practice, prices are often determined by the relationship between supply and demand. A related economic theory, the law of supply and demand, describes how this works. Rising demand for products and services tends to drive up prices. This provides an incentive for providers to increase the supply. However, as the price of those products and services continues to rise, fewer customers will buy them. The law of supply and demand predicts that as a result, free markets move toward an equilibrium point where the price and quantity of the supply exactly matches customer demand.

Factors That Affect Supply

The law of supply predicts that rising prices result in increases in the supply of goods or services — but that’s assuming all other factors remain constant. In reality, many other factors can affect supply, and those factors can change frequently. Here are 10 of the most common.

  • Price and demand forecasts.
    Many businesses base their production plans on forecasts of future demand and pricing, not just on what customers are currently buying. Enterprise resource planning software can help businesses improve demand forecasts by considering factors such as economic growth and seasonality. Furthermore, if a product’s price is expected to increase, businesses may hold back stock so they can make a larger profit in the future.
  • Production costs.
    The law of supply assumes that companies can increase profits by selling more goods or services when prices rise, which provides them with an incentive to increase the supply. But if the price rises reflect increased production costs, that may not be true. If a pizzeria raises the price of a slice by 50 cents because the cost of the tomatoes used in the sauce went up by 50 cents, its profit is unchanged — so the price increase doesn’t represent an incentive to make more pizzas. On the other hand, if production costs fall and prices remain stable, profits increase and so does the incentive to supply more pizzas.
  • Competition.
    New suppliers may enter the market even if prices are not increasing and demand is stable. Often, these new suppliers aim to offer products at lower prices than existing providers.
  • Technology.
    Technology can enable companies to make and sell more products at a lower cost, thus increasing the available supply.
  • Transportation.
    Transportation delays or rising shipping costs can affect a company’s ability to increase its supply of goods. If goods can’t move from warehouses to retail shelves, they can’t be purchased by customers and don’t count toward the market supply.
  • Availability of raw materials and labor.
    A business may want to increase the supply of a product but unable to do so because it can’t purchase the raw materials or hire the people required to produce it.
  • Government regulations and subsidies influence supply in some industries.
    Companies must meet strict regulatory requirements when introducing certain healthcare products, for example, which can limit the supply of these products regardless of the demand. On the other hand, government subsidies support the supply of some local transportation services.
  • Weather and natural disasters.
    For many agricultural goods, the weather has a major impact on supply. A dry season or flooding can greatly reduce crop yields.
  • Comparable goods.
    A change in the supply of one good can affect the supply of other goods. For example, if the market price of corn increases, farmers may dedicate more land to growing corn. As a result, they use less land for growing squash, so the supply of squash decreases.
  • Business objectives.
    Companies may adjust the supply of products to achieve specific objectives. For example, some businesses introduce limited-edition collectibles in small quantities to increase their desirability and value. At the other extreme, companies sometimes supply products in large quantities to build market presence and brand awareness, even if increasing the supply doesn’t generate higher profits.

Types of Law of Supply

There are five types of supply — market supply, joint supply, composite supply, short-run supply and long-run supply. Here’s how to distinguish them.

  • Market supply.
    The market supply is the total supply from all producers. If a town has three pizzerias that produce 30, 40, and 25 pies a day, respectively, at $20 apiece, the market supply at the $20 price level is 95 pies a day.
  • Joint supply.
    Joint supply occurs when multiple goods are produced from a single source. For example, cows can be used to produce milk as well as leather.
  • Composite supply.
    Composite supply occurs when goods are intrinsically linked and sold only as a bundle. For example, a car manufacturer typically offers air conditioning and audio systems only as part of a bundled package with the purchase of a new vehicle.
  • Short-run supply.
    Short-run supply is the total supply that companies can provide without additional investment in business expansion. It’s also known as short-term supply.
  • Long-run supply.
    Long-run supply, also known as long-term supply, includes factors such as suppliers’ investment in new production capacity. It also considers that new suppliers may enter the market while older firms exit.

Exceptions to Law of Supply

Not every business scenario is determined by the law of supply. There are many exceptions — situations where the supply of goods and services isn’t determined by the pricing. Here are some of the most common.

  • Economies of scale.
    When a producer becomes large enough, it may be able to apply economies of scale to reduce the cost of producing goods and services. As a result, it may be able to increase its supply while keeping prices stable or even reducing them.
  • Shift in business plan.
    If a business is shifting its market focus and plans to cease production of some products, it may temporarily increase the supply of those products at a low price to eliminate any remaining stock and raw materials. A business may also use this approach as an emergency measure if it needs cash in a hurry.
  • Monopoly.
    When there’s only a single supplier of a good or service, the company may be able to increase or decrease its supply or pricing irrespective of external factors.
  • Competitive pricing.
    In a highly competitive market, businesses may increase the supply of their products while reducing the price to capture market share.
  • Expiring or dated goods.
    If perishable goods near their expiration date, a business may increase their supply early to try to recoup some of the production costs before the goods become unsellable.
  • One-of-a-kind goods.
    Handmade art or other rare goods cannot be easily reproduced, so the supply cannot expand even if the price rises.
  • Inelastic supply.
    For many goods, including agricultural products, it is difficult to quickly adjust the supply even if the price rises. It can take months or even years for crops to reach maturity and become available to customers. For example, an apple farmer who adds trees to their orchard won’t be able to harvest the fruit for several years.

Law of Supply Examples

The law of supply operates across almost every industry. Here are some common examples.

  • The owner of a coffee shop notices that sandwich prices are rising. To boost profits, the owner starts making more sandwiches for sale.
  • A movie studio sees that major theaters are charging higher prices for blockbuster films, so it begins greenlighting more projects to develop star-studded action movies.
  • Noticing that the price of organic vegetables is increasing faster than the price of conventionally produced crops, a farmer starts the process of gaining organic certification.

Conclusion

The law of supply describes a simple relationship between pricing and supply — the higher the price of an item, the more suppliers will make. In practice, many other factors can affect both supply and pricing, including production costs, the availability of raw materials and the competitive environment. So while it’s useful to consider the law of supply when making business decisions, it’s equally important to take into account other factors that may apply to your situation.

Educational Institution - Meaning and Definition

Educational Institution – Meaning and Definition

Educational Institution - Meaning and Definition

An educational institution is a place where people of different age groups get an education.

The educational institution includes childcare, preschool, elementary school, high secondary schools, and universities. These educational institutions provide the learning space and the learning environment.

Understand and digitize school operations with Teachmint and its features like user management for efficient school management.

Activities related to education are there in the educational institution. The organization can get a building and use that building to provide training and education in organized courses.

These educational institutions have one education head; it can be the principal or any other person. The institution has other personnel, teaching, and nonteaching, that are there to help and give service to the organization. There are different works which the personnel have to do like keeping books, arranging and maintaining documents, etc.

The educational institutions have a curriculum that all the educational institutions of the country follow. Public authority takes care of the control and finance of these institutions. The medium of instruction can be virtual classrooms.

There can be a merger or demolition of the educational institution depending on the decision of the education organizer or public authority. The institutions’ ultimate aim is to impart quality education and to ensure that the future generation is knowledgeable.

There is an educational ID for all the institutions. The difference between these educational institutions is on the basis of the education they are imparting to the students.

The different types of educational institutions

What is the difference between a college and a university? Public and private institutions? Is community college a good way to start a career? With over 6,000 higher education institutions nationwide, students often wonder which path to choose.

Whether you have already chosen a career or are still exploring your options, there is a school for you. Incoming students can choose their college by size, cost, location, and degree choices. For those looking for a specific experience, gender, race, and religious affiliation can help make the decision easier.

Higher educational institutions

The basic types of post-secondary institutions include:

  • community colleges
  • technical or vocational schools
  • public colleges and universities
  • private colleges and universities

Students can choose to further customize their college experience by choosing an institution specializing in a particular type of learning or student body. Liberal arts colleges, historically black colleges and universities, and Ivy League schools offer these unique experiences.

Community colleges

With a relatively simple admissions process, lower tuition costs, and programs that allow students to begin a career immediately upon graduation, community colleges appeal to a variety of students. Working professionals may complete a certification course at a community college to get ahead in their career or change professions. These schools also appeal to high school graduates who are not able or ready for the commitment of a 4-year program.

There are 942 community colleges nationwide. These schools provide certificate programs leading to credentials designed for specific skills and trades, in addition to 2-year associate degrees. Many students spend 2 years studying in community college before transferring their credits to a bachelor’s program at a college or university.

Applicants to community colleges do not always require a high school diploma or general education development (GED) certificate. Most have open admissions policies with a minimum requirement that applicants are at least 18 years old. California Community Colleges, for example, are required to accept all state residents meeting this requirement.

Community colleges may have technical and vocational programs, but typically offer a wider variety of subject areas than technical or vocational schools. The associate degree programs at these colleges are often trade-based, requiring hands-on instruction. As a result of the COVID19 pandemic, enrollment in community colleges dropped precipitously as students were unable to attend class in disciplines where in-person training is required, such as nursing or mechanical engineering.

Students attending community college programs may be working professionals earning a credential to further their career. For this reason, community colleges often offer flexible course structures including online asynchronous lessons and evening classes. Most community college campuses do not provide on-campus accommodation.

  • Average cost – $10,300 per year
  • Example careers include paralegal, physical therapy assistant

Technical and vocational schools

Focused on careers, technical and vocational schools list their programs as career training tracks rather than degrees or certificates. These tracks are designed to give students specific skills needed for their target profession. For example, medical assisting programs may include an internship in a local clinic alongside laboratory sessions to practice skills like blood draws.

The main difference between technical and vocational schools is that vocational schools are more hands on while technical schools may have a stronger classroom component. Graduates from both schools typically can begin working immediately upon graduation.

Most vocational and technical schools require a high school diploma or GED. These schools do not usually request SAT or ACT scores, but may require a placement test. Some schools waive the requirement for a high school diploma for students with strong scores on their placement test, and may admit students as young as 16 with parental consent. Trade and vocational schools are usually commuter-based.

  • Average cost—$11,389 per year

Example careers include radiation therapist, dental hygienist, licensed practical nurse

Private colleges and universities

Funded by tuition and private contributions, private universities have the highest tuition rates among all higher education institutions. Private colleges offer smaller student population and class sizes and a narrower range of majors compared to larger colleges and universities.

State residency doesn’t affect tuition rate creating a more diverse student body by encouraging out-of-state students to attend without needing to pay increased fees. Compared to community colleges, trade, and vocational schools, private colleges have considerably stricter admissions requirements. Applicants need a high school diploma or equivalent, and SAT or ACT and GPA scores within a particular range stipulated by the individual college. Students in private colleges usually live on or near campus.

Both liberal arts and Ivy League colleges and universities are private. Liberal arts colleges usually award undergraduate degrees and are known for their interdisciplinary approach. Amherst and Wellesley Colleges are well-known liberal arts colleges. Ivy League schools are high-competitive and have low acceptance rates. There are 8 total, including Yale and Princeton.

  • Average cost—$44,662 per year
  • Examples of liberal arts careers include marketing manager, accounting manager, elementary school teacher
  • Examples of Ivy League career fields: financial services, consulting

Public universities

Funded by state governments, public universities have state boards and trustees who oversee their operations. These institutions offer in-state tuition, which is usually lower than private colleges and universities. Public institutions generally have a large student population, offer a wider spectrum of disciplines, and confer graduate degrees.

Admissions requirements for public universities are similar to private institutions. Most public universities support research by master’s and doctoral students. The University of Florida, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and University of California at Berkeley are traditional public universities.

  • Average cost—$20,598 per year
  • Example public university graduate career fields: healthcare, logistics, information technology

Other institutions

In addition to the basic types of higher educational institutions, there are colleges and universities designed to meet more specific student needs. These schools cater to select student bodies and disciplines.

Art and design schools

Students with an interest in the arts can opt to enroll in programs offered by art and design schools. These schools are sometimes extensions of existing universities, like the School of Art and Design at the University of Illinois. Other schools exist independently, such as the Parsons School of Design, the Pratt Institute, or the Julliard School.

Art and design schools offer associate, bachelor’s, and graduate degrees in specializations like fine art, film, illustration, graphic design, drama, dance, and photography. The most common degree awarded is a bachelor of fine art, or BFA. Admissions to these schools can be extremely competitive. In addition to a high school diploma, GPA and test scores, applicants typically submit a portfolio of sample works and may need to audition.

Institutes of technology

Students who know they want to specialize in engineering, technology, applied sciences, and natural sciences often attend institutes of technology. This type of school includes career-oriented programs and awards both undergraduate and graduate degrees. These schools include public institutions such as Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) as well as private schools like California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)

These unique colleges and universities emerged in the 1860s as a result of racial discrimination in existing institutions of the time. HBCUs now accept all races, though the majority of the student population in most continues to be Black. Some well-known HBCUs include Howard University, Morehouse College, and Spelman College. Of the 100 total HBCUs currently available, 51 are public.

Religiously affiliated

Historically, many colleges and universities were associated with a religion. Religiously affiliated institutions only accepted students identified with the target affiliated faith and incorporated religious themes in their coursework and campus culture. Today, some still operate based on religious traditions, maintaining certain rules and practices based on their affiliation.

Brigham Young University, for example, is operated by the Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-day Saints (BYU). While BYU also accepts students of other faiths, all students have to follow certain rules based on the university’s religiously-oriented code of conduct.

There are far more colleges with historical affiliations than active faith-based practices. At these colleges, the student body is largely unaffected by their school’s affiliation. Boston College, for example, maintains a Roman Catholic Jesuit affiliation.

Women’s only

Although women are enrolling in college at considerably higher rates than men, the number of colleges originally founded to admit only women is declining. In the 1950s, it was determined that these colleges violated the Equal Protection Clause, causing many to dissolve. Still, today there are 37 women’s colleges and universities.

While these colleges admit all genders, student populations are majority female, ranging from 87%-100%. These often private, liberal arts colleges are designed to offer women an opportunity to thrive in areas like STEM fields where they are traditionally underrepresented. Women who attend women’s colleges and universities are more likely to graduate and develop marketable skills compared to those studying at public universities.

Tribal schools

Tribal colleges and universities were founded to preserve and restore the languages and cultural traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. There are currently 32 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) offering degrees, certificates, and even apprenticeships. These institutions are often located in economically depressed, rural areas and sometimes serve as a base for their local community’s social services. With a graduation rate of 86%, these schools serve an important role in supporting those most underserved by the traditional higher education system.

Military colleges

There are 5 service academies provided by the United States military. Each institution is divided into service academics, senior military colleges, and military junior colleges. The basic academies are as follows:

  • Military Academy
  • Naval Academy
  • Air Force Academy
  • Coast Guard Academy
  • Merchant Marine Academy

These schools provide students an opportunity to simultaneously serve in the military while pursing a college degree. Students at these schools undergo military instruction along side a bachelor of science degree, and most graduates aim to find a job in the military upon graduation. In exchange for a service commitment of at least 5 years, accepted applicants do not pay tuition, or room and board.

Closing words

Your final choice of school ultimately depends on a culmination of factors. Your career goals, academic interests, and personal circumstances can all contribute to the final decision. It is not uncommon to attend more than one school, whether to complete certain career credentials or when finding the right institution for your academic goals. With plenty of research and clear goals, you can find the school that is best for you.

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity, phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electric charges. Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and is borne by elementary particles. In electricity the particle involved is the electron, which carries a charge designated, by convention, as negative. Thus, the various manifestations of electricity are the result of the accumulation or motion of numbers of electrons.

Electrostatics

Electrostatics is the study of electromagnetic phenomena that occur when there are no moving charges—i.e., after a static equilibrium has been established. Charges reach their equilibrium positions rapidly because the electric force is extremely strong. The mathematical methods of electrostatics make it possible to calculate the distributions of the electric field and of the electric potential from a known configuration of charges, conductors, and insulators. Conversely, given a set of conductors with known potentials, it is possible to calculate electric fields in regions between the conductors and to determine the charge distribution on the surface of the conductors. The electric energy of a set of charges at rest can be viewed from the standpoint of the work required to assemble the charges; alternatively, the energy also can be considered to reside in the electric field produced by this assembly of charges. Finally, energy can be stored in a capacitor; the energy required to charge such a device is stored in it as electrostatic energy of the electric field.

Coulomb’s law

Static electricity is a familiar electric phenomenon in which charged particles are transferred from one body to another. For example, if two objects are rubbed together, especially if the objects are insulators and the surrounding air is dry, the objects acquire equal and opposite charges and an attractive force develops between them. The object that loses electrons becomes positively charged, and the other becomes negatively charged. The force is simply the attraction between charges of opposite sign. The properties of this force were described above; they are incorporated in the mathematical relationship known as Coulomb’s law. The electric force on a charge Q1 under these conditions, due to a charge Q2 at a distance r, is given by Coulomb’s law,Equation.

Calculating the value of an electric field

In the example, the charge Q1 is in the electric field produced by the charge Q2. This field has the valueEquation.in newtons per coulomb (N/C). (Electric field can also be expressed in volts per metre [V/m], which is the equivalent of newtons per coulomb.) The electric force on Q1 is given byEquation.in newtons. This equation can be used to define the electric field of a point charge. The electric field E produced by charge Q2 is a vector. The magnitude of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from Q2; its direction is away from Q2 when Q2 is a positive charge and toward Q2 when Q2 is a negative charge. Using equations (2) and Electricity and Magnetism. Electricity. Electrostatics. Static electricity. [Calculating the value of an electric field – equation 4], the field produced by Q2 at the position of Q1 isEquation.in newtons per coulomb.

Superposition principle

This calculation demonstrates an important property of the electromagnetic field known as the superposition principle. According to this principle, a field arising from a number of sources is determined by adding the individual fields from each source. The principle is illustrated by Figure 3, in which an electric field arising from several sources is determined by the superposition of the fields from each of the sources. In this case, the electric field at the location of Q1 is the sum of the fields due to Q2 and Q3. Studies of electric fields over an extremely wide range of magnitudes have established the validity of the superposition principle.

Electric potential

The electric potential is just such a scalar function. Electric potential is related to the work done by an external force when it transports a charge slowly from one position to another in an environment containing other charges at rest. The difference between the potential at point A and the potential at point B is defined by the equation

Deriving electric field from potential

The electric field has already been described in terms of the force on a charge. If the electric potential is known at every point in a region of space, the electric field can be derived from the potential. In vector calculus notation, the electric field is given by the negative of the gradient of the electric potential, E = −grad V. This expression specifies how the electric field is calculated at a given point. Since the field is a vector, it has both a direction and magnitude. The direction is that in which the potential decreases most rapidly, moving away from the point. The magnitude of the field is the change in potential across a small distance in the indicated direction divided by that distance.

Capacitance

A useful device for storing electrical energy consists of two conductors in close proximity and insulated from each other. A simple example of such a storage device is the parallel-plate capacitor. If positive charges with total charge +Q are deposited on one of the conductors and an equal amount of negative charge −Q is deposited on the second conductor, the capacitor is said to have a charge Q. As shown in Figure 11, it consists of two flat conducting plates, each of area A, parallel to each other and separated by a distance d.

Principle of the capacitor

To understand how a charged capacitor stores energy, consider the following charging process. With both plates of the capacitor initially uncharged, a small amount of negative charge is removed from the lower plate and placed on the upper plate. Thus, little work is required to make the lower plate slightly positive and the upper plate slightly negative. As the process is repeated, however, it becomes increasingly difficult to transport the same amount of negative charge, since the charge is being moved toward a plate that is already negatively charged and away from a plate that is positively charged. The negative charge on the upper plate repels the negative charge moving toward it, and the positive charge on the lower plate exerts an attractive force on the negative charge being moved away. Therefore, work has to be done to charge the capacitor.

Dielectrics, polarization, and electric dipole moment

The amount of charge stored in a capacitor is the product of the voltage and the capacity. What limits the amount of charge that can be stored on a capacitor? The voltage can be increased, but electric breakdown will occur if the electric field inside the capacitor becomes too large. The capacity can be increased by expanding the electrode areas and by reducing the gap between the electrodes. In general, capacitors that can withstand high voltages have a relatively small capacity. If only low voltages are needed, however, compact capacitors with rather large capacities can be manufactured. One method for increasing capacity is to insert between the conductors an insulating material that reduces the voltage because of its effect on the electric field. Such materials are called dielectrics (substances with no free charges). When the molecules of a dielectric are placed in the electric field, their negatively charged electrons separate slightly from their positively charged cores. With this separation, referred to as polarization, the molecules acquire an electric dipole moment. A cluster of charges with an electric dipole moment is often called an electric dipole.

Direct electric current

Basic phenomena and principles

Many electric phenomena occur under what is termed steady-state conditions. This means that such electric quantities as current, voltage, and charge distributions are not affected by the passage of time. For instance, because the current through a filament inside a car headlight does not change with time, the brightness of the headlight remains constant. An example of a nonsteady-state situation is the flow of charge between two conductors that are connected by a thin conducting wire and that initially have an equal but opposite charge. As current flows from the positively charged conductor to the negatively charged one, the charges on both conductors decrease with time, as does the potential difference between the conductors. The current therefore also decreases with time and eventually ceases when the conductors are discharged.

Conductors, insulators, and semiconductors

Materials are classified as conductors, insulators, or semiconductors according to their electric conductivity. The classifications can be understood in atomic terms. Electrons in an atom can have only certain well-defined energies, and, depending on their energies, the electrons are said to occupy particular energy levels. In a typical atom with many electrons, the lower energy levels are filled, each with the number of electrons allowed by a quantum mechanical rule known as the Pauli exclusion principle. Depending on the element, the highest energy level to have electrons may or may not be completely full. If two atoms of some element are brought close enough together so that they interact, the two-atom system has two closely spaced levels for each level of the single atom. If 10 atoms interact, the 10-atom system will have a cluster of 10 levels corresponding to each single level of an individual atom. In a solid, the number of atoms and hence the number of levels is extremely large; most of the higher energy levels overlap in a continuous fashion except for certain energies in which there are no levels at all. Energy regions with levels are called energy bands, and regions that have no levels are referred to as band gaps.

Electromotive force

A 12-volt automobile battery can deliver current to a circuit such as that of a car radio for a considerable length of time, during which the potential difference between the terminals of the battery remains close to 12 volts. The battery must have a means of continuously replenishing the excess positive and negative charges that are located on the respective terminals and that are responsible for the 12-volt potential difference between the terminals. The charges must be transported from one terminal to the other in a direction opposite to the electric force on the charges between the terminals. Any device that accomplishes this transport of charge constitutes a source of electromotive force. A car battery, for example, uses chemical reactions to generate electromotive force. The Van de Graaff generator shown in Figure 13 is a mechanical device that produces an electromotive force. Invented by the American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in the 1930s, this type of particle accelerator has been widely used to study subatomic particles. Because it is conceptually simpler than a chemical source of electromotive force, the Van de Graaff generator will be discussed first.

Direct-current circuits

The simplest direct-current (DC) circuit consists of a resistor connected across a source of electromotive force. The symbol for a resistor is shown in Figure 15; here the value of R, 60Ω, is given by the numerical value adjacent to the symbol. The symbol for a source of electromotive force, E, is shown with the associated value of the voltage. Convention gives the terminal with the long line a higher (i.e., more positive) potential than the terminal with the short line. Straight lines connecting various elements in a circuit are assumed to have negligible resistance, so that there is no change in potential across these connections. The circuit shows a 12-volt electromotive force connected to a 60Ω resistor. The letters a, b, c, and d on the diagram are reference points.

Resistors in series and parallel

If two resistors are connected in Figure 16A so that all of the electric charge must traverse both resistors in succession, the equivalent resistance to the flow of current is the sum of the resistances.

Kirchhoff’s laws of electric circuits

Two simple relationships can be used to determine the value of currents in circuits. They are useful even in rather complex situations such as circuits with multiple loops. The first relationship deals with currents at a junction of conductors. Figure 17 shows three such junctions, with the currents assumed to flow in the directions indicated.

Alternating electric currents

Basic phenomena and principles

Many applications of electricity and magnetism involve voltages that vary in time. Electric power transmitted over large distances from generating plants to users involves voltages that vary sinusoidally in time, at a frequency of 60 hertz (Hz) in the United States and Canada and 50 hertz in Europe. (One hertz equals one cycle per second.) This means that in the United States, for example, the current alternates its direction in the electric conducting wires so that each second it flows 60 times in one direction and 60 times in the opposite direction. Alternating currents (AC) are also used in radio and television transmissions. In an AM (amplitude-modulation) radio broadcast, electromagnetic waves with a frequency of around one million hertz are generated by currents of the same frequency flowing back and forth in the antenna of the station. The information transported by these waves is encoded in the rapid variation of the wave amplitude. When voices and music are broadcast, these variations correspond to the mechanical oscillations of the sound and have frequencies from 50 to 5,000 hertz. In an FM (frequency-modulation) system, which is used by both television and FM radio stations, audio information is contained in the rapid fluctuation of the frequency in a narrow range around the frequency of the carrier wave.

Transient response

Consider a circuit consisting of a capacitor and a resistor that are connected as shown in Figure 19. What will be the voltage at point b if the voltage at a is increased suddenly from Va = 0 to Va = +50 volts? Closing the switch produces such a voltage because it connects the positive terminal of a 50-volt battery to point a while the negative terminal is at ground (point c). Figure 20 (left) graphs this voltage Va as a function of the time.

Alternating-current circuits

Certain circuits include sources of alternating electromotive forces of the sinusoidal form V = V0 cos(ωt) or V = V0 sin(ωt). The sine and cosine functions have values that vary between +1 and −1; either of the equations for the voltage represents a potential that varies with respect to time and has values from +V0 to −V0. The voltage varies with time at a rate given by the numerical value of ω; ω, which is called the angular frequency, is expressed in radians per second. Figure 22 shows an example with V0 = 170 volts and ω = 377 radians per second, so that V = 170 cos(377t). The time interval required for the pattern to be repeated is called the period T, given by T = 2π/ω. In Figure 22, the pattern is repeated every 16.7 milliseconds, which is the period. The frequency of the voltage is symbolized by f and given by f = 1/T. In terms of ω, f = ω/2π, in hertz.

Behaviour of an AC circuit

The way an AC circuit functions can be better understood by examining one that includes a source of sinusoidally varying electromotive force, a resistor, a capacitor, and an inductor, all connected in series. For this single-loop problem, only the second of Kirchhoff’s laws is needed since there is only one current. The circuit is shown in Figure 23 with the points a, b, c, and d at various positions in the circuit located between the various elements. The letters R, L, and C represent, respectively, the values of the resistance in ohms, the inductance in henrys, and the capacitance in farads. The source of the AC electromotive force is located between a and b. The wavy symbol is a reminder of the sinusoidal nature of the voltage that is responsible for making the current flow in the loop. For the potential between b and a,

Electric properties of matter

Piezoelectricity

Some solids, notably certain crystals, have permanent electric polarization. Other crystals become electrically polarized when subjected to stress. In electric polarization, the centre of positive charge within an atom, molecule, or crystal lattice element is separated slightly from the centre of negative charge. Piezoelectricity (literally “pressure electricity”) is observed if a stress is applied to a solid, for example, by bending, twisting, or squeezing it. If a thin slice of quartz is compressed between two electrodes, a potential difference occurs; conversely, if the quartz crystal is inserted into an electric field, the resulting stress changes its dimensions. Piezoelectricity is responsible for the great precision of clocks and watches equipped with quartz oscillators. It also is used in electric guitars and various other musical instruments to transform mechanical vibrations into corresponding electric signals, which are then amplified and converted to sound by acoustical speakers.

Electro-optic phenomena

The index of refraction n of a transparent substance is related to its electric polarizability and is given by n2 = 1 + χe/ε0. As discussed earlier, χe is the electric susceptibility of a medium, and the equation P = χeE relates the polarization of the medium to the applied electric field. For most matter, χe is not a constant independent of the value of the electric field, but rather depends to a small degree on the value of the field. Thus, the index of refraction can be changed by applying an external electric field to a medium. In liquids, glasses, and crystals that have a centre of symmetry, the change is usually very small. Called the Kerr effect (for its discoverer, the Scottish physicist John Kerr), it is proportional to the square of the applied electric field. In noncentrosymmetric crystals, the change in the index of refraction n is generally much greater; it depends linearly on the applied electric field and is known as the Pockels effect (after the German physicist F. R. Pockels).

Thermoelectricity

When two metals are placed in electric contact, electrons flow out of the one in which the electrons are less bound and into the other. The binding is measured by the location of the so-called Fermi level of electrons in the metal; the higher the level, the lower is the binding. The Fermi level represents the demarcation in energy within the conduction band of a metal between the energy levels occupied by electrons and those that are unoccupied. The energy of an electron at the Fermi level is −W relative to a free electron outside the metal. The flow of electrons between the two conductors in contact continues until the change in electrostatic potential brings the Fermi levels of the two metals (W1 and W2) to the same value. This electrostatic potential is called the contact potential ϕ12 and is given by eϕ12 = W1 − W2, where e is 1.6 × 10−19 coulomb.

Thermionic emission

A metal contains mobile electrons in a partially filled band of energy levels—i.e., the conduction band. These electrons, though mobile within the metal, are rather tightly bound to it. The energy that is required to release a mobile electron from the metal varies from about 1.5 to 6 electron volts, depending on the metal. In thermionic emission, some of the electrons acquire enough energy from thermal collisions to escape from the metal. The number of electrons emitted and therefore the thermionic emission current depend critically on temperature.

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships given based on academic achievement and your financial aid info from the FAFSA can open up college scholarship opportunities for high school students.

High school students should take advantage of every opportunity to apply for high school scholarships. Many organizations offer scholarships for high schoolers and the awards may be very generous. Even if you don’t think you’ll qualify for need-based financial aid, it’s often still a good idea to fill out the college opportunities that otherwise wouldn’t be available without these awards!

What Scholarships Are Available for High School Students?

A number of scholarship programs are available to those who have achieved good grades in their studies. You could also use interests and goals to find scholarships for minority students, the sport you play, by state or college major. Don’t overlook ones like Navy Seal Foundation Scholarships if you are the child of a military service member.

Scholarships for high school students can be a great way to help with college costs. There are many types of high school scholarships 2022 programs, each giving you different opportunities and benefits!

10 Scholarships For High School Students You Should Apply For in 2022

As a high school student, you have plenty of options when it comes to scholarships. You can find awards given by organizations, companies, and even the government to help pay for college. Here are the 10 high school scholarships 2022 that you should apply for:

  1. Coca-Cola Scholars Program
  2. Burger King Scholars Program
  3. Gates Millennium Scholars Program
  4. Google Lime Scholarship
  5. National Merit Scholarship Program
  6. QuestBridge National College Match Program
  7. Ron Brown Scholar Program
  8. Tall Clubs International Scholarship Program
  9. United Negro College Fund Scholarships
  10. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc./Frederick Douglass

When Should High School Students Start Applying For Scholarships?

Scholarships are a great way to fund your education. If you have been thinking about college scholarships for high school students, don’t wait until it’s too late! Deadlines can range from one year before college starts up through senior year in some cases so make sure that you apply as soon as possible and work on scholarship searches during summer break or after grades come out each semester.

How To Get Scholarships For High School?

Getting scholarships for high schoolers can be a difficult process. There are many different types of scholarships, and it can be hard to know where to start your search. However, there are a few tips that you can follow to help you find the best scholarships for your needs.

  1. Start early: The sooner you start looking for scholarships, the better your chances will be of finding one that suits your needs.
  2. Talk to your guidance counselor: Your guidance counselor may be able to help you find scholarships that are specifically for high school students.
  3. Look online: There are many different scholarship databases available online. You can search for scholarships by keyword, type of scholarship, or even location.

Ask for help: If you’re having trouble finding scholarships, don’t be afraid to ask for help from your parents, teachers, or even friends. They may know of scholarships that you haven’t found yet.

Once you’ve found some scholarships to apply for, make sure you understand the eligibility requirements and deadlines. Then, put together a strong application that includes your best academic work, extracurricular activities, and personal statement.

Don’t forget to fill out and file a Free Application for Federal Student Aid. The FAFSA could help you qualify for federal and state aid based on financial need. Some grantors also use it to narrow the applicant pool to those who can’t afford higher education.

Documents Needed To Apply For Scholarship

A scholarship provider is likely to ask for various documents along with a complete scholarship application. For easy scholarships, this could be as simple as a name and email. Many high school scholarship applications, tend to ask for the following supporting documents:

Official high school transcripts. Ones that show your cumulative GPA and classes you’ve taken.
Standardized test scores. If you have them but many colleges are now test optional.
Recommendation letters. Usually from a coach, teacher, boss or someone other than family are often among these requirements. These references help a scholarship committee get to know you more as a person.

Resume. A list of work experience, awards, honors and extracurricular activities. This could be a place to discuss what clubs you belong to, sports teams and or community service you do.&
An essay. Some applications ask for a personal essay. Expressing your goals, for e.g., and why you deserve to win.

Identification. Some providers may also want a color photo of you. You might also need to prove residency, US citizenship, and / or ethnicity.
College plans. What kind of bachelor’s degree program you plan to enroll in as a full time undergraduate student.

What Mistakes Should High School Students Avoid When Applying For A Scholarship?

There are some common mistakes many high school students make when they apply for scholarships. Here is a list of mistakes you should avoid when you’re applying for college scholarships for high school students:

1. Applying for too many scholarships: Applying for too many scholarships can actually hurt your chances of winning any of them. Stick to a few that you are really interested in and that you have a good chance of winning.

2. Not meeting eligibility requirements: Make sure you understand the eligibility requirements for each scholarship you apply for. If you don’t meet the requirements, your application will likely be rejected.

3. Waiting until the last minute: Start working on your scholarship applications early so that you can take your time and do a good job. Applications that are rushed tend to be of lower quality and are less likely to be successful.

4. Not proofreading: Always proofread your essays and other materials before submitting them. Typos and other errors can make you look careless and can hurt your chances of winning a scholarship.

5. Applying for scholarships you don’t qualify for: Don’t waste your time applying for scholarships that you don’t qualify for. Stick to scholarships that are a good fit for you and your situation.

How To Increase Your Chances Of Getting High School Scholarships?

To increase your chances of landing a college scholarship for high school students, there are a few things you could do in and out of the high school classroom. Here are some tips:

  1. Start early. The sooner you start looking for scholarships, the better. There are many scholarships that have early deadlines, so it’s important to get a head start.
  2. Grades matter. Many colleges use your high school GPA and test scores when giving out academic merit scholarships. Maintain good grades throughout all of your classes. You could also show initiative and take Advanced Placement courses.
  3. Get organized. Create a system for keeping track of the scholarships you’re applying for. This will help you stay on top of deadlines and ensure that you don’t miss any important steps in the process.
  4. Help out to stand out. Some scholarships go to students who volunteer or do community service work. These efforts show leadership and that you care about your environment. All great qualities to have when applying for scholarships.
  5. Build professional relationships. At some point, you may need a recommendation letter and it typically must come from either your school counselor, teacher, or employer who knows you for a period of time.
  6. Look for jobs that relate to what you’ll be majoring in. It could be as simple as starting an online business which shows an entrepreneurial spirit. You could also be a tutor, cashier, or lifeguard. These part time jobs may help you save for college and build up your resume at the same time.
  7. Fill in the financial gaps with state and federal grants. Let’s say worst case and you don’t get big scholarship bucks. Many American students file the FAFSA (and state paperwork) to access government aid. Find out if you qualify!
Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology courses introduce students to the basic concepts, processes, ways of thinking, and applications in math and natural science, and promotes an understanding of central issues related to the impacts of science and technology on society. These courses prepare students to:

  • Identify key concepts in one of the natural sciences
  • Explain the process of scientific research and the methods for reaching consensus within the scientific communities
  • Explain the process by which scientific knowledge is applied through technology
  • Critique the impact of technology on society for selected issues
  • Express aspects of the joy, wonder, and excitement of science, mathematics, and technology as evidence of God’s creative work

Why study Math, Science, and Technology?

Mathematics, science, and technology are driving forces in our society, impacting all areas of life. Everyone must make choices in their personal and professional lives for which understanding of these disciplines and their ethical dimensions is essential. To make those choices, we must be able to:

  • Use laboratory skills appropriate to at least one of the sciences
  • Apply mathematical, computational, and/or logical principles to problem solving
  • Make competent, critical, Biblical, and ethical judgments about the use of scientific information and technology
Philosophy of Education

Philosophy of Education

Philosophy of Education

1. Problems in Delineating the Field

The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy of education alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, of giving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhat complicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips 1985, 2010). Suffice it to say that some philosophers, as well as focusing inward on the abstract philosophical issues that concern them, are drawn outwards to discuss or comment on issues that are more commonly regarded as falling within the purview of professional educators, educational researchers, policy-makers and the like. (An example is Michael Scriven, who in his early career was a prominent philosopher of science; later he became a central figure in the development of the field of evaluation of educational and social programs. See Scriven 1991a, 1991b.) At the same time, there are professionals in the educational or closely related spheres who are drawn to discuss one or another of the philosophical issues that they encounter in the course of their work. (An example here is the behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner, the central figure in the development of operant conditioning and programmed learning, who in works such as Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1972) grappled—albeit controversially—with major philosophical issues that were related to his work.)

What makes the field even more amorphous is the existence of works on educational topics, written by well-regarded philosophers who have made major contributions to their discipline; these educational reflections have little or no philosophical content, illustrating the truth that philosophers do not always write philosophy. However, despite this, works in this genre have often been treated as contributions to philosophy of education. (Examples include John Locke’s Some Thoughts Concerning Education [1693] and Bertrand Russell’s rollicking pieces written primarily to raise funds to support a progressive school he ran with his wife. (See Park 1965.)

Finally, as indicated earlier, the domain of education is vast, the issues it raises are almost overwhelmingly numerous and are of great complexity, and the social significance of the field is second to none. These features make the phenomena and problems of education of great interest to a wide range of socially-concerned intellectuals, who bring with them their own favored conceptual frameworks—concepts, theories and ideologies, methods of analysis and argumentation, metaphysical and other assumptions, and the like. It is not surprising that scholars who work in this broad genre also find a home in the field of philosophy of education.

As a result of these various factors, the significant intellectual and social trends of the past few centuries, together with the significant developments in philosophy, all have had an impact on the content of arguments and methods of argumentation in philosophy of education—Marxism, psycho-analysis, existentialism, phenomenology, positivism, post-modernism, pragmatism, neo-liberalism, the several waves of feminism, analytic philosophy in both its ordinary language and more formal guises, are merely the tip of the iceberg.

2. Analytic Philosophy of Education and Its Influence

Conceptual analysis, careful assessment of arguments, the rooting out of ambiguity, the drawing of clarifying distinctions—all of which are at least part of the philosophical toolkit—have been respected activities within philosophy from the dawn of the field. No doubt it somewhat over-simplifies the complex path of intellectual history to suggest that what happened in the twentieth century—early on, in the home discipline itself, and with a lag of a decade or more in philosophy of education—is that philosophical analysis came to be viewed by some scholars as being the major philosophical activity (or set of activities), or even as being the only viable or reputable activity. In any case, as they gained prominence and for a time hegemonic influence during the rise of analytic philosophy early in the twentieth century analytic techniques came to dominate philosophy of education in the middle third of that century (Curren, Robertson, & Hager 2003).

The pioneering work in the modern period entirely in an analytic mode was the short monograph by C.D. Hardie, Truth and Fallacy in Educational Theory (1941; reissued in 1962). In his Introduction, Hardie (who had studied with C.D. Broad and I.A. Richards) made it clear that he was putting all his eggs into the ordinary-language-analysis basket:

The Cambridge analytical school, led by Moore, Broad and Wittgenstein, has attempted so to analyse propositions that it will always be apparent whether the disagreement between philosophers is one concerning matters of fact, or is one concerning the use of words, or is, as is frequently the case, a purely emotive one. It is time, I think, that a similar attitude became common in the field of educational theory. (Hardie 1962: xix)

About a decade after the end of the Second World War the floodgates opened and a stream of work in the analytic mode appeared; the following is merely a sample. D. J. O’Connor published An Introduction to Philosophy of Education (1957) in which, among other things, he argued that the word “theory” as it is used in educational contexts is merely a courtesy title, for educational theories are nothing like what bear this title in the natural sciences. Israel Scheffler, who became the paramount philosopher of education in North America, produced a number of important works including The Language of Education (1960), which contained clarifying and influential analyses of definitions (he distinguished reportive, stipulative, and programmatic types) and the logic of slogans (often these are literally meaningless, and, he argued, should be seen as truncated arguments), Conditions of Knowledge (1965), still the best introduction to the epistemological side of philosophy of education, and Reason and Teaching (1973 [1989]), which in a wide-ranging and influential series of essays makes the case for regarding the fostering of rationality/critical thinking as a fundamental educational ideal (cf. Siegel 2016). B. O. Smith and R. H. Ennis edited the volume Language and Concepts in Education (1961); and R.D. Archambault edited Philosophical Analysis and Education (1965), consisting of essays by a number of prominent British writers, most notably R. S. Peters (whose status in Britain paralleled that of Scheffler in the United States), Paul Hirst, and John Wilson. Topics covered in the Archambault volume were typical of those that became the “bread and butter” of analytic philosophy of education (APE) throughout the English-speaking world—education as a process of initiation, liberal education, the nature of knowledge, types of teaching, and instruction versus indoctrination.

Among the most influential products of APE was the analysis developed by Hirst and Peters (1970) and Peters (1973) of the concept of education itself. Using as a touchstone “normal English usage,” it was concluded that a person who has been educated (rather than instructed or indoctrinated) has been (i) changed for the better; (ii) this change has involved the acquisition of knowledge and intellectual skills and the development of understanding; and (iii) the person has come to care for, or be committed to, the domains of knowledge and skill into which he or she has been initiated. The method used by Hirst and Peters comes across clearly in their handling of the analogy with the concept of “reform”, one they sometimes drew upon for expository purposes. A criminal who has been reformed has changed for the better, and has developed a commitment to the new mode of life (if one or other of these conditions does not hold, a speaker of standard English would not say the criminal has been reformed). Clearly the analogy with reform breaks down with respect to the knowledge and understanding conditions. Elsewhere Peters developed the fruitful notion of “education as initiation”.

The concept of indoctrination was also of great interest to analytic philosophers of education, for, it was argued, getting clear about precisely what constitutes indoctrination also would serve to clarify the border that demarcates it from acceptable educational processes. Thus, whether or not an instructional episode was a case of indoctrination was determined by the content taught, the intention of the instructor, the methods of instruction used, the outcomes of the instruction, or by some combination of these. Adherents of the different analyses used the same general type of argument to make their case, namely, appeal to normal and aberrant usage. Unfortunately, ordinary language analysis did not lead to unanimity of opinion about where this border was located, and rival analyses of the concept were put forward (Snook 1972). The danger of restricting analysis to ordinary language (“normal English usage”) was recognized early on by Scheffler, whose preferred view of analysis emphasized

first, its greater sophistication as regards language, and the interpenetration of language and inquiry, second, its attempt to follow the modern example of the sciences in empirical spirit, in rigor, in attention to detail, in respect for alternatives, and in objectivity of method, and third, its use of techniques of symbolic logic brought to full development only in the last fifty years… It is…this union of scientific spirit and logical method applied toward the clarification of basic ideas that characterizes current analytic philosophy [and that ought to characterize analytic philosophy of education]. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 9–10])

After a period of dominance, for a number of important reasons the influence of APE went into decline. First, there were growing criticisms that the work of analytic philosophers of education had become focused upon minutiae and in the main was bereft of practical import. (It is worth noting that a 1966 article in Time, reprinted in Lucas 1969, had put forward the same criticism of mainstream philosophy.) Second, in the early 1970’s radical students in Britain accused Peters’ brand of linguistic analysis of conservatism, and of tacitly giving support to “traditional values”—they raised the issue of whose English usage was being analyzed?

Third, criticisms of language analysis in mainstream philosophy had been mounting for some time, and finally after a lag of many years were reaching the attention of philosophers of education; there even had been a surprising degree of interest on the part of the general reading public in the United Kingdom as early as 1959, when Gilbert Ryle, editor of the journal Mind, refused to commission a review of Ernest Gellner’s Words and Things (1959)—a detailed and quite acerbic critique of Wittgenstein’s philosophy and its espousal of ordinary language analysis. (Ryle argued that Gellner’s book was too insulting, a view that drew Bertrand Russell into the fray on Gellner’s side—in the daily press, no less; Russell produced a list of insulting remarks drawn from the work of great philosophers of the past. See Mehta 1963.)

Richard Peters had been given warning that all was not well with APE at a conference in Canada in 1966; after delivering a paper on “The aims of education: A conceptual inquiry” that was based on ordinary language analysis, a philosopher in the audience (William Dray) asked Peters “whose concepts do we analyze?” Dray went on to suggest that different people, and different groups within society, have different concepts of education. Five years before the radical students raised the same issue, Dray pointed to the possibility that what Peters had presented under the guise of a “logical analysis” was nothing but the favored usage of a certain class of persons—a class that Peters happened to identify with (see Peters 1973, where to the editor’s credit the interaction with Dray is reprinted).

Fourth, during the decade of the seventies when these various critiques of analytic philosophy were in the process of eroding its luster, a spate of translations from the Continent stimulated some philosophers of education in Britain and North America to set out in new directions, and to adopt a new style of writing and argumentation. Key works by Gadamer, Foucault and Derrida appeared in English, and these were followed in 1984 by Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition. The classic works of Heidegger and Husserl also found new admirers; and feminist philosophers of education were finding their voices—Maxine Greene published a number of pieces in the 1970s and 1980s, including The Dialectic of Freedom (1988); the influential book by Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, appeared the same year as the work by Lyotard, followed a year later by Jane Roland Martin’s Reclaiming a Conversation. In more recent years all these trends have continued. APE was and is no longer the center of interest, although, as indicated below, it still retains its voice.

As was stressed at the outset, the field of education is huge and contains within it a virtually inexhaustible number of issues that are of philosophical interest. To attempt comprehensive coverage of how philosophers of education have been working within this thicket would be a quixotic task for a large single volume and is out of the question for a solitary encyclopedia entry. Nevertheless, a valiant attempt to give an overview was made in A Companion to the Philosophy of Education (Curren 2003), which contains more than six-hundred pages divided into forty-five chapters each of which surveys a subfield of work. The following random selection of chapter topics gives a sense of the enormous scope of the field: Sex education, special education, science education, aesthetic education, theories of teaching and learning, religious education, knowledge, truth and learning, cultivating reason, the measurement of learning, multicultural education, education and the politics of identity, education and standards of living, motivation and classroom management, feminism, critical theory, postmodernism, romanticism, the purposes of universities, affirmative action in higher education, and professional education. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education (Siegel 2009) contains a similarly broad range of articles on (among other things) the epistemic and moral aims of education, liberal education and its imminent demise, thinking and reasoning, fallibilism and fallibility, indoctrination, authenticity, the development of rationality, Socratic teaching, educating the imagination, caring and empathy in moral education, the limits of moral education, the cultivation of character, values education, curriculum and the value of knowledge, education and democracy, art and education, science education and religious toleration, constructivism and scientific methods, multicultural education, prejudice, authority and the interests of children, and on pragmatist, feminist, and postmodernist approaches to philosophy of education.

Given this enormous range, there is no non-arbitrary way to select a small number of topics for further discussion, nor can the topics that are chosen be pursued in great depth. The choice of those below has been made with an eye to highlighting contemporary work that makes solid contact with and contributes to important discussions in general philosophy and/or the academic educational and educational research communities.

3.1 The Content of the Curriculum and the Aims and Functions of Schooling

The issue of what should be taught to students at all levels of education—the issue of curriculum content—obviously is a fundamental one, and it is an extraordinarily difficult one with which to grapple. In tackling it, care needs to be taken to distinguish between education and schooling—for although education can occur in schools, so can mis-education, and many other things can take place there that are educationally orthogonal (such as the provision of free or subsidized lunches and the development of social networks); and it also must be recognized that education can occur in the home, in libraries and museums, in churches and clubs, in solitary interaction with the public media, and the like.

In developing a curriculum (whether in a specific subject area, or more broadly as the whole range of offerings in an educational institution or system), a number of difficult decisions need to be made. Issues such as the proper ordering or sequencing of topics in the chosen subject, the time to be allocated to each topic, the lab work or excursions or projects that are appropriate for particular topics, can all be regarded as technical issues best resolved either by educationists who have a depth of experience with the target age group or by experts in the psychology of learning and the like. But there are deeper issues, ones concerning the validity of the justifications that have been given for including/excluding particular subjects or topics in the offerings of formal educational institutions. (Why should evolution or creation “science” be included, or excluded, as a topic within the standard high school subject Biology? Is the justification that is given for teaching Economics in some schools coherent and convincing? Do the justifications for including/excluding materials on birth control, patriotism, the Holocaust or wartime atrocities in the curriculum in some school districts stand up to critical scrutiny?)

The different justifications for particular items of curriculum content that have been put forward by philosophers and others since Plato’s pioneering efforts all draw, explicitly or implicitly, upon the positions that the respective theorists hold about at least three sets of issues.

First, what are the aims and/or functions of education (aims and functions are not necessarily the same)? Many aims have been proposed; a short list includes the production of knowledge and knowledgeable students, the fostering of curiosity and inquisitiveness, the enhancement of understanding, the enlargement of the imagination, the civilizing of students, the fostering of rationality and/or autonomy, and the development in students of care, concern and associated dispositions and attitudes (see Siegel 2007 for a longer list). The justifications offered for all such aims have been controversial, and alternative justifications of a single proposed aim can provoke philosophical controversy. Consider the aim of autonomy. Aristotle asked, what constitutes the good life and/or human flourishing, such that education should foster these (Curren 2013)? These two formulations are related, for it is arguable that our educational institutions should aim to equip individuals to pursue this good life—although this is not obvious, both because it is not clear that there is one conception of the good or flourishing life that is the good or flourishing life for everyone, and it is not clear that this is a question that should be settled in advance rather than determined by students for themselves. Thus, for example, if our view of human flourishing includes the capacity to think and act autonomously, then the case can be made that educational institutions—and their curricula—should aim to prepare, or help to prepare, autonomous individuals. A rival justification of the aim of autonomy, associated with Kant, champions the educational fostering of autonomy not on the basis of its contribution to human flourishing, but rather the obligation to treat students with respect as persons (Scheffler 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988). Still others urge the fostering of autonomy on the basis of students’ fundamental interests, in ways that draw upon both Aristotelian and Kantian conceptual resources (Brighouse 2005, 2009). It is also possible to reject the fostering of autonomy as an educational aim (Hand 2006).

Assuming that the aim can be justified, how students should be helped to become autonomous or develop a conception of the good life and pursue it is of course not immediately obvious, and much philosophical ink has been spilled on the general question of how best to determine curriculum content. One influential line of argument was developed by Paul Hirst, who argued that knowledge is essential for developing and then pursuing a conception of the good life, and because logical analysis shows, he argued, that there are seven basic forms of knowledge, the case can be made that the function of the curriculum is to introduce students to each of these forms (Hirst 1965; see Phillips 1987: ch. 11). Another, suggested by Scheffler, is that curriculum content should be selected so as “to help the learner attain maximum self-sufficiency as economically as possible.” The relevant sorts of economy include those of resources, teacher effort, student effort, and the generalizability or transfer value of content, while the self-sufficiency in question includes

self-awareness, imaginative weighing of alternative courses of action, understanding of other people’s choices and ways of life, decisiveness without rigidity, emancipation from stereotyped ways of thinking and perceiving…empathy… intuition, criticism and independent judgment. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 123–5])

Both impose important constraints on the curricular content to be taught.

Second, is it justifiable to treat the curriculum of an educational institution as a vehicle for furthering the socio-political interests and goals of a dominant group, or any particular group, including one’s own; and relatedly, is it justifiable to design the curriculum so that it serves as an instrument of control or of social engineering? In the closing decades of the twentieth century there were numerous discussions of curriculum theory, particularly from Marxist and postmodern perspectives, that offered the sobering analysis that in many educational systems, including those in Western democracies, the curriculum did indeed reflect and serve the interests of powerful cultural elites. What to do about this situation (if it is indeed the situation of contemporary educational institutions) is far from clear and is the focus of much work at the interface of philosophy of education and social/political philosophy, some of which is discussed in the next section. A closely related question is this: ought educational institutions be designed to further pre-determined social ends, or rather to enable students to competently evaluate all such ends? Scheffler argued that we should opt for the latter: we must

surrender the idea of shaping or molding the mind of the pupil. The function of education…is rather to liberate the mind, strengthen its critical powers, [and] inform it with knowledge and the capacity for independent inquiry. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 139])

Third, should educational programs at the elementary and secondary levels be made up of a number of disparate offerings, so that individuals with different interests and abilities and affinities for learning can pursue curricula that are suitable? Or should every student pursue the same curriculum as far as each is able?—a curriculum, it should be noted, that in past cases nearly always was based on the needs or interests of those students who were academically inclined or were destined for elite social roles. Mortimer Adler and others in the late twentieth century sometimes used the aphorism “the best education for the best is the best education for all.”

The thinking here can be explicated in terms of the analogy of an out-of-control virulent disease, for which there is only one type of medicine available; taking a large dose of this medicine is extremely beneficial, and the hope is that taking only a little—while less effective—is better than taking none at all. Medically, this is dubious, while the educational version—forcing students to work, until they exit the system, on topics that do not interest them and for which they have no facility or motivation—has even less merit. (For a critique of Adler and his Paideia Proposal, see Noddings 2015.) It is interesting to compare the modern “one curriculum track for all” position with Plato’s system outlined in the Republic, according to which all students—and importantly this included girls—set out on the same course of study. Over time, as they moved up the educational ladder it would become obvious that some had reached the limit imposed upon them by nature, and they would be directed off into appropriate social roles in which they would find fulfillment, for their abilities would match the demands of these roles. Those who continued on with their education would eventually become members of the ruling class of Guardians.

3.2 Social, Political and Moral Philosophy

The publication of John Rawls’s A Theory of Justice in 1971 was the most notable event in the history of political philosophy over the last century. The book spurred a period of ferment in political philosophy that included, among other things, new research on educationally fundamental themes. The principles of justice in educational distribution have perhaps been the dominant theme in this literature, and Rawls’s influence on its development has been pervasive.

Rawls’s theory of justice made so-called “fair equality of opportunity” one of its constitutive principles. Fair equality of opportunity entailed that the distribution of education would not put the children of those who currently occupied coveted social positions at any competitive advantage over other, equally talented and motivated children seeking the qualifications for those positions (Rawls 1971: 72–75). Its purpose was to prevent socio-economic differences from hardening into social castes that were perpetuated across generations. One obvious criticism of fair equality of opportunity is that it does not prohibit an educational distribution that lavished resources on the most talented children while offering minimal opportunities to others. So long as untalented students from wealthy families were assigned opportunities no better than those available to their untalented peers among the poor, no breach of the principle would occur. Even the most moderate egalitarians might find such a distributive regime to be intuitively repugnant.

Repugnance might be mitigated somewhat by the ways in which the overall structure of Rawls’s conception of justice protects the interests of those who fare badly in educational competition. All citizens must enjoy the same basic liberties, and equal liberty always has moral priority over equal opportunity: the former can never be compromised to advance the latter. Further, inequality in the distribution of income and wealth are permitted only to the degree that it serves the interests of the least advantaged group in society. But even with these qualifications, fair equality of opportunity is arguably less than really fair to anyone. The fact that their education should secure ends other than access to the most selective social positions—ends such as artistic appreciation, the kind of self-knowledge that humanistic study can furnish, or civic virtue—is deemed irrelevant according to Rawls’s principle. But surely it is relevant, given that a principle of educational justice must be responsive to the full range of educationally important goods.

Suppose we revise our account of the goods included in educational distribution so that aesthetic appreciation, say, and the necessary understanding and virtue for conscientious citizenship count for just as much as job-related skills. An interesting implication of doing so is that the rationale for requiring equality under any just distribution becomes decreasingly clear. That is because job-related skills are positional whereas the other educational goods are not (Hollis 1982). If you and I both aspire to a career in business management for which we are equally qualified, any increase in your job-related skills is a corresponding disadvantage to me unless I can catch up. Positional goods have a competitive structure by definition, though the ends of civic or aesthetic education do not fit that structure. If you and I aspire to be good citizens and are equal in civic understanding and virtue, an advance in your civic education is no disadvantage to me. On the contrary, it is easier to be a good citizen the better other citizens learn to be. At the very least, so far as non-positional goods figure in our conception of what counts as a good education, the moral stakes of inequality are thereby lowered.

In fact, an emerging alternative to fair equality of opportunity is a principle that stipulates some benchmark of adequacy in achievement or opportunity as the relevant standard of distribution. But it is misleading to represent this as a contrast between egalitarian and sufficientarian conceptions. Philosophically serious interpretations of adequacy derive from the ideal of equal citizenship (Satz 2007; Anderson 2007). Then again, fair equality of opportunity in Rawls’s theory is derived from a more fundamental ideal of equality among citizens. This was arguably true in A Theory of Justice but it is certainly true in his later work (Dworkin 1977: 150–183; Rawls 1993). So, both Rawls’s principle and the emerging alternative share an egalitarian foundation. The debate between adherents of equal opportunity and those misnamed as sufficientarians is certainly not over (e.g., Brighouse & Swift 2009; Jacobs 2010; Warnick 2015). Further progress will likely hinge on explicating the most compelling conception of the egalitarian foundation from which distributive principles are to be inferred. Another Rawls-inspired alternative is that a “prioritarian” distribution of achievement or opportunity might turn out to be the best principle we can come up with—i.e., one that favors the interests of the least advantaged students (Schouten 2012).

The publication of Rawls’s Political Liberalism in 1993 signaled a decisive turning point in his thinking about justice. In his earlier book, the theory of justice had been presented as if it were universally valid. But Rawls had come to think that any theory of justice presented as such was open to reasonable rejection. A more circumspect approach to justification would seek grounds for justice as fairness in an overlapping consensus between the many reasonable values and doctrines that thrive in a democratic political culture. Rawls argued that such a culture is informed by a shared ideal of free and equal citizenship that provided a new, distinctively democratic framework for justifying a conception of justice. The shift to political liberalism involved little revision on Rawls’s part to the content of the principles he favored. But the salience it gave to questions about citizenship in the fabric of liberal political theory had important educational implications. How was the ideal of free and equal citizenship to be instantiated in education in a way that accommodated the range of reasonable values and doctrines encompassed in an overlapping consensus? Political Liberalism has inspired a range of answers to that question (cf. Callan 1997; Clayton 2006; Bull 2008).

Other philosophers besides Rawls in the 1990s took up a cluster of questions about civic education, and not always from a liberal perspective. Alasdair Macintyre’s After Virtue (1984) strongly influenced the development of communitarian political theory which, as its very name might suggest, argued that the cultivation of community could preempt many of the problems with conflicting individual rights at the core of liberalism. As a full-standing alternative to liberalism, communitarianism might have little to recommend it. But it was a spur for liberal philosophers to think about how communities could be built and sustained to support the more familiar projects of liberal politics (e.g., Strike 2010). Furthermore, its arguments often converged with those advanced by feminist exponents of the ethic of care (Noddings 1984; Gilligan 1982). Noddings’ work is particularly notable because she inferred a cogent and radical agenda for the reform of schools from her conception of care (Noddings 1992).

One persistent controversy in citizenship theory has been about whether patriotism is correctly deemed a virtue, given our obligations to those who are not our fellow citizens in an increasingly interdependent world and the sordid history of xenophobia with which modern nation states are associated. The controversy is partly about what we should teach in our schools and is commonly discussed by philosophers in that context (Galston 1991; Ben-Porath 2006; Callan 2006; Miller 2007; Curren & Dorn 2018). The controversy is related to a deeper and more pervasive question about how morally or intellectually taxing the best conception of our citizenship should be. The more taxing it is, the more constraining its derivative conception of civic education will be. Contemporary political philosophers offer divergent arguments about these matters. For example, Gutmann and Thompson claim that citizens of diverse democracies need to “understand the diverse ways of life of their fellow citizens” (Gutmann & Thompson 1996: 66). The need arises from the obligation of reciprocity which they (like Rawls) believe to be integral to citizenship. Because I must seek to cooperate with others politically on terms that make sense from their moral perspective as well as my own, I must be ready to enter that perspective imaginatively so as to grasp its distinctive content. Many such perspectives prosper in liberal democracies, and so the task of reciprocal understanding is necessarily onerous. Still, our actions qua deliberative citizen must be grounded in such reciprocity if political cooperation on terms acceptable to us as (diversely) morally motivated citizens is to be possible at all. This is tantamount to an imperative to think autonomously inside the role of citizen because I cannot close-mindedly resist critical consideration of moral views alien to my own without flouting my responsibilities as a deliberative citizen.

Civic education does not exhaust the domain of moral education, even though the more robust conceptions of equal citizenship have far-reaching implications for just relations in civil society and the family. The study of moral education has traditionally taken its bearings from normative ethics rather than political philosophy, and this is largely true of work undertaken in recent decades. The major development here has been the revival of virtue ethics as an alternative to the deontological and consequentialist theories that dominated discussion for much of the twentieth century.

The defining idea of virtue ethics is that our criterion of moral right and wrong must derive from a conception of how the ideally virtuous agent would distinguish between the two. Virtue ethics is thus an alternative to both consequentialism and deontology which locate the relevant criterion in producing good consequences or meeting the requirements of moral duty respectively. The debate about the comparative merits of these theories is not resolved, but from an educational perspective that may be less important than it has sometimes seemed to antagonists in the debate. To be sure, adjudicating between rival theories in normative ethics might shed light on how best to construe the process of moral education, and philosophical reflection on the process might help us to adjudicate between the theories. There has been extensive work on habituation and virtue, largely inspired by Aristotle (Burnyeat 1980; Peters 1981). But whether this does anything to establish the superiority of virtue ethics over its competitors is far from obvious. Other aspects of moral education—in particular, the paired processes of role-modelling and identification—deserve much more scrutiny than they have received (Audi 2017; Kristjánsson 2015, 2017).

3.3 Social Epistemology, Virtue Epistemology, and the Epistemology of Education

Related to the issues concerning the aims and functions of education and schooling rehearsed above are those involving the specifically epistemic aims of education and attendant issues treated by social and virtue epistemologists. (The papers collected in Kotzee 2013 and Baehr 2016 highlight the current and growing interactions among social epistemologists, virtue epistemologists, and philosophers of education.)

There is, first, a lively debate concerning putative epistemic aims. Alvin Goldman argues that truth (or knowledge understood in the “weak” sense of true belief) is the fundamental epistemic aim of education (Goldman 1999). Others, including the majority of historically significant philosophers of education, hold that critical thinking or rationality and rational belief (or knowledge in the “strong” sense that includes justification) is the basic epistemic educational aim (Bailin & Siegel 2003; Scheffler 1965, 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988, 1997, 2005, 2017). Catherine Z. Elgin (1999a,b) and Duncan Pritchard (2013, 2016; Carter & Pritchard 2017) have independently urged that understanding is the basic aim. Pritchard’s view combines understanding with intellectual virtue; Jason Baehr (2011) systematically defends the fostering of the intellectual virtues as the fundamental epistemic aim of education. This cluster of views continues to engender ongoing discussion and debate. (Its complex literature is collected in Carter and Kotzee 2015, summarized in Siegel 2018, and helpfully analyzed in Watson 2016.)

A further controversy concerns the places of testimony and trust in the classroom: In what circumstances if any ought students to trust their teachers’ pronouncements, and why? Here the epistemology of education is informed by social epistemology, specifically the epistemology of testimony; the familiar reductionism/anti-reductionism controversy there is applicable to students and teachers. Anti-reductionists, who regard testimony as a basic source of justification, may with equanimity approve of students’ taking their teachers’ word at face value and believing what they say; reductionists may balk. Does teacher testimony itself constitute good reason for student belief?

The correct answer here seems clearly enough to be “it depends”. For very young children who have yet to acquire or develop the ability to subject teacher declarations to critical scrutiny, there seems to be little alternative to accepting what their teachers tell them. For older and more cognitively sophisticated students there seem to be more options: they can assess them for plausibility, compare them with other opinions, assess the teachers’ proffered reasons, subject them to independent evaluation, etc. Regarding “the teacher says that p” as itself a good reason to believe it appears moreover to contravene the widely shared conviction that an important educational aim is helping students to become able to evaluate candidate beliefs for themselves and believe accordingly. That said, all sides agree that sometimes believers, including students, have good reasons simply to trust what others tell them. There is thus more work to do here by both social epistemologists and philosophers of education (for further discussion see Goldberg 2013; Siegel 2005, 2018).

A further cluster of questions, of long-standing interest to philosophers of education, concerns indoctrination: How if at all does it differ from legitimate teaching? Is it inevitable, and if so is it not always necessarily bad? First, what is it? As we saw earlier, extant analyses focus on the aims or intentions of the indoctrinator, the methods employed, or the content transmitted. If the indoctrination is successful, all have the result that students/victims either don’t, won’t, or can’t subject the indoctrinated material to proper epistemic evaluation. In this way it produces both belief that is evidentially unsupported or contravened and uncritical dispositions to believe. It might seem obvious that indoctrination, so understood, is educationally undesirable. But it equally seems that very young children, at least, have no alternative but to believe sans evidence; they have yet to acquire the dispositions to seek and evaluate evidence, or the abilities to recognize evidence or evaluate it. Thus we seem driven to the views that indoctrination is both unavoidable and yet bad and to be avoided. It is not obvious how this conundrum is best handled. One option is to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable indoctrination. Another is to distinguish between indoctrination (which is always bad) and non-indoctrinating belief inculcation, the latter being such that students are taught some things without reasons (the alphabet, the numbers, how to read and count, etc.), but in such a way that critical evaluation of all such material (and everything else) is prized and fostered (Siegel 1988: ch. 5). In the end the distinctions required by the two options might be extensionally equivalent (Siegel 2018).

Education, it is generally granted, fosters belief: in the typical propositional case, Smith teaches Jones that p, and if all goes well Jones learns it and comes to believe it. Education also has the task of fostering open-mindedness and an appreciation of our fallibility: All the theorists mentioned thus far, especially those in the critical thinking and intellectual virtue camps, urge their importance. But these two might seem at odds. If Jones (fully) believes that p, can she also be open-minded about it? Can she believe, for example, that earthquakes are caused by the movements of tectonic plates, while also believing that perhaps they aren’t? This cluster of italicized notions requires careful handling; it is helpfully discussed by Jonathan Adler (2002, 2003), who recommends regarding the latter two as meta-attitudes concerning one’s first-order beliefs rather than lessened degrees of belief or commitments to those beliefs.

Other traditional epistemological worries that impinge upon the epistemology of education concern (a) absolutism, pluralism and relativism with respect to knowledge, truth and justification as these relate to what is taught, (b) the character and status of group epistemologies and the prospects for understanding such epistemic goods “universalistically” in the face of “particularist” challenges, (c) the relation between “knowledge-how” and “knowledge-that” and their respective places in the curriculum, (d) concerns raised by multiculturalism and the inclusion/exclusion of marginalized perspectives in curriculum content and the classroom, and (e) further issues concerning teaching and learning. (There is more here than can be briefly summarized; for more references and systematic treatment cf. Bailin & Siegel 2003; Carter & Kotzee 2015; Cleverley & Phillips 1986; Robertson 2009; Siegel 2004, 2017; and Watson 2016.)

3.4 Philosophical Disputes Concerning Empirical Education Research

The educational research enterprise has been criticized for a century or more by politicians, policymakers, administrators, curriculum developers, teachers, philosophers of education, and by researchers themselves—but the criticisms have been contradictory. Charges of being “too ivory tower and theory-oriented” are found alongside “too focused on practice and too atheoretical”; but in light of the views of John Dewey and William James that the function of theory is to guide intelligent practice and problem-solving, it is becoming more fashionable to hold that the “theory v. practice” dichotomy is a false one. (For an illuminating account of the historical development of educational research and its tribulations, see Lagemann 2000.)

A similar trend can be discerned with respect to the long warfare between two rival groups of research methods—on one hand quantitative/statistical approaches to research, and on the other hand the qualitative/ethnographic family. (The choice of labels here is not entirely risk-free, for they have been contested; furthermore the first approach is quite often associated with “experimental” studies, and the latter with “case studies”, but this is an over-simplification.) For several decades these two rival methodological camps were treated by researchers and a few philosophers of education as being rival paradigms (Kuhn’s ideas, albeit in a very loose form, have been influential in the field of educational research), and the dispute between them was commonly referred to as “the paradigm wars”. In essence the issue at stake was epistemological: members of the quantitative/experimental camp believed that only their methods could lead to well-warranted knowledge claims, especially about the causal factors at play in educational phenomena, and on the whole they regarded qualitative methods as lacking in rigor; on the other hand the adherents of qualitative/ethnographic approaches held that the other camp was too “positivistic” and was operating with an inadequate view of causation in human affairs—one that ignored the role of motives and reasons, possession of relevant background knowledge, awareness of cultural norms, and the like. Few if any commentators in the “paradigm wars” suggested that there was anything prohibiting the use of both approaches in the one research program—provided that if both were used, they were used only sequentially or in parallel, for they were underwritten by different epistemologies and hence could not be blended together. But recently the trend has been towards rapprochement, towards the view that the two methodological families are, in fact, compatible and are not at all like paradigms in the Kuhnian sense(s) of the term; the melding of the two approaches is often called “mixed methods research”, and it is growing in popularity. (For more detailed discussion of these “wars” see Howe 2003 and Phillips 2009.)

The most lively contemporary debates about education research, however, were set in motion around the turn of the millennium when the US Federal Government moved in the direction of funding only rigorously scientific educational research—the kind that could establish causal factors which could then guide the development of practically effective policies. (It was held that such a causal knowledge base was available for medical decision-making.) The definition of “rigorously scientific”, however, was decided by politicians and not by the research community, and it was given in terms of the use of a specific research method—the net effect being that the only research projects to receive Federal funding were those that carried out randomized controlled experiments or field trials (RFTs). It has become common over the last decade to refer to the RFT as the “gold standard” methodology.

The National Research Council (NRC)—an arm of the US National Academies of Science—issued a report, influenced by postpostivistic philosophy of science (NRC 2002), that argued that this criterion was far too narrow. Numerous essays have appeared subsequently that point out how the “gold standard” account of scientific rigor distorts the history of science, how the complex nature of the relation between evidence and policy-making has been distorted and made to appear overly simple (for instance the role of value-judgments in linking empirical findings to policy directives is often overlooked), and qualitative researchers have insisted upon the scientific nature of their work. Nevertheless, and possibly because it tried to be balanced and supported the use of RFTs in some research contexts, the NRC report has been the subject of symposia in four journals, where it has been supported by a few and attacked from a variety of philosophical fronts: Its authors were positivists, they erroneously believed that educational inquiry could be value neutral and that it could ignore the ways in which the exercise of power constrains the research process, they misunderstood the nature of educational phenomena, and so on. This cluster of issues continues to be debated by educational researchers and by philosophers of education and of science, and often involves basic topics in philosophy of science: the constitution of warranting evidence, the nature of theories and of confirmation and explanation, etc. Nancy Cartwright’s important recent work on causation, evidence, and evidence-based policy adds layers of both philosophical sophistication and real world practical analysis to the central issues just discussed (Cartwright & Hardie 2012, Cartwright 2013; cf. Kvernbekk 2015 for an overview of the controversies regarding evidence in the education and philosophy of education literatures).

4. Concluding Remarks

As stressed earlier, it is impossible to do justice to the whole field of philosophy of education in a single encyclopedia entry. Different countries around the world have their own intellectual traditions and their own ways of institutionalizing philosophy of education in the academic universe, and no discussion of any of this appears in the present essay. But even in the Anglo-American world there is such a diversity of approaches that any author attempting to produce a synoptic account will quickly run into the borders of his or her competence. Clearly this has happened in the present case.

Fortunately, in the last thirty years or so resources have become available that significantly alleviate these problems. There has been a flood of encyclopedia entries, both on the field as a whole and also on many specific topics not well-covered in the present essay (see, as a sample, Burbules 1994; Chambliss 1996b; Curren 1998, 2018; Phillips 1985, 2010; Siegel 2007; Smeyers 1994), two “Encyclopedias” (Chambliss 1996a; Phillips 2014), a “Guide” (Blake, Smeyers, Smith, & Standish 2003), a “Companion” (Curren 2003), two “Handbooks” (Siegel 2009; Bailey, Barrow, Carr, & McCarthy 2010), a comprehensive anthology (Curren 2007), a dictionary of key concepts in the field (Winch & Gingell 1999), and a good textbook or two (Carr 2003; Noddings 2015). In addition there are numerous volumes both of reprinted selections and of specially commissioned essays on specific topics, some of which were given short shrift here (for another sampling see A. Rorty 1998, Stone 1994), and several international journals, including Theory and Research in Education, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Educational Theory, Studies in Philosophy and Education, and Educational Philosophy and Theory. Thus there is more than enough material available to keep the interested reader busy.

School Management - Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions

School Management – Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions

School Management - Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions

MANAGEMENT

The term ‘management’ is very comprehensive. Management means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.

MEANING OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

School management means running the school along the desired educational policies. It takes into account all aspects of the school (policies, material and human resources, programmes, activities, equipments etc.) and integrates them into a fruitful whole.

In simple words it means managing the affairs of a school.

CONCEPT OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

The school management system is a large database system and can be used for managing any school’s day to day business.

It is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of an institution utilizing human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish the function of teaching, extension work and research for the purpose of achieving the aims and goals of school.

DEFINITION OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

There is no single accepted definition of educational management as its development has drawn heavily on several disciplines like economics, sociology and political science.

But some specialists in this area have propounded their views in the form of giving their definitions on educational management which are given below.

Paul Monroe (1913) – “School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers”.

G. Terry page and J.B. Thomas (1978) – “Theory and practice of the organisation and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.”

Shelly Umana – “Management is a method of operation and good management should result in an orderly integration of education and society”.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

The followings are the aims and objectives of school management,

  • To reflect and conserve basic values.
  • To carry out educational futures.
  • To manage social change.
  • To profit by experience.
  • To carry out modernisation.
  • To propagate science.
  • To adopt technology.
  • To realise National Integration.
  • To form character and values.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

  • Objective Based: It means to attain the objectives of education and schooling.
  • Quality of Education: Good school management is concerned with the quality of education being given in schools.
  • The best use of resources: In order to promote efficient functioning of the school, it makes the best possible use of the material resources.
  • Joint Enterprise: It involves the joint enterprise all the personnel connected with the school – Teacher, supervisors, pupils, parents etc.
  • Professional growth: It brings out the best in the teacher and supervisors and takes steps to promote their professional growth.
  • Efficiency and Improvement: It tries to bring out over all improvement and efficiency in the school.
  • Continuous process: It is a continuous process. It always concerned with improvement and development of the institution.
  • Input–Output Model: It works on the input-output model. It takes into account the efforts made and the outcomes achieved.
  • Community oriented: It is alive to social needs and requirement as the school is meant to serve the society.

SCOPE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:

Anything done to improve the quality of education at any stage may be ranging from the supply of material, human and financial resources to the highest cultural or academic needs-comes under the scope of educational management.

This scope of school management is very vast. It includes everything regarding the efficient functioning of the educational institution, securing the greatest benefit to the greatest number through an adoption of practical measures.

It interprets and clarifies the functions and the activities of an educational programme in fruitful relationships and harmonizes their mutual action. It ensures sound planning, good direction and efficient and systematic execution.

We shall consider the scope of educational management under the following heads.

Goal Development:

Society is in a constant process of change, needs of the society change and so do the goal specifications. It is necessary for the educative process to be responsive to these changing expectations and it is through the educational management system that persons involved in the process of management can continuously examine, evaluate and change (if appropriate) the goals of education

Programme Planning and Actualization:

Planning is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in the future and directed towards realising some goals by the best possible means.

Program planning involves multiple steps including the identification of a problem, selection of desired outcomes, assessment of available resources, implementation, and evaluation of the program.

The responsibility for the planning and actualization of programmes rests with the management system. It is therefore essential that the management system should provide technological support to the educative process in the form of consultations and services. The management system should initiate, coordinate, provide services and to be a part of these activities.

Organization:

Organization has been a problem in the field of education. If conventional biases and prejudices can be replaced by decisions made logically and scientifically, with the achievement of objectives as the only consideration modern principles and techniques of organization will provide a basis for effective distribution and co-ordination of functions.

CONCLUSION:

School organization and management is simply the way of managing whole tasks of school properly so that better results could be obtained and ultimately goodwill of school enhanced.

The significance of school management has all the more increased due to an increase in the number of students and knowledge and expectation for the transfer of knowledge. In India, there are more than 8lakh schools and 18 crore students, and their management is not that simple.

Some United States Musical Instruments

Some United States Musical Instruments

 

The United States is known for its colorful culture and especially for its upbeat, upbeat music. Various cultures played a large role in the creation of styles of music and dance in the United States. Traditional musical instruments vary in different countries. Here are some examples of United States musical instruments.

United States Musical Instruments

Tambourine

This musical instrument resembles a tambourine. It is hand-held and comes with small cymbals around the sides. It is very popular in Brazilian music especially capoeira and samba. Pandeiro instruments are considered quite versatile because they can be tuned according to your wishes. It can also be played in a number of ways including using the fingers and the whole palm. idn slots

Conga

Originating from Cuba, these single-headed drums usually come in sets of two. Each drum is tuned to a specific pitch, giving the drums a rhythmic beat. You can use various sounds with the conga by hitting the head of the instrument with your hand.

guiro

The Guiro handheld instrument is believed to have originated in Cuba. It is made with a single piece of metal or wood. It is perforated and provided with grooves that run horizontally along the sides. Another way to play it is by hitting it with a stick.

Timpani

The lead is similar to the conga. However, tin comes with a metal rim and is shallower than the conga. The lead heads produce resonant notes and high notes because the drum heads are set high. It can be played by attaching a stick to a metal head or casing.

maracas

Maracas are believed to have come from various places including Venezuela and Puerto Rico. Maracas are not only popular in United States music but are also used throughout the world as a backup instrument. Maracas are made of hollow shells with handles. Inside the shell are dried grains, so when the tool is shaken, the maracas make a crackling sound.

Some United States Musical Instruments

Clave

This United States musical instrument that is widely used in Cuban music looks quite simple. However, it is one of the most distinct instruments in the region. This is a hand-held block of wood about the size of a large cigar. To use the instrument, you must ring two claves.

Three

This musical instrument is usually played in the Caribbean islands. This instrument is said to have originated in Cuba and was later used by Puerto Rican people. It is clearly built on the idea of ​​a guitar based on its appearance. In some places, this instrument is called a bandola or triple. El tres has six strings much like a guitar, but the strings are grouped into three.

The marimba

La marimba is a musical instrument originating from Central America. Others believe that this instrument was invented during the maya civilization while others say that it was made by slaves as their own version of an African instrument. Costa Rica and Guatemala are still known to use the instrument today.

Get to Know Music in the United States

Music in the United States is a reflection of a multi-ethnic population with a variety of musical styles. Music in the United States is a mix of music influenced by (among others) West African, Irish, Scottish, Mexican, and Cuban music.

American music that is quite well known internationally is jazz, blues, bluegrass, country, rock, ragtime, rhythm & blues, hip-hop, pop, dance, and rock and roll. The United States has the largest music market with total retail sales of Rp. 69,855,577,606 in 2014, and music us. heard all over the world. Since the early 20th century, some US pop music has been listened to and followed globally.

That’s a review of Some Musical Instruments in the United States, hopefully this is useful.

Also read: https://www.jyoungblood.com/

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin dances are rather a large group of dance styles that are united by their place of origin – Latin America and invariably passionate rhythms and performances. Latin American dances are a type of ballroom and club dances that spread throughout Europe in the 19th century and became very popular. They owe their wide popularity to curiously mixed cultures of the Americas, including European and local folk dances. Thus, the Spanish folk dance, the elements of which were performed by bullfighters during a bullfight, became known throughout the world as a paso doble. Samba was brought to Brazil, and then to Europe, African influence is seen in rumba and cha cha cha which originated in Cuba and Haiti.

The traditional program of Latin Ballroom Dances, adopted by the World DanceSport Federation, since 1930 includes five dances in the Latin American section. These are Samba, Rumba, Cha-Cha-Cha, Paso Doble and Jive (United States origine). All of them are performed in a pair, a man and a woman and, unlike the European dances, the partners during the performance can either separate the contact, or cling to each other very closely. All Latin American dances are rhythmic and emotional, and some of them are particularly sensual.

The other large group of Latin dances is so-called Social (or ”club” Latina) includes Salsa, Bachata, Merengue, Reggaeton, Mambo, Kizomba, Zouk and Argentine tango. It has long been one of the most popular group of mass dance, both in Latin America and in the United States, Europe and Asia. Salsa and bachata, merengue and mambo – these dances do not require perfected skill, it is more important to reveal them completely, turning movements into meaningful love and passionate stories. For many years, the cult for all Latin dancers is the movie “Dirty Dancing” with Patrick Swayze, where the most popular amateur dances are shown in all its glory.

Here is a List of Social Latin American dances:

Salsa

Salsa dancing initially developed into a particular style in the 1940s and comes from a tradition of Latin dance styles that dates back to the early 1900s. It is heavily influenced by Afro-Cuban traditions and dance styles such as mambo, guaguanco and danzon. The brief history of salsa dance is that people moved to new locations and assimilated into new cultures, where salsa evolved into fresh styles. There are several different salsa styles influenced by cultures of the cities they originated. For instance, most famous in North America in United States are New York Salsa (also known as dancing ‘On 2’) and Los Angeles Salsa (known as dancing ‘On 1’). Many dance aficionados actually claim that New York Style salsa is the original style of salsa, as the term and the dance were coined in the Big Apple. Other styles include Cuban salsa, Cumbia, Rueda de Casino (read more on salsa dance types here). Besides New York and Los Angeles in USA, major cities around the world where salsa is most popular are: Toronto Salsa and Vancouver Salsa in Canada and in United Kingdom: London Salsa. There are numerous Salsa Festivals around the world that attract thousand of Salseros every year as well as Salsa Congress which is a multi-day dance festival featuring workshops, social dancing, performances and competitions focusing on Salsa dancing.

Bachata

Bachata dance is known for its love stories, and its syncopated rhythm. The dance actually was born of the music in the Dominican Republic during the 1960’s. Unfortunately, a dictatorship that found Bachata to be an art form of low standing held the music and the dance back for decades. The music was first developed with a heavy guitar emphasis and heartrending love stories as its basis. However, it grew primarily within bars and brothels, and this led to Bachata being held back for literally decades. Although the Bachata dance itself is a spinoff of the music, in recent years the music has grown more slowly than the dance. Bachata dance continues to grow and thrive all over the world, and has finally reached a place where it is widely accepted.

Merengue

The Merengue is a couple dance that has roots in the Dominican Republic. There are many theories of how precisely it became the dance that it is today. It is certain, however, that Dictator Rafael Trujillo deemed it the Dominican official dance and musical style after his rise to power in the 1930’s. A similar style is enjoyed in neighboring Haiti. The Merengue is one of the recognized Latin dance that has evolved over the years and widely enjoyed in many parts of the world.

Mambo

Mambo is a Latin dance of Cuba which was developed in the 1940s when the music genre of the same name became popular throughout Latin America. The word mambo comes from the name of the god of war. In immemorial times, the Cubans dedicated a ritual dance to him, with the aim of deserving location and ensuring patronage. The mambo dance has much in common with rumba and cha-cha (at first, the famous cha-cha-cha was even called syncopated mambo), but it has a great temperament, freedom in expressing feelings and emotions, luxurious music. Incendiary rhythms of mambo are widely used in cinema. This dance is both a means of seduction and a way to express your feelings. Among the most famous films in which dance is used is the film “Mambo” with starring Antonio Banderas and Arman Assante and the more modern film Dirty Dancing starring Patrick Suezi.

Kizomba

Kizomba is a new direction of latin dance culture that originated in Angola in the 1980s under the influence of French Creole music and African folk rhythms. And in Europe, it has spread widely in the twenty-first century. Kizomba has similar features with samba, bachata and Argentine tango, but this style is smoother, moderate and calm. Energy of Kizomba is more sensual and romantic, not expressive but rather flirtatious. Nowadays, Kizomba is winning the hearts and minds of modern youth. Everyone wants to learn how to dance Kizomba, everyone wants to shine at parties, to be fashionable and modern. There are numerous Latin Festivals around the world that include Kizomba as one of their featured dances.

Zouk

In the late 20th century, dramatized concert performances with bright costumes and lively ethnic music were popular in Haiti, Martinique and the Cape Verde Islands. This is how the Zouk dance style emerged, combining the intonation of authentic Haitian music, the calypso style, the sound of “black” Angolan music. “Zouk” in French Creole means “party” or “festival.” Dancing evenings with live music have won wild popularity not only on the islands. France, Canada, Brazil and the countries of Asia and latey United States have not resisted the pressure of the sensual rhythm.

Zuk dance is a social dance that is performed on three counts and is saturated with beautiful curves of the upper part of the body and deflections, and the steps and turns are complemented by circular rotations, wave-like movements and turns of the head. This style of dance is much more sensual than others, its turns and “falls” are spectacular, so the flexibility of the partner is of particular importance. Acrobatics are allowed. There are many Latin Festival events around the world that include Zouk dance as an essential part of their program.

Reggaeton

Reggaeton is a musical style that originated in Puerto Rico and Panama in 1970-1980. It was born under the influence of such directions as reggae, dancehall, hip-hop and very quickly became popular in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. And how a separate style was highlighted in the 1990s, spreading its popularity to the USA, where immigrants brought it. A characteristic feature of this musical direction is overt and even somewhat aggressive sexuality, a clear reggae rhythm and a recipe in Spanish. Nando Boom and El General are considered to be the fathers of this musical direction.

Argentine tango

Tango is a very sensual dance, and is among some of the most famous couple dances today. Prior to the birth of Tango, which happened in the poorer sections of Buenos Aires in the early 1900’s, there were only a few dances that required that a couple become so intimate as to face each other. The history of Argentine Tango is a little muddled, as it began in the lower classes, and it has faced many trials over the years. However, Tango has survived and grown into a dance that is enjoyed worldwide. Around 1911, Tango made the trip overseas and became a sensation in Paris, London and Berlin. 1913 saw it strike New York City in full force, although less authentic Tango dancing was already practiced there to some extent.

Tango scenes have been featured in many tango films. Tango scenes have been featured in many tango films. Today we see many thriving tango communities around the world, with the biggest one in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in USA: New York tango and Seattle tango are among the largest, in Europe: Berlin and more. You can catch the best tango performances at many Milongas (social tango dancing). There are as well many Tango Festivals around the world that attract thousand of Tangueros and fans.

Bomba

Bomba is one of the traditional dances and musical styles of Puerto Rico, which arose at the intersection of African and Spanish cultures and the Indian culture of native Taino. Bomba got its name from the drums made out of rum barrels. The base rhythm of Bomba is performed on two or more drums. The meaning of bomba is similar to the meaning of Cuban rumba – it is a competition between a singer, a dancer and a percussionist.

The main trait of Bomba is that the musicians in it follow the dancer (and not vice versa). The vocal part consists of the recitals of the soloist and choir (at least three voices). In this case, the soloist will improvise poetry, and the chorus will respond to him.The dance is still extremely popular in Puerto Rico and New York.

Plena

Puerto rican style of music and dance, used as a means of social and political expression. This traditional dance uses a panderet (tambourine), has a 4/4 pace and does not follow the clave. Plena was created 100 years ago in the working class barrios of Ponce, Plena’s roots could be traced back into the changes in society brought on by Puerto Rico’s move from Spanish into U.S. rule. Plena was born of African American roots and has been changed to a distinctively Puerto Rican dance style from the consequences of Jíbaro, indigenous Taino, and European musical traditions, along with the contribution of freed slaves out of English-speaking Caribbean Islands who travelled to Puerto Rico.

Plena primarily existed within folklore nevertheless, in the 1990s Plena has been given new life due to musical bands from Puerto Rico and New York who updated its sound to be fresh and modern. Whether folklore or contemporary audio, it is the panderos — three or more handheld drums of distinct sizes/pitches (seguidor, segundo, and requinto), along with also the guiro — a gourd percussion tool of native Taino source — which collectively create the unique rhythm of Plena.

Here is a list of Latin Dances included in the program of Ballroom dancing (International Latin):

Samba

Samba is a dance rich in history, and one that is known for the joy it expresses. The traditional Brazilian Samba is a national favorite each year at Rio’s Carnival Celebration. Both men and women, each known as a Sambista, present the rhythmic celebratory dance throughout the city during the festivities. The Ballroom Samba varies greatly from many of the styles, but does maintain some of the Brazilian Samba characteristics. Ballroom Samba is recognized as one of five International Style of Latin Dancing partner dances. The Samba as seen today developed in Rio near the close of the 19th century. In 1917, Samba was beginning to be viewed as a dance style in its own right. The year of 1930 saw it become an accepted form of ballroom dance — Ballroom Samba has made a lasting impact on partner dancing throughout the world.

Rumba

Rumba, one of the five international Latin dances, is a sultry story in motion. This particular Latin dance is widely acknowledged as the most sensuous. Rumba has humble beginnings. As with many others, at least some of Rumba’s roots can be traced back to African tribal dances. However, it is in the nation of Cuba where it became the Rumba that is still so popular today. It is commonly referred to as the grandfather of Latin dance. Rumba hit the United States during the 1920’s, and laid the groundwork for all Latin dances thereafter.

Cha-Cha-Cha

Originally known as Cha-Cha-Cha, the name of this flirtatious and upbeat partner dance has been shortened a little over the years to simply Cha-Cha. This particular dance style was developed originally in Cuba, and then picked up by dancers visiting Havana from all over the world. The dance’s fun, flamboyant and quick nature made it appealing then, and certainly adds to its appeal now. The more authentic Cuban style is very sensual, somewhat teasing and a bit contagious. Not only is the Cha-Cha still danced across the globe and is one of the International Style of Latin Dancing partner dances, the musical genre can be heard sung by incredibly popular musical artists even today.

Paso Doble

Paso Doble (Spanish for “two steps”) is a Spanish dance imitating a bullfight. Paso doble was one of the many Spanish folk dances associated with various aspects of Spanish life. The partner represents the torero, and the partner – his cloak (muleta), sometimes – the second torero, and very rarely – the bull, as a rule, defeated by the final blow. The nature of the music corresponds to the procession in front of the bullfight. The dance was first performed in France in 1920, became popular in Parisian high society in the 1930s, therefore many steps and figures have French names. After the Second World War, Paso Doble was included in the Latin-American program of sports ballroom dancing.

Jive

Jive is a dance of African American origin that appeared in the USA in the early 1940s. Jive is a type of swing with fast and free movements. Modern jive is very different from swing in style, although it often uses the same shapes and movements. Jive dance is performed at ballroom dancing competitions. Of the five dances of the Latin American program, the jive is always the last and is the apotheosis of the competitive program. This dance is very fast and sparkling. Thus, it allows couples not only to demonstrate technical skills, but also to show their physical fitness.

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

Learning a new language can be daunting, but with a good attitude and a little bit of motivation, learning French in France can become child’s play.

Here are 10 tips to learn French fast:

1. Watch films

Watching films in French with French subtitles is one of the best ways to learn. Not only will you discover everyday idiomatic expressions and new vocabulary, but you will also be able to read words as the actors pronounce them: an ideal way to train your ear and improve your accent.

2. Learn with songs

Just like films, songs are an excellent way to learn French in a playful way. Translate the texts and sing them along. You will finally understand what your favorite French songs actually mean!

3. Read

Alternate between traditional study methods and more playful ones. You love detective novels? Why not read them in French? If you prefer lighter reads, buy magazines and use them to learn new vocabulary in relation to your passions. Comics? Comics are a very useful way to learn French, a mix of text and images facilitate the understanding and learning of French.

4. Find a partner

Find a native French speaker wishing to learn your mother tongue and alternate between conversations in French and in English. Everyone wins! If your spouse or a friend is also learning French, speak in French when you are together! Progress and fun guaranteed!

5. Don’t be scared to try and make mistakes

A lot of people don’t make progress simply because they don’t dive in — especially when it comes to speaking. Don’t be scared to make mistakes! The persons you speak to will gladly correct you and help you progress.

6. Listen!

Actively listen to other people speaking: notice how they use certain expressions and do not hesitate to ask for explanations. Even when you are busy doing something else, put on a French radio program: passive listening can also help you progress.

7. Practice

Take advantage of your moments of solitude to repeat the words and expressions you have learnt out loud. Don’t be scared to talk to yourself in order to work on your pronunciation!

8. Sign up for an intensive course

Whether it is in full immersion or in your home country, an intensive French courses can be an excellent way to learn French quickly. Be careful not to relax in your efforts once the course is over. To make sure you don’t lose what you have learnt, you need to keep practicing. Which brings us to the next point: consistency.

9. Be consistent

To learn quickly and efficiently, one must work everyday, even if it is only for five minutes each time.

10. Go for a full immersion

The best way to learn is certainly through full immersion. This can be daunting at first, but you will learn French in no time and will live unforgettable experiences. To avoid feeling completely lost, you can reach out to a French language school implanted in France. CIA itself is located on the French Riviera and offers tailored programs for all levels. Do not hesitate to contact us for further information!

Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy, a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body. “Gross anatomy” customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined without the help of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy is concerned with the study of structural units small enough to be seen only with a light microscope. Dissection is basic to all anatomical research. The earliest record of its use was made by the Greeks, and Theophrastus called dissection “anatomy,” from ana temnein, meaning “to cut up.”

Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.

Gross anatomy

This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the world’s oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth, and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, Herophilus (flourished 300 bce), who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the 2nd century ce, Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to “restore” the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; “The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galen’s authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

From Vesalius’s exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabricius’s detailed descriptions of the venous valves.

Microscopic anatomy

The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research. Primitive early microscopes enabled Marcello Malpighi to discover the system of tiny capillaries connecting the arterial and venous networks, Robert Hooke to first observe the small compartments in plants that he called “cells,” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek to observe muscle fibres and spermatozoa. Thenceforth attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of bodily structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size.

The use of the microscope in discovering minute, previously unknown features was pursued on a more systematic basis in the 18th century, but progress tended to be slow until technical improvements in the compound microscope itself, beginning in the 1830s with the gradual development of achromatic lenses, greatly increased that instrument’s resolving power. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognize in 1838–39 that the cell is the fundamental unit of organization in all living things. The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections. In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century anatomists tended to scrutinize tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the 1950s and became the prime tool of anatomical research. About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspecialty of molecular anatomy.

Anatomical nomenclature

Scientific names for the parts and structures of the human body are usually in Latin; for example, the name musculus biceps brachii denotes the biceps muscle of the upper arm. Some such names were bequeathed to Europe by ancient Greek and Roman writers, and many more were coined by European anatomists from the 16th century on. Expanding medical knowledge meant the discovery of many bodily structures and tissues, but there was no uniformity of nomenclature, and thousands of new names were added as medical writers followed their own fancies, usually expressing them in a Latin form.

By the end of the 19th century the confusion caused by the enormous number of names had become intolerable. Medical dictionaries sometimes listed as many as 20 synonyms for one name, and more than 50,000 names were in use throughout Europe. In 1887 the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardizing the nomenclature, and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in 1895 that reduced the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, the Basle Nomina Anatomica, had to be subsequently expanded, and in 1955 the Sixth International Anatomical Congress at Paris approved a major revision of it known as the Paris Nomina Anatomica (or simply Nomina Anatomica). In 1998 this work was supplanted by the Terminologia Anatomica, which recognizes about 7,500 terms describing macroscopic structures of human anatomy and is considered to be the international standard on human anatomical nomenclature. The Terminologia Anatomica, produced by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (later known as the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies), was made available online in 2011.

This article was most recently revised and updated by jyoungblood.com.

Business Economics

Business Economics

Business Economics

What is Business Economics?

Business economics is a field of study that reviews the implementation of the economic system in business operations. It assists in utilizing the nature and importance of financial analysis to clarify business problems. Moreover, the introduction to this definition helps balance between limited sources and unlimited aspirations.

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The nature and importance of business economics lie in the future prediction and drafting of several regulations for profit maximization. The relevant areas pertained to this discipline are demand analysis and forecasting, cost and production analysis, pricing decisions, profit management, and wealth governance.

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The business economics definition implicates blending business processes with economic theories to simplify the decision-making procedure.
It reviews the study of the firm’s financial, market-related, environmental, and organizational issues. Moreover, it is considered both an art and science.
It covers demand analysis and forecasting, cost and production analysis, pricing decisions and strategies, profit management, and wealth management.
Its objectives include future prediction, recognition, and clarification of business issues, drafting business policies, and establishing relations between different economic aspects.

Business Economics Explained

Business economics or managerial economics discusses the usage and importance of economic policies and concepts in business governance. Moreover, it analyzes economic models, approaches, and philosophies applied to solve rational business issues. The introduction to business economics is certainly both an art and a science.

It is a sphere of economicsEconomics is an area of social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of limited resources within a society.read more analyzing the study of organizational, fiscal, environmental, and market-related problems. Therefore, this includes the topics of product factors, scarcity, consumption, and dissemination.

It is important to comprehend the nature of business economics, which is closely related to normative economicsNormative economics refers to economists’ opinions about what they believe. It may be true for some, but false for others. Furthermore, the statements mentioned under normative economics cannot be verified or tested.read more. Simply put, economic theory is utilized for administration in a doubtful situation to solve or elucidate difficulties in company management.

For instance, demand, profitProfit refers to the earnings that an individual or business takes home after all the costs are paid. In economics, the term is associated with monetary gains. read more, pricing, competition, production, national income, business cycles, etc.

Scope Of Business Economics

In the same vein, the below-mentioned disciplines describe the scope of introduction to business economics:

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#1 – Demand Analysis and Forecasting

This aids in directing the organization to arrange production schedules and harness resources. Additionally, it assists the leadership preserve and boosting the revenueRevenue is the amount of money that a business can earn in its normal course of business by selling its goods and services. In the case of the federal government, it refers to the total amount of income generated from taxes, which remains unfiltered from any deductions.read more base and market position through discerning various factors affecting the product demand.

#2 – Cost And Production Analysis

The business economics definition entails the production of cost assessment of various outputs and recognizing elements behind the deviations in estimated costs. That is to say, the manager selects cost reduction output levels and also avoids the time and material wastage to attain the desired profit percentageThe profit percentage formula calculates the financial benefits left with the entity after it has paid all the expenses. Profit percentage is of two types – markup expressed as a percentage of cost price or profit margin calculated using the selling price.read more. This also constitutes the implementation of Break-even analysisBreak-even analysis refers to the identifying of the point where the revenue of the company starts exceeding its total cost i.e., the point when the project or company under consideration will start generating the profits by the way of studying the relationship between the revenue of the company, its fixed cost, and the variable cost.read more.

#3 – Costing Decisions and Strategies

Valuation is the root of the company’s earningsEarnings are usually defined as the net income of the company obtained after reducing the cost of sales, operating expenses, interest, and taxes from all the sales revenue for a specific time period. In the case of an individual, it comprises wages or salaries or other payments.read more since its success is mostly based on the accuracy of costing decisions. Moreover, the key aspects incorporate pricing methods, price discovery in numerous market forms, product line pricing, and differential pricing.

#4 – Profit Management

The manager must be able to devise a more or less precise evaluation of the company’s expected gains and pricing at distinct output levels. To clarify, uncertainty reduction assists the firm in achieving higher revenues. While comprehending the importance of business economics, profit calculation and profit planning are the most difficult concepts.

#5 – Wealth Management

It infers regulation and drafting of capital expenses due to the involvement of a huge amount. Disposing of the capital assets is quite complicated and hence, demands a substantial amount of labor and time. Subsequently, this requires the business to manage current assetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc.read more and current liabilitiesCurrent Liabilities are the payables which are likely to settled within twelve months of reporting. They’re usually salaries payable, expense payable, short term loans etc.read more properly.

Examples

Here are some examples of introduction to business economics for better comprehension.

Example #1

Suppose that an enterprise named XYZ Corp. deals in manufacturing home furnishings. Now, it performs demand forecasting to evaluate its market penetrationMarket penetration is calculated as how much the customers are using the product or service compared to the total market for that product or service.read more rate. Next, the firm computes estimated equipment and labor costs and executes production analysis to exploit the available resources.

Adopting smart pricing tactics and product line pricing aids the enterprise in avoiding overspending. Then, it determines the opportunity costThe difference between the chosen plan of action and the next best plan is known as the opportunity cost. It’s essentially the cost of the next best alternative that has been forgiven.read more and profit planning to ensure goal attainment within the stipulated period. Lastly, the company designs and controls capital expendituresCapex or Capital Expenditure is the expense of the company’s total purchases of assets during a given period determined by adding the net increase in factory, property, equipment, and depreciation expense during a fiscal year.read more to maintain and enhance its market stature.

So, the process mentioned above implies the application of economic theories to the corporate decision-making process.

Example #2

During its initial phase, Uber didn’t strategize to be high on the fixed investment aspect owing to its doubts about market penetration. Instead, it began with an aggregator business model responsible for connecting riders to drivers.

The latter drove the cars as and when deemed feasible and were paid weekly according to the terms of the ride. Then, with an increased market horizon, Uber started connecting drivers permanently to the car fleet owners and hired drivers. This helped the firm satisfy all the rider requests without relying on the availability of drivers.

Needlessly, this transformation is a clear testament to the definition and importance of business economics. After the intensive market assessment, Uber then decided to soar the supply. It conducted the cost-benefit evaluation and expanded its employee base for fulfilling the surging ride demands.
Business Economics Objectives

The following points explain the objectives of business economics:

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#1 – Identification And Resolution of Business Problems

Managerial economics involves many significant concepts like short-run and long-run costs, demand and supply analysis, and the law of diminishing marginal utilityThe law of diminishing marginal utility states that the amount of satisfaction provided by consuming every additional unit of goods decreases as we increase that goods consumption. Marginal utility is the change in the contentment derived from consuming an extra unit of goods.read more. This certainly aids the business manager in recognizing and clarifying the business issues.

#2 – Designing Numerous Profitable Business Policies

Keeping profit maximization in mind aids in drafting several business policies like cost policies and pricing policies. Please note that the depiction of these regulations is done as per economic assessment and data.

#3 – Future Prediction

The intensive evaluation of multiple economic variables, including business capital and cost production, assists firms in future prediction. Subsequently, it permits the enterprise to detect and avert any unwanted situation by capitalizing on the available resources.

#4 – Building Relations Between Distinct Financial Aspects

Managerial economics assists build relations between diverse economic factorsEconomic factors are external, environmental factors that influence business performance, such as interest rates, inflation, unemployment, and economic growth, among others.read more such as profits, income, market structure, and losses. This certainly aids in supervising the managers for efficient decision-making and seamless business administration.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What Is the Scope of Business Economics?

The scope of business economics is extensive and covers the below-mentioned fields:

1. Demand analysis and prediction
2. Pricing and production analysis
3. Pricing plans and decisions
4. Profit management
5. Wealth management

What Is the Nature of Business Economics?

Generally, the nature of business economics is normative. It provides insights into the exercise of economic concepts during decision-making, policy formation, and future planning. Nonetheless, companies must completely understand the atmosphere for establishing decision policies.

What Are the Two Components of Business Economics?

The two major components of business economics introduction are supply and demand and the effect of scarcity. Other subjects included in this discipline are product factors, consumption, and dissemination.

Precisely put, managerial economics aims at the factors and components throughout business activities and their relation to the economy. Additionally, it involves assessing external financial factors and their impact on company decisions.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Business Economics & its Definition. Here we explain the introduction of business economics, its scope, importance, and nature. You may learn more about our articles below on Economics –

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

If you follow the instructions in this over the top, step-by-step guide, you will reach your goal of Japanese fluency.

However, this journey is going to take a lot of effort and hard work on your part. Anyone who tells you learning a language is going to be easy is either misinformed or trying to sell you something. And eventually, after the honeymoon phase of learning wears off, progress feels slower. You burn out. Sh*t hits the fan. If you’ve ever tried learning something new, you know exactly what I’m talking about.

Instead, you need to do things the hard way (i.e. the correct way) right from the start.

Just because we’re doing it right doesn’t mean it has to be inefficient.

This method for learning Japanese starts at the very beginning. I assume you have zero knowledge of the Japanese language and guide you through each step. I’ll cover reading, writing, speaking, and listening. And we explain what you should use, when, and why.

This should be everything you need to progress, that way you don’t use all of that fresh enthusiasm you’re feeling on planning how to learn, and instead spend it on actual learning.

Make like those famous shoes and just do it.
Learning to read hiragana

Our goal is to reach Japanese fluency as directly as possible. Unlike a teacher or a textbook, we have the freedom to be ruthless in the path we take to get there.

There are no tests or quizzes to take. You don’t have to move at the speed of the slowest learner in your group. All you need to do is follow each step, do the work, and progress.

Just keep in mind that because of this, some steps may seem counterintuitive. They may even seem slow compared to other methods, but everything has been carefully selected to get you to the finish line faster and more efficiently. We’ll talk more about that later.

A bit of housekeeping first: This is a living document, meaning it will be updated from time to time. Check back, subscribe to our email list, or follow us on Twitter to know when these updates happen. And, if you already have experience with Japanese, I still recommend you give it a read. There’s a good chance you’ll find something important to help you on your own Japanese language journey.

Zero Knowledge of Japanese

Welcome to learning Japanese! This section is for the true beginner. You know little-to-no Japanese. Maybe a “konnichiwa” here and a “baka” there. These first steps you take are especially important because they’re going to set a foundation you can build off of.

The more deliberate your steps, the easier everything that follows will be.

Carefully completing this section is going to be necessary if you want to avoid the thing that takes down most learners: the intermediate wall. Instead, take your time on these foundational steps. What feels slow now is actually speed later on.
Learn to Read Hiragana

Estimated Time: 1 day to 1 week
Learning to read hiragana

Hiragana is Japan’s version of the alphabet. It is one of three Japanese writing systems you need to learn to be able to read. The other two are katakana and kanji, but hiragana is where everything starts.

The ability to read hiragana is going to be a prerequisite for most beginner Japanese textbooks and resources. It’s the first thing you learn in a traditional classroom. Surprisingly, I agree with everyone else. This is a good place to start.

Most Japanese classrooms spend an entire month learning how to read and write hiragana. That’s too long! Instead of writing out each hiragana character over and over to memorize them, use the guide below and you may be reading hiragana later tonight. It uses mnemonics and worksheets that are designed to help you learn and be able to recall hiragana faster than you thought possible.

Do it: Learn How to Read Hiragana

It’s important to note that this guide is going to teach you how to read hiragana and not how to write it. This has a purpose! While it is important to learn how to hand write Japanese eventually, right now it will slow you down immensely with very little payoff. Typing covers 99% of modern day writing so you will learn how to type hiragana (and katakana and kanji) instead.

This, in combination with mnemonics and worksheets, will allow you to learn how to read hiragana in a day or two instead of a month.

Remember: You’re not in a class. You don’t have to move at the speed of the slowest 10%. There is no speed limit.

In order to complete this section and move on, you need to get to the point where you can read all of the hiragana. Even if you’re slow, as long as you can recall each character, as well as the contractions, without cheating, that’s enough. You’re about to get plenty of practice and your reading speed will naturally increase over time as you move on.

Note: Read “Japanese Pronunciation, Part 1” (below) before you start learning hiragana.

Basic Japanese Pronunciation

Estimated Time: n/a
Learning to read hiragana

Good pronunciation starts with hiragana. While hiragana alone won’t teach you everything, it is the key to understanding how and why Japanese words sound the way they do. It will also help you get the foundation you need for a native-sounding accent. At the very least, hiragana will get you 80% of the way there.

For the remaining 20%, we wrote a guide covering the basics of Japanese pronunciation. Before you begin learning how to read hiragana, you should read up to the “Japanese Sounds and Your Mouth” section.

Once you’ve finished learning how to read hiragana, go though that section again, but this time read about “Important Differences” as well. This section will cover all of the sounds that don’t exist in English, giving you a head start. Make sure you can pronounce all of the hiragana characters correctly before moving on.

Read: Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide

With pronunciation, it’s best to put the time and work in now, at the beginning. Don’t ignore it because it’s hard. When things get more difficult, it’s very important that you’ve spent time speaking and hearing these sounds so that you can learn about all the differences and exceptions headed your way.

Okay, now go ahead and get back to learning how to read hiragana. Get to the point where you can read and recall everything, then move on to the next section.

Learning to Type Hiragana in Japanese

Estimated Time: 1-2 days (or less)
Prerequisite: Able to read hiragana
Learning to read hiragana

Now that you can read and pronounce hiragana (remember, slowly is okay!) it’s time to learn how to type it on your computer or smartphone.

First, you need to install a Japanese keyboard. Luckily, you don’t have to buy a special piece of hardware or computer to do this thanks to a type of software called an IME (input method editor). You can add an IME onto almost any kind of computer, phone, or operating system. Just follow the instructions in this guide to add them to your devices:

Read: How to Install a Japanese Keyboard

After you’re done installing, it’s time to learn how to actually type. Use the following guide, and only focus on the hiragana portion (since that’s all you know how to read right now):

Read: How to Type in Japanese

Assuming you are able to read hiragana, typing in hiragana is surprisingly straightforward. Once you feel confident in your typing abilities, including trickier things like contractions, small tsu, and dakuten, move on to the next section. It’s time to talk about the elephant in every Japanese learner’s room: kanji.

Understanding the Concept of “Kanji”

Estimated Time: n/a
Learning to read hiragana

In our Japanese learning method, you’re going to learn to read kanji characters very early. As soon as you can read and type hiragana it’s time to start tackling kanji.

Here is our reasoning:

The most difficult thing about learning Japanese is kanji. At least, that’s what people say. But trying to save it or brush it off until later isn’t going to help you learn Japanese. Almost everything uses kanji, making it one of the most important aspects of learning this language. Your learning quality of life will drop drastically if you choose to ignore it.

A lot of a beginner’s time when using a textbook is spent looking up kanji and vocabulary. This takes your focus away from the grammar you’re trying to learn and makes progression slow and frustrating. Learning (some) kanji and vocabulary first makes learning grammar a lot faster and, more importantly, easier. Think of it this way: you’re losing a little time now to save a ton of time later.

Kanji leads to vocabulary, vocabulary aids communication, and grammar is like the glue that holds vocabulary together. Without vocabulary there’s nothing for the grammar glue to stick to and everything gets messy. It makes grammar abstract and difficult to learn, when it doesn’t have to be.

Like hiragana, we have a way for you to learn kanji that’s way more effective than the traditional methodology (rote memorization). Thanks to that, it won’t be as difficult as everyone says. It may even *gasp* be a pleasure to learn! Maybe.

This kanji-vocabulary-first route will get you to the point where you can use Japanese quickly. It feels slow at first, but soon you will rocket past your fellow Japanese learning compatriots. You’ll also be able to get over that “intermediate wall” easier and quicker than if you were to use a traditional method. This lowers your chances of burnout and giving up all together.

If you’re on board with this philosophy, you need to start at the very beginning: understanding what kanji is and how it’s used. For that, we have another guide for you to read:

Read: On’yomi vs. Kun’yomi: What’s the Difference?

Once you understand how Japanese kanji readings work, you’ll be ready to learn some actual kanji.
Beginning Kanji & Stockpiling Kanji Knowledge

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
Learning to read hiragana

Important note about this section: You should start to learn katakana (the next section) at the same time as this step. “Beginning Kanji & Stockpiling Kanji Knowledge” will take 1-3 months. In fact, you can complete all of the steps up to “The Beginner of Japanese” while you work on this one!

Okay, so it’s time to actually learn kanji. Let’s define what “learn kanji” means before you get started. That way you know what is expected of you.

When I say “learn kanji” I mean learn the kanji’s most important (English) meaning(s), and their most important (Japanese) reading(s). As you know from reading about on’yomi and kun’yomi, some kanji have a lot of readings. And, unfortunately, English meanings are just translations and can’t always match the Japanese meaning one-to-one. That means there can be many correct English meanings for a single kanji that you’ll need to deal with. We’ll narrow those down so you only learn the most important meanings and readings first—the ones used 80-90% of the time. The remaining meanings and readings will come via vocabulary and other practice.

As you learn kanji you will also learn vocabulary that use those kanji. Not only will this help solidify those kanji concepts in your mind, but it will also be where you learn the remaining kanji readings. Plus, as you know, this vocabulary will be used to give you something to glue together with grammar later.

By the end of this guide, your goal is to know around 2,000 of the most important kanji as well as 6-7000 vocabulary words that use them. With this groundwork you should be able to read almost anything—or at least have the tools to easily decipher the rest on your own.

Your goal should be to learn 20-30 kanji and ~100 vocabulary words that use those kanji (and only those kanji) each week. If that seems like a lot, don’t worry: there is a method for memorization that will speed things up considerably. Please read up on the Radicals Mnemonic Method. As a bonus, you will learn some important foundational knowledge about how kanji works in here as well.

Read: Learn kanji with the radicals mnemonic method

In this guide you will learn how to narrow down kanji meanings and readings to the most important ones. You will learn how to use radicals and mnemonics and how to create an effective routine.

You should be able to use these techniques to create a weekly study plan on your own for free, as long as you put in the work. But, if you would like all of the above (and then some) in one, complete package, we recommend the kanji learning program, WaniKani.

We’ll be referencing it going forward, but just know that creating your own content and schedule is totally fine and doable. You’ll just need to make sure you maintain your pace to keep up. Or, for some of you, make sure you slow down so you don’t burn out!

Once you begin learning vocabulary in WaniKani (or your own system) read the Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide from the Pronouncing Vocabulary section all the way through to the end. You will learn about long and short vowel sounds, double consonants, dropping sounds (all common stumbling blocks for beginners), and more. You will also learn about pitch accent. Although it may be difficult now, just knowing pitch accent exists and how it works in Japanese will give you a leg up.

Read: Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide

Okay! Make sure you get started now. Do the work, don’t just plan to do it! Sitting down and starting is the hardest part.

Learn to Read Katakana

Estimated Time: 2 days to 2 weeks
Prerequisite: Able to read hiragana

Learning how to read katakana

Learning katakana is about the same as learning hiragana, with a few Shyamalanian twists. We have yet another mnemonic-based guide for you, and chances are you’ll be able to read katakana within the next few days if you’re willing to put in the work.

You should get to the point where you can read all of the katakana, however slowly, by the time you start unlocking vocabulary in WaniKani (or by the time you start vocabulary in your own kanji method). Although katakana words won’t show up a lot right from the start, there are enough to make it worthwhile. It’s also a good way to spend your extra time while the number of kanji you’re learning is still quite low.

Do it: Learn to Read Katakana

Note: Katakana tends to give learners more trouble than hiragana. This is because it seems to be used less than hiragana and kanji, especially at the beginning stages. Later on, katakana will appear more frequently, but for now simply being able to read katakana is enough. There will be plenty of opportunities to get better at it—just know that reading katakana may not come as quickly as it did with hiragana. And that’s okay. Hiragana and kanji are just more useful right now, so spend your limited time and energy there.

Once you can read each katakana character—no matter how slowly—move on to the next section about typing katakana.
Learning to Type Katakana

Estimated Time: 1-2 hours
Prerequisites: Able to type hiragana, able to read katakana
Learning how to type katakana with your keyboard

Katakana is similar to hiragana in many ways, and thanks to this, learning how to type it should be fairly easy. There are a few differences to figure out, but you will be able to apply your hiragana knowledge to it and progress quickly. Jump to the katakana section of our typing guide and get started.

Read: How to Type Katakana

Note: Make sure you keep working on your kanji! If you’re using WaniKani, just do your reviews as they become available. It’s important to make this a habit. Because WaniKani is a spaced repetition system there must be spaces between reviews. Longer and longer ones, in fact (though it will depend on how well you’re doing). Do your reviews on time and you’ll get through this initial “slow” phase in a week or two. That’s a drop in the bucket compared to your entire Japanese-learning career, so try to be patient. The waiting time is critical to testing your ability to recall information.

Learning to Type Kanji

Estimated Time: 1-2 hours
Prerequisite: Able to read 20-30 kanji

Learning how to type kanji on your keyboard

Before starting this step, make sure you can read a handful of kanji. Twenty or thirty will do just fine. If you’re using WaniKani, this is when you start unlocking vocabulary or are around level 2.

Okay, are you done?

Typing in kanji is a little more complicated than typing in hiragana or katakana, but it still follows similar rules. Learn how to type in kanji using the kanji section of our guide then read to the end. There are some additional tips and tricks in there (punctuation, symbols, etc.) that may come in handy.

Read: How to type kanji

Now you know how to type everything there is to type in Japanese (that is, unless you count kaomoji)! If you can type in English, typing in Japanese is surprisingly easy. With practice, you’ll be able to type it as naturally as you type in your native language.

To continue using this typing knowledge, you’ll need to know more kanji and vocabulary. Once you get there though, you’ll be ready for “The Beginner of Japanese” section!

Before moving on, you should reach level 10 on WaniKani (or around 300 kanji and 1,000 vocabulary words using your own method).

This is an important time in terms of pronunciation too. Make sure you consciously mimic the vocabulary audio. Think about pitch accent as you do it. This work will prepare you for sentences later.

With this kanji knowledge (and good pronunciation, to boot!), grammar is going to come quickly to you. You won’t be spending your grammar study time looking up every other word. Instead, you’ll be able to focus solely on grammar, and you’ll know the contents of 80% of every sentence you see for the first time. When you say these sentences out loud, you won’t be tripping over your tongue because you’ll already be intimately familiar with Japanese sounds and pronunciation. The time you put into kanji, vocabulary, and pronunciation will begin to pay off.

Put your head down, trust in this, and do the work each day.

Go on, get to it, and come back here when you’re done.
The Beginner of Japanese

Being a beginner of anything is great. Everything is new, everything feels like real, tangible progress, and even if you’re bad at something, you can’t really tell because you don’t know enough yet anyway.

Enjoy it while it lasts.

At this point, you have a strong base of kanji and vocabulary. If you are using WaniKani, you should be at level 10 or above. If you are doing kanji on your own, or using another resource, you should know the most common meaning and reading of around 300 kanji and 1,000 vocabulary words. If you are using a resource that only teaches you the meaning of a kanji (and not how to read it), that doesn’t count. You need to be able to do the whole thing, not just the easiest 20%.

With this assumption about your knowledge in place, we’re going to go through some options for how you can learn Japanese grammar. This includes using a textbook as well as creating your own grammar program from scratch. We offer some of our own material as well. Most likely, you’ll end up doing a hybrid of the above. No matter what you choose, your foundation of kanji, vocabulary, and pronunciation will make everything much easier. Without it, even the best Japanese textbook will be a frustrating experience.

Using a Spaced Repetition System For Vocabulary

Estimated Time: 2-4 hours + ongoing
Increasing your kanji knowledge

You will learn a lot of vocabulary purely from your kanji studies. As long as you have a good kanji system in place, you shouldn’t worry too much. However, you will definitely need to learn all of the words that do not use kanji too. In the beginning, this will largely be grammatical things, and words that don’t use kanji, from your textbook. Later it will be vocabulary you pick up from signs, manga, and other real life sources.

It’s time to learn how and when to introduce vocabulary words from outside your kanji studies into your study routine. The most important thing is to have a good system in place.

You need to be able to record and store these words so that you can study them later. You also need a good system to handle and process these words. It’s a waste if you record them once and never look at them again.

At your currently level, most of the new words you encounter will probably be hiragana or katakana-only words. Once you start reading more and more Japanese, the number of new words you encounter will increase, so being able to keep track and add these to your routine becomes even more important. For now though, your goal is to develop a habit of collecting, processing, and studying vocabulary that is unfamiliar to you. This should become second nature.

1. Collecting Vocabulary

Most likely, you will find most of the vocabulary that you want to learn in your Japanese textbook (we’ll cover that really soon!). As I mentioned earlier, these might be words that don’t have kanji, or maybe they’re words that you didn’t learn in WaniKani. There are a lot of words out there and no one resource will teach you all of them.

Once you’ve found some words that you want to learn you need to collect them. How you do this doesn’t matter as much as actually doing it. Put them in a spreadsheet, a tool like Evernote or OneNote, or just write them down on a piece of paper. Make sure wherever you put these new words is easily accessible and make a trigger for yourself that essentially says “if I see a vocabulary word I want to learn, then I add it to my list.”

There are plenty of list-apps and pieces of paper out there, so it’s going to be difficult for me to say what you should use. I’m partial to Evernote and have my own processes built up there. And Airtable is a great spreadsheet app for people who don’t think in math. But maybe you like physical pocket-sized notebooks, to-do lists, your smartphone camera (with a special folder for future processing), or something else.

Whatever you use, make sure it’s easy for you. Figure out what makes sense and make it work. If this step doesn’t happen, everything else will fall apart.

2. Processing

The next step is processing. I’d recommend you create a habit where every day, week, or month (it depends on how much new vocabulary you want to introduce to your routine) you go through this list and put them into your SRS of choice. What is an SRS? I’m glad you asked.

3. Adding the Words to Your SRS

If you’ve been using WaniKani, you’ve been using a “Spaced Repetition System” (a.k.a. SRS) this whole time! But you’ll want to use something else for the vocabulary you find out in the wild. For this, we wrote a guide. In it you’ll learn how to collect vocabulary and add them to your SRS.

Read: Spaced Repetition and Japanese: The Definitive Guide

One additional piece of reading I’d recommend is this article on Keyword Mnemonics. For the non-kanji vocabulary you want to learn this is a surprisingly simple (and effective) mnemonic method which will allow you to learn more vocabulary in one sitting, and be able to recall it for longer.

Read: Keyword Mnemonic Method for Learning Japanese Vocabulary

As I said earlier, you won’t be working with a ton of vocabulary at the start. For now, let your kanji studies give you most of your vocabulary. Then, when stray street vocabulary does start coming up, send it through the vocabulary process you’ve built.

Make this a habit.

Habit generally means 3-6 weeks of doing something regularly. And you should start now, because in six weeks you’ll be needing to utilize this habit a lot more.

Beginning Japanese Grammar

Estimated Time: It’s a mystery
Learning how to pronounce Japanese vocabulary

It’s (finally!) time to start learning grammar. If you followed this guide to the letter, you’re probably 2-4+ months into your Japanese studies. If it’s more than that, don’t worry about it. We all go at our own speeds and the important thing is that you kept moving forward. You should know around 300 kanji and 1,000 Japanese vocabulary words, and your pronunciation should be getting better, or at least you’re being conscious about improving it. Now it’s time to kick Japanese grammar’s butt.

Let’s start by internalizing a philosophy. Carry this with you for the rest of your life:

When learning something new, you should already know 80% of it.

This means that each new thing you learn should be a 20% (or smaller) incremental step. A +1 from where you are, rather than a +20 or +100.

Most people go into a textbook with zero knowledge and wind up spending a large chunk of their time looking up words they don’t know. How much of a sentence is vocabulary? Depending on the length, it’s easy to answer “more than 80%.”

So when you’re learning grammar with a textbook, coming into it with prior vocabulary knowledge brings you to that 80%. Leaving you just the grammar, which you can then point your laser-like focus towards. Instead of constantly flipping to the index to look up a word or kanji and deal with context switching when you finally get back to the lesson, all you have to worry about is learning the grammar and nothing else.

That’s the +1 we’re talking about.

Let’s assume for a moment that your Japanese vocabulary knowledge doesn’t get you to 80% (or more). If that’s the case, there are a few possible reasons:

  • You don’t know enough vocabulary: If you don’t know a lot of the words in a sentence before studying with it, then you don’t understand 80% of the sentence before you start. In this case, go back to your kanji/vocabulary studies for a while and reconsider the level of the resource you’re using. Another solution would be to pull the vocabulary from the resource, study them with your SRS method, and then come back once you’ve learned them.
  • You don’t know enough grammar: Imagine you’re looking at a sentence that contains three separate grammar points. If you’re being taught one of the three, but you don’t know the other two, you’re dipping way below that ideal 80%.
  • The sentence is very short: If a phrase only has three parts (ex. “[vocabulary] + [particle] + [vocabulary]”), and you don’t know one of them, you’re going to be at 66%. In cases like this, you can make an exception. Knowing 66% of a three piece phrase, or 75% of a four piece phrase is acceptable. This will be very common in the beginning.

That’s the philosophy we’re working off of going forward, so double-check that you have that base of kanji and vocab before continuing with this guide. Your failure rate increases dramatically if this foundation is weak!

A Beginner’s Japanese Textbook / Program

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
A student wondering what Japanese textbook they should use

It’s time to take our philosophy and apply it to a beginner textbook. All the things that would have normally tripped you up (the things teachers and textbooks have a tough time explaining, due to the curse of knowledge) should now be less difficult to deal with. And with kanji and vocabulary already in your tool belt, learning grammar should be much more interesting. You won’t be spending 90% of your time and energy on looking up kanji and vocabulary you don’t know. Instead, you’ll just be doing it.

With this base knowledge, choosing a specific textbook or program to follow becomes less important, but there are still many “good” textbooks and many “bad” textbooks out there. Most will teach you the same content one way or another, so pick one that you feel fits your learning style.

To help you with this choice, we wrote a guide:

Read: The Best Japanese Textbooks for Beginners

Whatever you end up choosing, get started right away. It’s so easy for people to get trapped in a “preparation loop” where they spend all of their time planning and getting ready, only to stop before any actual work gets done.

At this point you will focus on working through your textbook of choice. Try to progress through the entire thing from beginning to end. Doing this will create a strong foundation of Japanese inside of you, something you can use to base other knowledge off of.

Once all of the basic, foundational grammar is in place you’ll be able to really accelerate and work toward fluency.

It will take around 2-6 months to get through most beginner Japanese textbooks. Though, this does depend on how much time you have to spend on your studies and what grammar method you choose. You can even go through a couple different textbooks at the same time, if you want. What one textbook doesn’t teach well, another probably does. That being said, if you don’t feel like you understand a concept, or you want to know more, there’s plenty of ways to get your questions answered. I recommend not skipping questions—instead, follow your curiosity! Learning is supposed to be fun, though school may have “taught” you otherwise.

Read the next section as you start your textbook studies. You’ll eventually run into something you don’t know that your textbook doesn’t explain. You might as well be ready for it.
Answering Your Japanese Language Questions

Answering questions about Japanese

As you’re going through your textbook, you’re going to run into things you don’t understand. Or, you’ll find you don’t know 80% anymore. It’s not necessarily a failure of your textbook, it’s just that many of them were designed for teachers to use in a classroom. They expect someone to be there to answer questions for you. Or, there just isn’t enough paper in the world to cover everything.

Not to worry. When you run into something you don’t understand you can look it up. No matter what kind of question you’re asking or answer you’re searching for, we wrote up a guide that will tell you how to find anything Japanese language related:

Read: How to Answer your Japanese Language Questions

Note: You should continue to use WaniKani (or whatever kanji learning method you chose) as you continue on. You should keep going until you finish, and/or you reach the end of this guide. It is important to keep your kanji-vocabulary knowledge ahead of your grammar knowledge at all times. If you don’t, that 80% ratio will tick down until your studies no longer feel sustainable or fun.

Alternative: Learning Japanese Grammar On Your Own

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
A student studying Japanese grammar online

By gathering all that kanji and vocabulary knowledge you’re making it possible to learn grammar on your own. Learning grammar is easy comparatively. That being said, if you decide not to use a Japanese textbook as your main resource, there are some things you’ll want to consider:

Order of Learning

This is a topic we’ll be writing a big guide on. But, it’s quite complicated so I haven’t gotten around to it yet. We’ll fill in this section with that guide in the near future, but for now don’t use my slowness as an excuse. Just get started. If you do, ordering will, for the most part, naturally fall into place if you follow the “know 80% of all new things” philosophy.

Fact Checking / Cross Referencing

Don’t just trust any ol’ thing you read on the internet. The same goes for textbooks and teachers, too. When you learn a new piece of Japanese grammar, make sure to read explanations from multiple sources. Some will be complicated with hard linguistic language while others will be overly simplified. And a few here and there will be just right! Making a habit out of using multiple explanations and resources for one thing will feel like it’s slowing you down at first, but it’s much faster overall. We’ll list some really good reference books at the end of the Beginning Japanese section, so make sure to take a look.

Do the Work

If you’re studying Japanese grammar on your own, it’s even more important to do the work. It’s not hard to study and use what you’ve learned. It’s hard to sit down and start. Even more so than a class or textbook, you’ll need to make sure you actually sit down and make progress. Measurable progress, preferably, though you’ll have to figure out just how to measure it.

With a textbook, you can just say, “I could answer all the questions,” or, “I made it through twelve pages this week.” Doing grammar on your own makes it harder to see and feel yourself moving forward. You are, but it’s a bit hidden.

Sometimes, You’ll Just Get Stuck

If this is happening a lot—and no amount of research gets you through it—you might want to consider finding a professional to help. Speaking of professionals…

Optional: Finding A Japanese Language Tutor

Estimated Time: n/a
A Japanese teacher and her student

This may be the time to consider finding a Japanese language tutor, especially if you feel like you’re not able to answer your questions about Japanese on your own. With a foundation of kanji and vocabulary already in place, you will be able to focus on the things that a tutor can help you with the most: speaking, listening, and answering questions.

Keep in mind that focusing on kanji and vocabulary with a tutor tends to be a poor use of this time. Most teachers don’t have any idea how to teach kanji (it’s just, “go learn these kanji and vocab by next week”) and many tutors try to promote rote memorization because that’s how they learned as a child.

When using a tutor it’s important to focus on things only a tutor will be able to help you with. Those include their ability to speak, think, and explain nuances that haven’t been written about or studied (yet).

You’re not required to get a tutor or a teacher at this point, but if you were really looking forward to this part, now is the appropriate time to do it. Everything from here on out won’t rely on your having access to a teacher, tutor, or native speaker, so you can still progress without needing to complete this step.

Suggested Books and Resources

Estimated Time: n/a

A student reading Japanese reference books

As you’re moving along, there’s always going to be more to learn. Don’t be afraid to stop moving forward to indulge your curiosity. These “slowdowns” will speed you up as you strengthen past knowledge and make connections between them.

For times like this, reference books are quite good. If you’re only going to buy one, I’d recommend the “Basic” book from the Dictionary of Japanese Grammar series. It is the best Japanese language reference book out there, in my opinion.

Other than that, look through the “Reference Books” section of our Beginner Japanese Textbooks, Reference Books, and Dictionaries article. There are quite a few good ones!

Read: The Best Japanese Reference Books & Dictionaries

Note: With any skill, it’s important that you focus on the things you’re worst at. “Raise the floor, not the ceiling,” so to speak. If you do that, you’ll find everything else gets elevated, and you’ll be less frustrated overall. You’ll have more data to reference in your brain as more unknown ideas and concepts pop up. For example, if you’re bad at verbs, pick up The Handbook of Japanese Verbs and just read through it. It might take you an afternoon, but every verb you see from that day on won’t be a detriment to your progress. Instead, it will positively affect all other aspects of your Japanese.

Raise the floor, because no matter how high your ceiling, you’ll still be down on the ground.

The “intermediate” level of Japanese is by far the worst. Most of the people who ultimately give up on learning do it here (assuming they made it past the first few weeks).

Available resources begin to dry up, in both number and quality, and learners get stuck or plateau. Without guidance, it can feel like progressing is an impossible task.

This is the intermediate wall.

The thing that makes the intermediate level the hardest, though, is what got you here: your competence.

The beginner section was your unconscious incompetence stage. That is, you didn’t realize you were incompetent, so you never felt discouraged, overly embarrassed, or stupid. But now you know a thing or two, and it’s just enough to know you’re not actually amazing at this thing called the Japanese language. It hurts and it’s because you are now consciously incompetent, which is no fun at all.

Thankfully, a lot of the pain most learners feel at this stage comes from poor learning or teaching methods from the beginner stages. Things that you, hopefully, avoided. And although everyone will experience conscious incompetence to some degree, some people can get through it quickly and some get trapped here for years. Most, unfortunately, can’t make it through at all and give up.

Be the type of person that gets through this stage quickly.

The other side of this wall is extremely fun and rewarding, so don’t give up and don’t let your conscious incompetence get you down.

Here’s how you do it:

  1. Recognize this stage exists and know that you’re supposed to feel these uncomfortable feelings. This helps a surprising amount. You don’t have to feel dumb because you know that everyone goes through this exact same situation. It’s all a part of the process and if other people made it out, you can too.
  2. You’ve already been preparing for this moment. This guide has prepped you to get through this fairly quickly. You’re at an advantage! Most people wallow in the conscious incompetence stage for a long time because they lack two things: kanji and vocabulary. But by this point, you know more kanji and vocabulary than any intermediate level Japanese language student ought to. This is why you spent so much time on WaniKani (or one of its alternatives). It slows you down in the beginning so that you can blast through this wall.

With all that in mind, it’s time to start on some intermediate material. Make sure you are good on 100% of the previous sections before moving on. This is, by far, the most difficult portion of your Japanese education. You must have a good foundation to jump off of. When you’re ready, you can start browsing our Japanese articles and Grammar pages. Good luck! 💪🏻

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

When you ask a language student what their goals are, almost everyone says “improve my speaking”. When learning a foreign language, you’ll find yourself talking with all kinds of native speakers – your teacher, servers in restaurants, taxi drivers and your landlord, so it’s vital that you feel comfortable. Just like improving your writing, listening or any other skill, there are techniques you can use to improve your spoken English in a targeted way. Here are eight of our favorites:

1. Speak, speak, speak

Let’s start right off by saying that there isn’t a magic pill for better speaking. That would be too easy, right? Basically, the best way to speak better is to, well – speak! Commit to practicing often and with as many different people as possible. Do you already live or study overseas? Take advantage of the thousands of native speakers in your immediate community, such as your friends, their families, your coworkers, classmates, employees at the coffee shops, supermarket, post-office and other places you visit. If you’re learning in your own country, increase your practice time by meeting your classmates after class, finding an language exchange partner or joining an online community of learners.

2. Reflect on your conversations

After your conversation is over, take a moment to reflect. How did it go? How much do you think you understood? How comfortable did you feel with that subject matter? Did you encounter any unknown words? The mere act of thinking about it in this way will increase your confidence for the next time you speak (and give your targeted things to work on, for example vocabulary you didn’t understand).

3. Listen and read

You need words in order to talk, right? Class time is great for learning vocabulary, but there are other ways you can increase yours: Watch movies, listen to music, the radio and to podcasts. Read books, magazines and blogs. When listening and reading, find new and interesting expressions, slang terms and synonyms, write down this new material and look up anything you’re not familiar with. All this will provide more “meat” for you to use next time you practice.

4. Prepare cheat sheets

Part of nervousness around speaking is the feeling of not knowing what to say. To combat this, prepare a cheat sheet. Are you going to the doctor’s? Before your appointment, research vocabulary relating to your condition and some common phrases you’ll probably need. Use the technique before going to pay a bill, eating at a restaurant, job interviews, making a complaint, or for any other situation that might make you anxious.

5. Pick up the phone

Most people find phone conversations particularly challenging. Why? Because on the phone, we can’t see the other person’s body language or watch their mouth move, both of which are tools that really help communication. To feel more confident on the phone, start small with phone conversations with friends – then move on to more challenging calls like making appointments or inquiries. (This is a great time to use tip 4, and prepare a list of questions and useful vocabulary to help you during your call!)

6. Record your voice

We know, we know – most people dislike hearing their voice recorded – but it’s actually an extremely beneficial way to improve your speaking! Hearing yourself on tape shows you things you might not realize (maybe you tend to speak quickly when nervous, swallow your “s’s” or mumble). On the other hand, you could be pleasantly surprised to hear that your speaking is far better than you thought! For bonus points, take your recording to your teacher or to a native speaker friend and have them give you feedback.

7. Learn phrases rather than single words

Another tip to increase your fluency is to speak using a variety of phrases rather than individual words. (You probably do this all the time in your native language.) Instead of automatically asking “Hello, how are you today?”, mix it up by choosing other expressions like “What’s up, man?” “Hey dude!” or “How ya going, mate?” (Be careful though: Some expressions will be very informal and not ideal for some situations!)

8. Have fun

Let’s face it. It’s far easier to learn something new when you’re having fun. Inject silliness into your speaking practice by talking to yourself when you’re alone, singing along with popular songs in English, doing tongue twisters (Try our top tongue twisters) or doing one-minute “impromptu speeches” on randomly-chosen topics (such as snakes, coffee, India or subjects such as “If I ruled the world, I would…”, “Three surprising facts about me,” or “Which came first, the chicken or the egg?”). Great practice and great, silly fun.

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Speaking English confidently is an important goal for many. Often, we hesitate because we are afraid of making mistakes or embarrassing ourselves in front of others. Sometimes mistakes are unavoidable. But like any other skill, you can improve your spoken English if you practise regularly and follow these simple techniques.

1. Listen

The first step in improving your speaking skills is actually working on your listening.

Listening to English has several benefits – it allows you to pick up new words, phrases, and ways to respond in conversations. Secondly, listening provides opportunities to understand pronunciation, how some words are omitted when speaking, how some are joined together, the rhythm, the intonation, and the sounds of language.

What should you listen to? There are many resources available to you to listen to for free. Start with short English clips or videos: pick your favourite English TV show or YouTube channel. Listen to a clip and notice carefully what the characters are saying. Repeat any dialogues or phrases that interest you. Replay the same clip until you understand every word. You could also turn on the subtitles or look at the transcript of the video if available and practise saying the dialogues with the characters.

Here are some easy conversations in English with transcripts.

The practice activities that accompany these audios and videos will provide you plenty of opportunities to practise the new vocabulary and pronunciation.

English podcasts are another popular way to listen to English and improve your listening and speaking skills. Podcasts are short audio clips that are available online on various topics. They are usually released regularly as episodes on a larger theme or range of topics. Our Podcasts for Professionals is a great resource to listen to some English in the context of the workplace. Each episode focuses on a different business issue and provides some useful tips and techniques to deal with that issue. We also have an app – LearnEnglish Podcasts . A new episode is released weekly on the app, so you never run out of content to listen to.

The third most interesting way to improve your listening and speaking is by listening to audio books. Audio books have become very popular over the past couple of years. They are great for people who are have no time to invest in reading books. They are also a wonderful way to perfect your pronunciation. Here is a great selection of books for people who are learning English. Try to listen to a portion of the text, pause the audio, and read aloud to practise saying the words yourself.

Finally, nothing can beat actual English conversations with people. Listen to your colleagues speaking in English, listen to your boss giving presentations and conduct meetings in English, listen to your teacher speaking in English – all of these real-life conversations will help you become a better listener and a better speaker of the language. Remember that listening as much as possible will help your speaking significantly.

2. Imitate

Now that you have listened to lots of English conversations, it’s time for some imitation. Yes, that’s right! Imitating or copying someone is a wonderful to improve your speaking skills. Not convinced? Watch babies and children – how do they learn a language? They copy everything an adult says.

Another benefit of imitation is that it will help you become more accurate in English without having to learn grammar rules. With lots of practice you will begin to remember chunks of words and phrases. This helps in remembering word patterns in a sentence and how certain words go with others.

To effectively improve your speaking skills, you need to follow these steps:

Listen: Pick your favourite video or audio clip from any of the sources provided in the earlier section of this article. Play the audio and listen to it carefully. Play as many times as you like to understand how each word is spoken.
Repeat and record: After playing the audio, repeat saying the words and conversations exactly as you heard. Pay special attention to the intonation, stress, and rhythm of language. Record yourself while repeating the words. You could use a voice recorder on your phone or a use a web-service like Vocaroo . Recording will provide you an opportunity to listen to yourself and self-correct. So, do not skip this step.
Compare: Listen to the audio again and compare it with your recording. Does it match? Note down changes that you may need to make.
Correct: Repeat the entire process again until you get better and more accurate.
As this process involves listening to the same audio clip several times, choose a topic that is interesting to you. If you stick with the routine, you will see improvement in your pronunciation, vocabulary, accuracy, and overall speaking abilities in no time!

3. Read

Reading is yet another important skill to have when learning a language. Whether you prefer a novel or an article, reading a few minutes every day will help you acquire new vocabulary.

The most common reason why people hesitate with reading is that it takes quite a lot of time to read a book from start to finish. However, when learning English, reading even for a few minutes is greatly beneficial. Short articles or notes in English are great for this. They only take a few minutes to read and are quite easy to find.

You can start with materials you find every day. Think of notes and memos at work, pamphlets and brochures at your local supermarket, or notices and safety instructions in the elevators – wherever you are there is always something to read.

Here is a selection of reading materials specifically designed to help you improve your language abilities. There are different types of texts and interactive exercises with which you can practise the reading skills you need to do well in your studies, to get ahead at work, and to communicate in English in your free time.

These articles provide a chance to learn about global issues, special days, and festivals while learning English. You will improve your reading comprehension and develop your vocabulary on a diverse range of international events, celebrations, and topics. Each article has interactive exercises to help you understand and use the language.

If you prefer stories, the Story Zone on our LearnEnglish website gives you a wide range to choose from. There are several stories written specifically for language learners. They are easy to read and provide language practice though short activities.

If you are looking to improve your workplace skills along with your vocabulary, try our Business Magazine . You will learn useful language for a wide range of business topics from different perspectives, as well as tips and techniques for dealing with business issues.

Remember that if your goal is improving speaking skills, it is a good idea to read aloud. This will not only help you practise unfamiliar words, but also help you improve your pronunciation and fluency.

4. Reflect

Reflection is a very useful step in improving your speaking skills. Reflection is nothing but asking questions to think about what you learnt, how you learnt, what progress you see, what could be done differently, and how to change the way you learn to allow progress.

It is important to reflect on your language learning abilities on a daily basis, especially if you are learning a new language independently. Reflection is another way to provide yourself some good feedback in the absence of a teacher.

Say you had a great conversation in English. After your conversation is over, take a moment to reflect. Ask yourself questions such as the following:

  • How was it?
  • How much did you understand the other person?
  • How confident did you feel in responding to the questions asked or continuing the conversation?
  • How comfortable did you feel about the topic of discussion?
  • How quickly were you able to think of the right thing to say or the right word to say?
  • Did you come across any unfamiliar words?
  • What did the other person do when they couldn’t think of the right word?

Thinking about these questions will help you see your strengths more clearly and gain confidence. You will also find opportunities for improvement and specific areas to work on.

You could also reflect after reading or listening to something in English. Ask yourself these questions.

What are some of the key points you learned from the article or podcast?
Can you summarise them in your own words?
Are there some words or ideas that were new to you?
Can you use the words and sentences around the new word to guess the meaning of this new word? Look up a dictionary soon after to confirm if you really got the meaning right.
Recording your reflections in a notebook after every learning session will help you see your progress over time.

5. Prepare

A lot of us hesitate to speak or take part in conversations in English because we are nervous about what to say. We are anxious that what we say may not be appropriate or we may make mistakes. We can easily fix this problem by preparing ahead. Are you going to a restaurant with your colleagues? Think of situations that require you to speak English. Order food, perhaps? Ask for changes to a dish? Ask your colleagues’ preferences? Ask for the bill? What vocabulary do you need in these situations? Write up a simple list of phrases to use.

Here is an example:

Situation Useful phrases
Arriving at the restaurant and asking for a table (if booked) Hello. We’ve booked a table for ___. (say the number of people for which you booked the table)
The booking is in _________ ‘s name. (say the name of the person you provided at the time of booking)
Arriving at the restaurant and asking for a table (if not booked) Hello. We need a table for _______ (say the number of people). Can you fit us in?
Asking for the menu Could we see the food menu, please?
Could we see the drinks menu, please?
Asking about food Is this dish suitable for vegetarians?
Does this dish contain nuts? I am allergic to nuts.
Could you help me understand what this dish contains?
Choosing what to order among your colleagues I’d like to order a hamburger with a side of fries. What about you?
I prefer coffee to tea.
What would you like to have?
Do you prefer soup or salad?
That sounds delicious.
Placing your order We are ready to place our order.
Could we have bottled water for everyone?
I would like ___________ (say what you would like to eat)
Could I have ___________ (say what you would like to eat)?
Giving feedback That was delicious. Thank you.
That was lovely. Thank you.
It was a great meal. Thank you.

The food was a bit cold.
The dish was a bit spicy for my taste.

Paying your bill Could we have the bill please?
Can I pay by card?

This is on me. (When you want to insist on paying for everyone).

Create similar cheat sheets for everyday situations. You will find yourself becoming more confident and ready to speak in English. If you need help, you will find many useful phrases for different situations here .

6. Speak

Yes, speaking. There is no magic pill that would help you speak better. You must put yourself in situations where you are forced to speak in English to get better at it. Start small. Do you live or work at a place where you need to speak English to get by? Great! Take advantage of this situation by speaking to people around you. It could be at your workplace or even at a coffee shop – doesn’t matter where, as long as you can speak.

If you don’t have that advantage, practise speaking in English with your colleagues or classmates. It is easier if you choose someone who speaks a different language than you do as it forces you to communicate in English.

You could also consider joining an English language course to improve your range of vocabulary and speaking. You get tons of practice and a teacher to provide you with some personal feedback on your speaking skills. You will meet likeminded learners from all over the country or even another country.

These days, a lot of online forums and discussion groups focus on language learning as a goal. Joining such a forum will help you practise speaking with students from different parts of the world with similar goals. Many of these groups are easy to find. Try Facebook, Reddit, or Discord. Just a word of caution – it is important to keep in mind internet safety and security. Remember safety should be your priority. Read these online safety tips before joining a group.

7. Practise

We cannot stress this enough. Regular and consistent practice is the key to success when it comes to speaking English. The tips and suggestions that we’ve described above only work if you use them regularly. So, here’s what we recommend. Start small – spend just 10 minutes every day doing 1-2 of the above things. Maybe listen to a short video clip today and imitate. Reflect on what you learned. Tomorrow, pick up a short article. Read aloud and summarise in your own words. Reflect on what you read and the new words.

Some days you will find more time. Dedicate more time when you can but do the minimum every single day. You will see a big change in your abilities in no time! As you improve, you’ll get more confident and more ready for bigger challenges. This is the time to find speaking partners and to put yourself in situations that require speaking in English. Don’t worry about making mistakes. Most people don’t care if you make mistakes.

Finally, don’t forget to have fun. It’s easier to learn something new and commit to learning when you’re having fun. Practise English by singing along to popular songs. Practise tongue twisters with your friends. There are several here .

Try all these tips today and start your language learning journey right away!

What Is Educational Psychology?

What Is Educational Psychology?

What Is Educational Psychology?

Educational psychology is the study of how people learn, including teaching methods, instructional processes, and individual differences in learning. It explores the cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social influences on the learning process. Educational psychologists use this understanding of how people learn to develop instructional strategies and help students succeed in school.

This branch of psychology focuses on the learning process of early childhood and adolescence. However, it also explores the social, emotional, and cognitive processes that are involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan.

The field of educational psychology incorporates a number of other disciplines, including developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology. Approaches to educational psychology include behavioral, developmental, cognitive, constructivist, and experiential perspectives.

This article discusses some of the different perspectives taken within the field of educational psychology, topics that educational psychologists study, and career options in this field.

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8 Things to Know About Educational Psychology

Perspectives in Educational Psychology

As with other areas of psychology, researchers within educational psychology tend to take on different perspectives when considering a problem. These perspectives focus on specific factors that influence learning, including learned behaviors, cognition, experiences, and more.

The Behavioral Perspective

This perspective suggests that all behaviors are learned through conditioning. Psychologists who take this perspective rely firmly on the principles of operant conditioning to explain how learning happens.1

For example, teachers might reward learning by giving students tokens that can be exchanged for desirable items such as candy or toys. The behavioral perspective operates on the theory that students will learn when rewarded for “good” behavior and punished for “bad” behavior.

While such methods can be useful in some cases, the behavioral approach has been criticized for failing to account for attitudes, emotions, and intrinsic motivations for learning.

The Developmental Perspective

This perspective focuses on how children acquire new skills and knowledge as they develop.2 Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is one example of an important developmental theory looking at how children grow intellectually.3

By understanding how children think at different stages of development, educational psychologists can better understand what children are capable of at each point of their growth. This can help educators create instructional methods and materials aimed at certain age groups.

The Cognitive Perspective

The cognitive approach has become much more widespread, mainly because it accounts for how factors such as memories, beliefs, emotions, and motivations contribute to the learning process.4 This theory supports the idea that a person learns as a result of their own motivation, not as a result of external rewards.

Cognitive psychology aims to understand how people think, learn, remember, and process information.

Educational psychologists who take a cognitive perspective are interested in understanding how kids become motivated to learn, how they remember the things that they learn, and how they solve problems, among other topics.

The Constructivist Approach

This perspective focuses on how we actively construct our knowledge of the world.5 Constructivism accounts for the social and cultural influences that affect how we learn.

Those who take the constructivist approach believe that what a person already knows is the biggest influence on how they learn new information. This means that new knowledge can only be added on to and understood in terms of existing knowledge.

This perspective is heavily influenced by the work of psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who proposed ideas such as the zone of proximal development and instructional scaffolding.

Experiential Perspective

This perspective emphasizes that a person’s own life experiences influence how they understand new information.6 This method is similar to constructivist and cognitive perspectives in that it takes into consideration the experiences, thoughts, and feelings of the learner.

This method allows someone to find personal meaning in what they learn instead of feeling that the information doesn’t apply to them.

Recap

Different perspectives on human behavior can be useful when looking at topics within the field of educational psychology. Some of these include the behavioral perspective, the constructivist approach, and the experiential perspective.

Topics in Educational Psychology

From the materials teachers use to the individual needs of students, educational psychologists delve deep to more fully understand the learning process. Some these topics of study in educational psychology include:

  • Educational technology: Looking at how different types of technology can help students learn
  • Instructional design: Designing effective learning materials
  • Special education: Helping students who may need specialized instruction7
  • Curriculum development: Creating coursework that will maximize learning
  • Organizational learning: Studying how people learn in organizational settings, such as workplaces
  • Gifted learners: Helping students who are identified as gifted learners8

Careers in Educational Psychology

Educational psychologists work with educators, administrators, teachers, and students to analyze how to help people learn best. This often involves finding ways to identify students who may need extra help, developing programs for students who are struggling, and even creating new learning methods.

Many educational psychologists work with schools directly. Some are teachers or professors, while others work with teachers to try out new learning methods for their students and develop new course curricula. An educational psychologist may even become a counselor, helping students cope with learning barriers directly.

Other educational psychologists work in research. For instance, they might work for a government organization such as the U.S. Department of Education, influencing decisions about the best ways for kids to learn in schools across the nation.

In addition, an educational psychologist work in school or university administration.9 In all of these roles, they can influence educational methods and help students learn in a way that best suits them.

A bachelor’s degree and master’s degree are usually required for careers in this field; if you want to work at a university or in school administration, you may need to complete a doctorate as well.

Recap

Educational psychologists often work in school to help students and teachers improve the learning experience. Other professionals in this field work in research to investigate the learning process and to evaluate programs designed to foster learning.

History of Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is a relatively young subfield that has experienced a tremendous amount of growth. Psychology did not emerge as a separate science until the late 1800s, so earlier interest in educational psychology was largely fueled by educational philosophers.10

Many regard philosopher Johann Herbart as the father of educational psychology.11

Herbart believed that a student’s interest in a topic had a tremendous influence on the learning outcome. He believed teachers should consider this when deciding which type of instruction is most appropriate.

Later, psychologist and philosopher William James made significant contributions to the field. His seminal 1899 text “Talks to Teachers on Psychology” is considered the first textbook on educational psychology.12

Around this same period, French psychologist Alfred Binet was developing his famous IQ tests.13 The tests were originally designed to help the French government identify children who had developmental delays and create special education programs.

In the United States, John Dewey had a significant influence on education.14 Dewey’s ideas were progressive; he believed schools should focus on students rather than on subjects. He advocated active learning, arguing that hands-on experience was an important part of the process.

More recently, educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom developed an important taxonomy designed to categorize and describe different educational objectives.15 The three top-level domains he described were cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning objectives.

Significant Figures

Throughout history, a number of additional figures have played an important role in the development of educational psychology. Some of these well-known individuals include:

  • John Locke: Locke is an English philosopher who suggested the concept of tabula rasa, or the idea that the mind is essentially a blank slate at birth.16 This means that knowledge is developed through experience and learning.
  • Jean Piaget: A Swiss psychologist who is best known for his highly influential theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget’s influence on educational psychology is still evident today.
  • B.F. Skinner: Skinner was an American psychologist who introduced the concept of operant conditioning, which influences behaviorist perspectives.17 His research on reinforcement and punishment continues to play an important role in education.

Recap

Educational psychology has been influenced by a number of philosophers, psychologists, and educators. Some thinkers who had a significant influence include William James, Alfred Binet, John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Benjamin Bloom.

A Word From Verywell

Educational psychology offers valuable insights into how people learn and plays an important role in informing educational strategies and teaching methods. In addition to exploring the learning process itself, different areas of educational psychology explore the emotional, social, and cognitive factors that can influence how people learn. If you are interested in topics such as special education, curriculum design, and educational technology, then you might want to consider pursuing a career in the field of educational psychology.
Frequently Asked Questions

  • What can you do with a masters in educational psychology?

A master’s in educational psychology can prepare you for a career working in K-12 schools, colleges and universities, government agencies, community organizations, and counseling practices. A career as an educational psychologist involves working with children, families, schools, and other community and government agencies to create programs and resources that enhance learning.

  • What is the primary focus of educational psychology?

The primary focus of educational psychology is the study of how people learn. This includes exploring the instructional processes, studying individual differences in how people learn, and developing teaching methods to help people learn more effectively.

  • Why is educational psychology important?

Educational psychology is important because it has the potential to help both students and teachers. It provides important information for educators to help them create educational experiences, measure learning, and improve student motivation.

  • How does educational psychology help teachers?

Educational psychology can aid teachers in better understanding the principles of learning in order to design more engaging and effective lesson plans and classroom experiences. It can also foster a better understanding of how learning environments, social factors, and student motivation can influence how students learn.

Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

Get to know the Department of Communication Studies

Until now, the Communication Sciences major is still one of the study programs that is most in demand by prospective new students. This is because communication is a field that is very close to everyday life, so it is always developing and always needed.

At the 2022 SBMPTN registration yesterday, Communication Studies was also one of the majors with the most applicants at several PTNs. One of them is at UPN Veteran Jakarta, with 4,291 enthusiasts and a capacity of 160 seats. Wow, that’s really tight.

What do you study in the Communications Major?

The Department of Communication Studies is a study program that studies the process of conveying messages effectively so that they can be received and understood by audiences. In addition, the Communication Studies major studies communication at various levels, such as between individuals, groups, media, culture, and so on.

Communication Science is the parent of several derivative sciences, such as Advertising, Broadcasting, Journalism, Media Studies, Public Relations and so on. Therefore, when you enter the Communication Sciences major, you will be directed to take specializations. However, each campus has different specializations. So, you don’t need to be confused.

Communication Department course

In the first year lectures, Communication Science students meet with several general subjects, such as Introduction to Communication Studies, Introduction to Political Science, Introduction to Anthropology, Communication Philosophy and the like. Because it belongs to the Soshum family, the subjects studied are still related to other social sciences.

Just now, in semesters 3 and 4, you will learn various kinds of communication skills at various levels. How to communicate with individuals, groups, or while doing business. There is also mass communication that studies methods of packaging messages on television, radio and online media. So, if you look at the table below, there is a Communication Psychology course. Here, you will be trained to be a good communicator so that messages can be received clearly and not offend the other person.

Going up to semesters 5 and 6, you are allowed to take specialization courses. For example, you choose Journalism as a specialization, then the courses you will get are those related to Journalism. For example, Fundamentals of Journalism, Law and Journalistic Ethics, Journalistic Language, or Interview Techniques.

Then, in semester 7, there is something called Internship. Communication students can do internships in various places, such as TV stations, radio, production houses, ministries, public relations consultants, advertising agencies, and others. If you are already an apprentice, are you ready to write a thesis in semester 8? Well, there are 2 degrees for Communication students, namely S.Ikom or S.Sos if they are under the auspices of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

Skills that Communication Studies Students Must Have

In Communication Studies, one of the basic soft skills that you must have is public speaking skills. Public speaking itself means the ability to convey a good message to the audience.

Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

“Oh, it’s just a matter of talking, does that mean?”

Eits, make no mistake! Public speaking also has to be trained and there are many techniques, you know. One of them is body gesture or body language. You also have to be confident, be able to speak with clear articulation, and master the material before speaking in public

Apart from soft skills, in Communication Studies your hard skills will also be honed. You will learn how to write well, learn videography techniques, photography, strategies for composing social media content, marketing, and much more. So, the knowledge of communication is not only useful in the world of work, but also in business or everyday life.

Where Can Communication Majors Work?

“What kind of work will a communication science student do next?”

Don’t worry, the job prospects of Communication Science graduates are diverse and promising, you know. You can become a Public Relations Officer or Public Relations staff. The role of PR or Public Relations is to bridge the company with other parties, to achieve its goals.

Apart from public relations, Communication Science graduates can also work as reporters. Reporters are tasked with reporting news in the field, in the form of written media online and print media.

In addition, Communication students can work as bloggers, radio broadcasters, photographers, lecturers, event organizers (EOs), editors, MCs, copywriters, and many others. The initial salary for a graduate of Communication Studies also varies, ranging from 5 million – 7 million rupiah for a fresh graduate.

Tuition and Campus Fees with a Major in Communication
We can easily find the Department of Communication at various universities in Indonesia. You need to know, the Communications major can be under the auspices of the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) or the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

For example, at the University of Indonesia, the Communications major is still affiliated with FISIP. That is why, the degree obtained after graduation is S.Sos. Meanwhile at the University

Padjadjaran, the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) has been established, so you will get a S.Ikom degree.

Regarding the duration of study, the Communications major can be taken for 3 years through a vocational study program, or 4 years through an undergraduate and Applied Bachelor (D4) study program. For tuition fees, it ranges from 5 million to 15 million rupiah per semester, depending on campus accreditation and entry pathways. The following is a list of PTN and PTS choices that have the best communication majors in Indonesia:

  • University of Indonesia
  • Padjadjaran University
  • Gadjah Mada University
  • Airlangga University
  • Diponegoro University
  • UIN Jakarta
  • UPN Veteran Jakarta
  • Telkom University
  • Binus University
  • London School Public Relations
  • Multimedia Nusantara University

How about Brainies, are you interested in majoring in Communication Studies? Apart from improving your public speaking skills, you also have to prepare yourself so that you can be accepted by a Communication Science major on your ideal campus. Come on, improve your academic skills with Brain Academy!

Read helpful educational articles: jyoungblood.com

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Understanding Educational Psychology and Its Benefits and Scope

Psychology is defined as the study of science that studies the psychology and human behavior. Educational psychology is intended to influence educational activities and teaching and learning processes more effectively by paying attention to the psychological responses and behavior of students. The state of the learning system, teaching methods, and students in each region is not the same.
The habits of students when they are in the family environment and the educational environment are sometimes also different. Educational psychology appears to provide improvements in the world of education in implementing curriculum, teaching and learning processes, counseling and evaluation services to get better quality students.

Understanding Educational Psychology According to Experts

Psychology can be interpreted as a science that studies the behavior and symptoms of the human soul (Abu, 2003).
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, education is the process of changing the attitude and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature humans in a learning or training (KBBI).
According to Muhibin Syah (2003), educational psychology is a psychological discipline that addresses psychological problems that occur in the world of education.
Educational psychology is a systematic study of processes and factors related to education (Whiterington, 1982).
Meanwhile, Djiwandono (2002), said that psychology is a science that studies human behavior and experience.
Educational psychology intends to apply psychology to processes that bring about changing behavior, in other words to teach. While the meaning of educational psychology is the study of learning, growth, and individual maturity and the application of scientific principles to human reactions. Such education aims to influence the process of teaching and learning.

The definition of educational psychology according to these experts can be concluded that educational psychology is a discipline of psychology that influences the teaching and learning process in the world of education.

Scope of Educational Psychology

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Educational psychology has a scope that forms the basis and boundaries or what distinguishes it from other psychological sciences. According to Sumadi Suryobroto, the scope of educational psychology includes:

Knowledge

Educators or teachers need to have more knowledge to provide teaching to their students. The teaching and learning process has a knowledge (cognitive) impact on students who initially do not know about the material provided to know. Teachers or instructors need to have knowledge of learning methods and other knowledge about problems that may exist in students.

Knowledge of student mental activity, intelligence, personality, individual character, student talent, growth and development, fostering discipline in the classroom, learning motivation, teacher behavior, teaching and learning strategies, and special problems in teaching and education.

carrier

The interactive learning process from the teacher will provide motivation and positive responses from students during the teaching and learning process. Innate owned by a teacher as a style of delivery of material, the concept of teaching while in class. And it is also necessary to change the atmosphere which stimulates students to always be active will improve the quality of learning outcomes.

Behavioral processes

According to Soerjabrata, educational psychology is reviewed dynamically, which includes changes in behavior such as:

Changes in behavior due to growth and development.
Behavior change due to learning is an important factor in learning.

The interactive learning process given by the teacher to students will bring about changes in behavior such as skills during the learning process such as speaking in front of the class, discussing, or activities that involve sensory and motor responses. These activities provide changes to students to become more active and change attitudes (affective) from an unfavorable attitude to a positive attitude. The positive attitude that is brought when returning to the family, to the community is the result of a quality education process.

The nature and scope of learning

Nature is the underlying thing in the learning process. The nature and scope of learning refers to learning processes such as interactions, materials given to students.

Student development

The teacher influences student development from the behavior shown when in class, interest or activeness when following lessons, the results obtained during tests. And also the development of students which can be seen from the attitude, way of speaking, interactions with teachers and friends. All of that is the result of the learning process. A positive development if you look at the progress of students in their interactions and their intelligence increases to

good direction.

Factors that influence learning

The learning situation greatly influences the learning process. Situations such as place and atmosphere greatly affect the success of teaching a teacher. The condition of classrooms, laboratory rooms, library rooms are facilities that help influence the quality of teaching and learning.

Room conditions in terms of cleanliness, air circulation, adequate room capacity, bench and seating conditions, lighting, and quiet conditions are needed to arouse students’ interest in learning and also the teacher’s teaching enthusiasm. Teacher attitudes, class spirit, family and community attitudes are also factors that influence learning situations and ultimately affect the quality of learning processes and outcomes.

Other factors that affect learning come from within or within the student, namely motivation, talent, intelligence, self-ability to adapt to the learning environment.

Education measurement

Educational measurement is an evaluation carried out on students after getting the learning process within a certain time to measure the educational development that has been obtained.

Practical aspects of measurement

The practical aspect of measurement is a measuring tool used to determine changes in student behavior as a result of the learning process.

Learning transfers

Learning with good and positive systems and interactions with pleasant communication between teachers and students causes students to accept the knowledge given and like their teachers. However, if the teacher’s interaction and communication with students is not good, then students will dislike it and show a negative attitude. The positive attitude that is taught and applied while at school will be owned by students such as those who were initially undisciplined became disciplined, those who previously could not dress neatly became uniformed neatly.

Mental health

The mental health of students is marked by their participation and activeness in participating in every learning activity both individually and in groups.

character building

Psychological character is formed from the culture that is applied during the learning period at school by educators. Culture is in the form of disciplinary rules or principles of culture that exist in an area.

Short curriculum

The curriculum is a learning framework for effective and efficient learning purposes.

Learning Theory in Educational Psychology

There are several educational psychology theories which are the basic concepts of implementing psychology in the world of education.

Theory of Behaviorism

According to the theory of behaviorism, learning is a change in behavior. These changes are the impact of the interaction between stimulus and response. It can be interpreted that learning is a form of behavior change in students from interactions with stimuli. A person is said to have learned if there is a change in his behavior.

Then, in this theory, the concept that takes precedence is the input or stimulus given such as the teacher teaching students how to read. Then the output which is the result or response as a result of the stimulus, such as students being able to read even though they are still stuttering. That’s what learning is. However, if at the output students are still unable to read, then the process is not considered a learning activity because there is no result from the stimulus given.

Operant conditioning Theory

Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by the consequences that can be obtained. The key to operant conditioning is positive and negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment. Positive support is giving something pleasant to a behavior. For example: a teacher who gives praise to his students for having answered correctly. Negative support is discarding something unpleasant as an acceptable gesture. For example: It is very noisy outside, so turning on the TV loudly makes it more comfortable and reduces unpleasant noises.

Then, positive punishment is used to reduce the unpleasant behavior. For example: When there is a child who is naughty in class, he receives a punishment standing in front of the class. Negative punishment is used to reduce unpleasant behavior by taking away something pleasurable. Example: Kevin broke his sister’s doll, so he is not allowed to play outside with his friends (Saul, 2015).

Classical conditioning Theory

Classical conditioning is a theory that involves learning new behaviors through a continuous process. There are three stages in this theory by providing a new stimulus at each stage.

  • Stage 1 – Before Conditioning: at this stage the stimulus from the environment issues a response that has not been studied and there is a response that has never been thought of. Example: Perfume can cause a response happiness.
  • Stage 2 – During Conditioning: Stimulus from the environment does not respond to a known stimulus. Example: perfume may be associated with a person.
  • Stage 3 After Conditioning: the formation of a new response. Example: Someone who was previously associated with fragrant perfume becomes very attractive (Mcleod, 2008).
  • Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory focuses on the changes in mental processes and structures that occur as a result of trying to make sense of our surroundings. Cognitive theory is used for simple learning processes such as remembering telephone numbers and others. Then, cognitive theory has four basic principles: (1) Students are active to gain an understanding of the knowledge given, (2) Development of knowledge depends on what they have learned, (3) learning builds experience (4) learning is a change in one’s mental structure .

Connectionism

Connectionism theory was developed by Edward L. Thorndike (1878-1949) and is known as the stimulus-response theory. According to him, the basis of learning is the association of stimulus and response. The stimulus will give a message to the five senses and then respond with behavior. Such associations are called connections. This principle is called connectionism.

Gestalt theory

Gestalt is a theory that explains the process of perception through the arrangement of components of sensation that have a relationship or pattern to form a whole. It is concluded that, a person tends to see something around him as a unified whole. Gestalt theory explains how visual perception can be formed. For example, when we are looking at a cloud and see a shape that looks like an object.

The Role of Psychology on Education
Educational psychology has become the basis for the formation and development of curriculum, learning and assessment systems in the world of education. His contribution to the development of the world of education can be explained as follows:

1. The role of psychology in the educational curriculum

Psychologically, self-development of students is based on affective, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities. This ability can be seen from the development of attitudes, motivation, behavior, and other components. The learning component is a process from input to output. Then, the use of the curriculum as a framework for input flow towards output or good results requires psychological properties.

The curriculum currently being developed is a competency-based curriculum. Competence aims to develop abilities in skills, knowledge, and reflection in thinking and acting. The habit of thinking and acting with consistent self-reflection enables the formation of superior and competent individuals.

2. The role of psychology in the learning system

Related to psychological theories that have an impact on a person’s behavior, psychology also influences the learning system in the world of education positively. Students become serious about learning when their psychological responses are well guided by the teacher.

And also, the process of understanding the learning of a topic becomes easier by solving the learning problems experienced. Desire or desire to be higher with a psychological approach from the teacher with pleasant interactions and communication.

In addition, educational psychology has also given birth to learning principles as described by Sudirwo, 2002:

Someone who studies must have a goal.
Goals are born out of necessity not compulsion
Must be willing to experience some difficulties.
Learning is evidenced by changes in behavior.
Learning requires insight into what must be learned and understood.
Someone needs guidance.
Exams need to be done but preceded by understanding.

3. The role of psychology in the rating system

Psychology has also given its role in the assessment system. For example, with psychological tests to determine the level of intelligence of students, aptitude tests to find out potential talents in students so that it is easier to provide guidance in helping students develop their potential.

Tests on personality aspects can also help teachers get to know their students better so they can provide a better approach to the learning process. These various psychological tests help provide an assessment of each student to make it easier to bridge the desires, potential, and dreams of students according to their abilities and talents.

Benefits of Studying Educational Psychology
There are several benefits of studying educational psychology according to Muhammad and Wiyani (2013), namely:

1. Understand student differences

Each student has different abilities and potential. As a teacher, it is necessary to understand the differences in the characteristics of each student, the stages of growth and development, and the type of behavior. This understanding can produce

appropriate learning interactions and effective and efficient learning.

Not only that, the teacher’s understanding of these differences makes it possible to provide different learning interactions for each student so that the approach and learning process are more acceptable without discriminating between students personally or favoritism.

2. Creating a conducive learning climate in the classroom

The teacher’s ability to create a conducive learning climate increases the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Knowledge of the basic principles of fun approaches and interactions with students according to each student’s characteristics will provide a conducive learning climate and an effective learning process.

3. Choose the right learning strategy

Studying psychology to get to know the characteristics of each student and get to know the preferred learning methods, will provide the ability to choose appropriate learning strategies in the classroom. Learning strategies that are appropriate, will provide an effective teaching and learning situation.

4. Provide guidance to students

Psychology gives teachers the ability to become a guide for their students with an emotional heart-to-heart approach to gain students’ trust. When students have given their trust to the teacher, the process of helping to solve problems for an effective learning process can be done easily.

5. Interact appropriately with students

The principles of psychology underlie the right way of communicating in learning. Communication with students is expressed by placing oneself according to the stages of student growth and development. So that it can provide a pleasant interaction. Adjustment to the stages of student growth and development creates an understanding of the teacher from the student’s point of view and knows the wishes or preferred learning process as well as the character of each student.

6. Provide evaluation of learning outcomes

As an educator, studying educational psychology will be able to provide a fair assessment of learning outcomes. In addition, it can also adjust to the abilities of each student without distinguishing one from another. Evaluation of learning outcomes can be in the form of intelligence test scores, attitude values, and active participation in school activities. These three things determine the quality of improving student behavior for the better.

7. Motivate learning

Provision of educational psychology for teachers so that teachers are able to provide support, encouragement or motivation for their students in a higher learning enthusiasm. Educational psychology teaches about understanding each student’s characteristics and providing motivation according to these characters so that they can more effectively influence student learning enthusiasm. Providing positive support to students results in increased enthusiasm for learning.

8. Set learning goals

Educational psychology helps students to determine learning objectives regarding what kind of behavior changes are desired as learning outcomes. Learning objectives are set for each material that will be given. Therefore, learning objectives are used as a benchmark for the suitability of learning outcomes whether they are considered successful or not.

9. Use of appropriate learning media

Knowledge of educational psychology is also useful for determining the right learning media for students, for example audio, visual, motor media, and so on as fun learning activities. Learning media is also adapted to the learning material to be delivered. Students are sometimes more interested in learning processes that use audiovisual components in the process of understanding material and are more efficient in developing students’ imaginations.

10. Preparation of appropriate lesson schedules

The preparation of the lesson schedule is also adjusted to the conditions of the students, such as lessons that require more complicated thinking such as mathematics which would be better if placed during the first study hour, when students’ minds are still fresh and their concentration is still maximum. If a subject like math is placed at the end of the class, it will not be as effective. Students are tired, their comprehension decreases, concentration decreases, and learning becomes ineffective.

Educational psychology provides impacts and benefits from various aspects of learning. Educational psychology helps teachers to understand students more deeply based on their characteristics, stages of development, behavior and behavior, emotionally to provide an appropriate and appropriate teaching and learning process so as to produce an effective and efficient learning process. A good learning process will have an impact on satisfying results. Students who get a good learning process will apply good habits after they enter the family and m

society and impact positive behavior in every life.

Hopefully, this article on educational psychology can help teachers to better understand the character of their students and adjust the learning process accordingly so that they are able to produce generations that are superior both in intelligence and attitudes and behavior which will later be brought into social life so that they can provide a positive and useful role.

Read educational articles: https://www.jyoungblood.com/

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

Did you know that there are over 7 million people over the age of 25 who are enrolled in academic courses? If you’re thinking of going back to school, know that it is never too late to start!

You might be wondering which career path you should choose as heading back to school can be a big life change it should be worth your time. There are so many career paths to choose from but you should make sure that you pick something you will enjoy.

Do you envision yourself in a specific role or job a few years down the line? We’re here to help you pick a career path for you!

Keep reading for our guide on how to determine which career path you should choose when going back to school.

Think of What You Enjoy Doing

When determining your career path, you should first think about your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing. Turning your hobby into a career is a lifelong dream for many people.

If going back to school can help you achieve that dream, then go for it!

One way to do this is by writing down all of your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing outside of work. Do you enjoy cooking, writing, talking with people, playing sports, or gardening?

Writing down all of your hobbies and then linking them to real-life jobs is a good way to get started in figuring out what your career path could be.

For someone who enjoys talking to people or solving problems, then you may consider the career path of an addiction counselor. This might not have been something that you realized until you wrote down everything that you enjoyed doing.

Imagine You’re a Kid Again

Do you remember being a young kid and being asked what you want to be when you grow up? Chances are you may not have done the job you said you were gonna do when you were a child. If you do still have that same dream, then go for it!

On the other hand, if you have the opportunity to go back to school, then the world is your oyster. Imagine being a kid again and think of all the possibilities that you once had.

Going back to school means that you get the chance to pick any career path that your heart desires.

As a child, you may have dreamed of being a dentist and you totally have that opportunity to do that now. You can go back to school to become a dental assistant!

When choosing your career path you can truly dream as if you were a child again and follow your heart.

Try Taking a Test

If you’re not keen on following your heart, then you can try taking a career test. There are numerous online career aptitude tests that can match you with the perfect career that will fit your career needs.

Taking one of these tests will make you answer tons of questions regarding your skillset and personality to match you with the best career.

Don’t worry, the greatest career tests that you can find online are free so you won’t have to pay any money for this insight. Of course, taking a test shouldn’t determine your future.

Use the answers you receive from a career aptitude test lightly. Make sure you research and choose a career path that you feel will be suited for you.

If anything, taking a career test can help to give you a bit of a start on choosing the right career for you.

List Your Strengths and Weaknesses

One common job interview question that is normally asked in interview questions is what are your strengths and weaknesses. This is a great question to ask yourself when it comes to figuring out what your career path could be.

Get out a pen and paper and write down your five strengths and five weaknesses.

Think about what types of careers would require people who would possess your strengths and weaknesses. For example, if one of your weaknesses is public speaking, then you may want to avoid careers that would require you to speak in front of large crowds.

On the other hand, you can also work to improve the weaknesses that you’ve listed. If you know that you’re not good at public speaking, then you might want to take a communications class so that you can get better at it.

Talk With a Career Counselor

Talking with a career counselor can help to give you a guideline for what you want your career path to be. If you feel like you’re being pulled in a few different directions by a bunch of different careers, then they can help to weigh the pros and cons with you.

A career counselor is someone that you can talk with and they can understand the frustrations of going back to school and even changing careers.

You might even find that talking to a career counselor has opened your eyes to careers you never even knew existed. Having another person assist you in finding the perfect career could be something that you didn’t even know you needed.

Here at ICC, our Career Services Coordinator will work with you on gaining employment in your career path. We can help with your resume, conduct mock interviews, help you network, and even find job leads.

Ask If You Can Job Shadow Someone

Once you find a career that you believe you will enjoy then job shadowing someone is the best way to see if you will truly like it. It takes researching a job one step further by actually getting hands-on and doing it for a day.

One of the easiest ways to job shadow someone is by asking someone you know who is in that career field. Unfortunately, if you don’t know anyone in the career that you’re interested in, then this can be rather difficult.

The best way to go about landing a job shadow is by researching companies that you’re interested in. You should know what to ask and who to ask.

There is a chance that you might get shot down the first time that you ask about job shadowing. Companies can be busy or they might not be accepting job shadowing positions.

If that’s the case, then don’t give up. Move on and look for another company to ask about job shadowing!

The best thing about reaching out and doing a job shadow for a day is that it will look really good when you go to apply for a job later on. During interviews, you can actually mention that you job shadowed someone when deciding on a career.

Volunteer

On the other hand, if you’re unable to job shadow someone you can always volunteer within that career field. Volunteering is an awesome thing to do especially if your career field needs volunteers!

The medical field is always looking for volunteers to do a number of different jobs and tasks. If you’re looking to get into a certain position, then check to see if they have any volunteer opportunities near you.

Volunteering can expose you to the field and position without committing to an internship or job shadow position. It is also a great way to see what’s going on on the inside in a more easygoing and laid back environment.

As a volunteer, you can even talk with the people who work in that career. Make sure to spend your time as a volunteer wisely. Obviously, you won’t be able to interview the workers but asking them a few questions about their job and why they like it won’t hurt.

Take the Leap

Going back to school and picking a new career can be scary! It is definitely not an easy thing to do but you’ll be proud of yourself for taking the leap and going for it.

Finding the right career path for you might take some time. Don’t be afraid to make phone calls, send emails, or ask businesses if you can follow someone around for the day or get some questions answered.

Getting as much information as possible will help to make your decision easier and your transition smoother.

Overall, don’t be afraid to take the leap! Jump right into going back to school and preparing for your new career. If you’ve chosen the right career path, then it is going to be something that you will love doing.

Going Back to School and Choosing Your Career Path

Going back to school can completely turn your life upside down but for the better. You should take the time to choose a career path that you will enjoy and one you can see yourself doing for a long time.

Make sure that you take the time to research and look into each career path that you’re interested in before making your final decision.

Classes are starting soon and if you’re looking to apply you can do so directly online!

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

Many people reflect on their interests in skills in order to choose the right career path. Deciding on a career path allows you to attain the right education and experiences and develop necessary skills to succeed in your chosen field. It’s important to reflect on your interests and career goals as you make certain life choices, such as which school to attend, which entry-level job is right for you or whether to obtain a postgraduate degree or specialized certification.

In this article, we define what a career path is, provide a nine-step guide detailing how to choose a career path depending on personal characteristics and offer some examples of career paths you can pursue within different industries.

What is a Career Path?

A career path is a plan detailing the positions you aim to hold as you advance in your field. Your first job or college degree, for example, can mark the beginning of your career path. As you gain additional knowledge and skills, you may progress, or move vertically, into more advanced roles. Some employees also move laterally into equal but different job roles as they specialize or change career paths.

How to choose a career path

Here are some steps you can follow as you develop your career path:

1. Outline your career goals

Before selecting a career, self-reflect by asking and answering guided questions. Active reflection helps narrow your choices into something more specific.

Consider asking yourself:

  • What do I want from my career?
  • What are my core values?
  • What activities do I most enjoy, professionally or in my free time?
  • What are my interests?
  • What are my strengths and aptitudes?

Do I want to specialize in certain technical skills or seek management roles?

Once you answer questions like these and any others that are important to you, you can better research potential career paths. It’s also important to revisit your career goals as you grow personally and professionally to ensure your goals remain achievable and aligned with your interests.

Related: Setting Goals To Improve Your Career

2. Create a five- and 10-year plan

Once you’ve narrowed down your options, consider establishing milestones for your career. Research where other people in your field are at five or 10 years into their career, and make a note of the job titles they have. Decide what title or advancements you want to have at these future points. Then, research what you can do to reach those goals. You may undergo training programs, seek specific responsibilities or pursue prerequisite positions.

By establishing career goals, you can plan based on what progress you expect every year. Schedule time regularly to reflect on your career and goals.

Related: 7 Tools To Plan Your Career the Right Way Here!

3. Discover your personality type

A personality type is a set of personality traits

that you can organize into groups. There are multiple methods for discovering your personality type, many of which focus on your responses to different situations. Different personality types may naturally possess different interests and develop different strengths, including careers.

Different tests list common career choices for each personality type. If you take a variety of tests and one or two careers appear across multiple tests, that specific career is likely worth researching. Some popular tools you can use to identify your personality type include:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: This questionnaire is a self-reporting inventory that includes introspective questions to identify your psychological preferences. Using this information, the type indicator system classifies people based on four key dichotomies, allowing you to identify your personality type out of 16 options.

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter: While this self-assessment questionnaire is like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, it more closely identifies roles that match each temperament type. The questionnaire focuses on behaviors and temperaments rather than preferences.

The Jungian Type Index: The Jung Typology Test

is a self-assessment that can summarize your personality type and recommended careers by identifying Jungian cognitive functions or explanations behind certain psychological preferences.

Related: Myers-Briggs Indicator: 16 Personality Types in the Workplace

4. Review your previous experience

Your job satisfaction in previous roles can also help guide your career choices. Identify trends in your previous positions, such as focusing on a specific technical skill. Also, review your job history to identify positions you found fulfilling.

Related: How To Get Hands-On Experience

5. Compare job requirements to your education

Many jobs have specific education requirements for candidates and new hires, such as obtaining a high school diploma, completing a bachelor’s degree program or having a master’s degree. Some positions also require candidates to have degrees in a specific field related to the position. Review the education requirements for jobs you’re interested in and apply for jobs that accept your current level of education.

Related: What Are Job Requirements?

6. Assess your current skill set

Make a list of your current skills, certifications and areas of expertise. You can also ask coworkers and colleagues for feedback about your technical, interpersonal and people management skills. This evaluation can help you find careers that match your experience.

Related: Top 10 Skills To Put on Your Resume (With Examples)

7. Note your interests

Depending on your personality, you may have interests that are particularly tailored for different careers. Examine your hobbies, past volunteer experiences and interests to identify activities you enjoy. While this information is outside of a professional context, creating a list of activities can help you narrow down your career path. For example, you may enjoy a career in cybersecurity if you enjoy logic puzzles, or you may enjoy a traveling sales role if you like meeting new people.

Use this knowledge to apply for short-term positions or volunteer opportunities to explore new career options. This firsthand experience allows you to test your suitability for a career. If you’re currently in school or have a job, consider taking a course or certification program that’s helpful for a field that interests you. This experience can help you determine if the career’s skills and content are something you enjoy.

8. Identify your core values

Identifying your core values can help you focus on a career you find fulfilling. It can also help you find fields or niche areas you enjoy. Consider making a list of qualities you think are important in a company or its employees. You can use this list to search for companies and job descriptions that share these values.

Related: Core Values in the Workplace: 84 Powerful Examples

9. Consider your salary needs

Different career paths can have a wide variety of incomes. This data can be a good start for determining how much money you might earn at first, as well as your earning potential after you’ve gained a certain amount of time and experience. While salary certainly doesn’t guarantee an engaging, satisfying job, it’s an important factor to consider when mapping your career path.

Example Career Paths

Here are a few examples of career paths in various industries:

  • Education: Teacher → curriculum coordinator → assistant principal → principal
  • Retail: Sales associate → cashier → assistant manager → store manager → regional manager
  • Restaurant: Dishwasher → prep cook → line cook → sous chef → chef de cuisine → executive chef
  • Editorial: Intern → editorial assistant → assistant editor → editor → senior editor → executive editor → editor in chief
  • Human resources (HR): HR assistant → HR specialist → assistant director of HR → director of HR
  • Marketing: Public relations assistant → public relations representative → assistant director of PR → director of communications
How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

Are you dreaming of becoming a pilot? The thrill of exploring the world from above is something that many people aspire to experience. But becoming a pilot isn’t just about having a dream — it’s about putting in the time, money, and effort to make that dream a reality.

Whether you’re interested in becoming a professional pilot for your career or are just looking to fly for fun, you might be wondering where exactly to start. So, we’re answering the most common questions we hear from aspiring pilots and taking you through the basic steps of what it takes to start on your journey to the skies.

How Long Does It Take To Become a Pilot?

The amount of time it takes to become a pilot depends on a number of factors, including the type of pilot’s license you are seeking, the country in which you are training and your dedication and willingness to learn the necessary skills and material. But to determine how long it’ll take you, you’ll need to account for training both in the skies and on the ground.

In general, it takes a minimum of 40-60 hours of flight time to obtain a private pilot’s license, which allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To become a commercial pilot, which will enable you to fly for hire, you’ll need a minimum of 250 hours of flight time and more advanced training.

In addition to training in the air, you’ll also need to complete a certain number of ground school classes. These classes cover crucial topics you’ll need to be familiar with as a pilot, including aviation regulations, aircraft systems, navigation, and meteorology. These classes can be completed online, in a classroom or through a hybrid program.

Overall, the process of becoming a pilot can take several months to several years, depending on your circumstances and the type of pilot’s certificate you desire. Some flight schools offer accelerated programs that allow students to finish training faster than average. However, these programs typically require full-time availability, so they may not be the best fit if you plan to complete training while attending high school or college or working a full-time job.

Bottom line? Becoming a pilot requires significant time, effort and commitment. If you’re passionate about this career path, it’s important to be patient and stay focused on your goals, regardless of how long it takes you.

To become a pilot, you must complete a certain amount of flight training and pass a series of knowledge exams. You’ll also need to pass an oral exam and practical test, during which you will demonstrate your aeronautical knowledge and flying skills to an examiner.

In addition to the technical skills and knowledge required to become a pilot, you will also need good physical coordination and mental focus, as well as the ability to handle stress and make quick decisions. Pilots are responsible for the safety of their passengers and crew, so they must be able to perform their duties effectively and efficiently.

Overall, becoming a pilot is a challenging but rewarding process. Even though flight training requires a lot of hard work and dedication at times, students have access to a wide range of resources to help them accomplish their flight training. Student pilots fly with a Certified Flight Instructor who is trained to provide one-on-one assistance and help students succeed. When your flight training is complete, the sense of accomplishment and the opportunity to pursue a fulfilling career make it well worth the effort.

Take our quiz to see if you have what it takes to be a pilot!

What Is the Best Age To Become a Pilot?

No particular age is considered the “best” age to become a pilot. In the U.S., you can earn a student pilot certificate beginning at age 16, a private pilot certificate at age 17, and commercial pilot at age 18 — but these are minimums, not maximums! Many people learn to fly much later in life, even into their 70s and 80s. As long as you can hold an FAA medical certificate, you can hold a pilot certificate. If flying has been a lifelong dream, there’s no reason to let age hold you back!

What Qualifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

  • To become a pilot, you will need to meet specific qualifications, which vary depending on the type of pilot’s license you are seeking and the country in which you are training. In general, you’ll need to:
  • Meet the minimum age requirement: This varies from country to country and based on the type of aircraft you wish to operate. Research your local aviation laws and regulations ahead of time.
  • Meet the minimum education requirement: The specific educational requirements prospective students need to meet depend on the school you choose to train at. Some pilot training programs require applicants to have at least a high school diploma or equivalent, while others allow students to begin training while still in high school. Certain universities also offer aviation programs that allow students to earn their pilot’s license alongside a four-year degree. For more information on the requirements for flight schools near you, check out our list of Piper Flight School Alliance partners.
  • Pass a medical examination: Pilots must pass a medical examination to ensure they are physically and mentally fit to fly. In the U.S., pilots must be examined and approved by an FAA-designated Aviation Medical Examiner (AME) to obtain a Medical Certificate. This examination includes a physical exam, vision and hearing tests, and a review of your medical history. The FAA suggests getting your Medical Certificate before beginning flight training. Your certification class should be based on your career goals. Private pilots and students only need a third-class certificate. Commercial pilots need a second-class certificate, while airline transport pilots need a first-class certificate.
  • Meet language proficiency requirements: Pilots must be able to speak and understand English, as it is the international language of aviation. Some countries may have additional language proficiency requirements for pilots.

What Certifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

In order to become a pilot, you’ll need to obtain a pilot certificate and complete the required training. The specific type of pilot certificate you will need depends on the flying you want to do and the type of aircraft you wish to fly.

In the United States, the FAA issues several types of pilot certificates and ratings, including:

  • Private pilot certificate: Allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To obtain a private pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 40 hours of flight time and pass written, oral and practical exams.
  • Instrument rating: An instrument rating demonstrates that you can fly solely by referring to your aircraft’s instruments. It is arguably one of the most valuable ratings you can add to your pilot certificate and is a fun and challenging discipline of flight training. An Instrument Rating gives you the opportunity to fly in more varied meteorological conditions. You will need to complete at least 15 hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in the aircraft category for the instrument rating you’re seeking, along with a minimum of 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time.
  • Commercial pilot certificate: Allows you to fly for hire. To obtain a commercial pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 250 hours of flight time in addition to written, oral and practical exams.

Depending on the direction you would like to point your career, there are other certificates and ratings you can pursue once you become a commercial pilot. Typically, to pursue a career in aviation, you will have to meet the hiring hour minimums for your desired company. These will vary depending on what field of the industry you choose. There are many ways to build this flight time, but one of the most common methods is to become a Certified Flight Instructor. As an instructor, you’ll use the skills and knowledge you’ve built up over the course of your flight training to help future pilots build the competence they’ll need to be safe and successful aviators.

If instructing isn’t for you, there are other job opportunities where you can use your commercial certificate to build time and gain valuable experience, such as aerial survey, agricultural flying, towing banners, working as a ferry pilot, and more. Once you build the flight time required, you’ll be ready to take your aviation career to the next level.

In addition to these certificates, pilots may need to obtain additional ratings or endorsements to fly certain types of aircraft or to fly in certain conditions. For example, a pilot may need a multi-engine rating to fly a multi-engine aircraft. It’s important to carefully research the specific requirements for the flying you want to do and to work with a Certified Flight Instructor to ensure that you’re adequately trained and prepared.

Is It Expensive To Become a Pilot?

With all that flight time, training, and certification, becoming a pilot can be expensive. The specific cost of your pilot training depends on a number of factors, including the type of license you are seeking, the location and duration of your training, and the type of aircraft you are using for your training.

Generally, the cost of pilot training can range from several thousand dollars for a private pilot’s license to tens of thousands of dollars for training through more advanced certificates and ratings. These costs include flight time, ground school classes, exam fees, and other training expenses.

It is important to carefully research the cost of pilot training before you begin and prepare for the financial investment involved. Some people may be able to offset the cost of training through scholarships or grants, while others may want to save up and pay for training out of pocket. Many students in training are aided by loans or other financing options, so regardless of your financial situation, take time to explore your options!

How To Pick a Flight School

Choosing a flight school can be a challenging process, but it’s an important decision that can greatly impact your future as a pilot. It may be a good idea to tour the flight school so you can physically see the aircraft and interact with the instructors at the school to ensure it will be a good match for you. Additionally, many flight schools offer what’s called a Discovery Flight, where you have the chance to fly with a Certified Flight Instructor and try flying in a small flight training aircraft for the very first time. A Discovery Flight is a wonderful tool to help determine if becoming a pilot is the right choice for you.

Another parameter to consider when choosing a flight school is the school’s location. Aside from the convenience of finding a flight school near you, you may also want to consider the local weather conditions, as they may impact your training. Schools in areas with a lower cost of living may also be more affordable overall. You can also speak with current students and instructors to see how their training experience has been at that particular location.

It’s also smart to examine the types of aircraft the school uses for training and whether they are well-maintained. Aircraft availability and reliability are two important parameters to consider at your prospective flight school. If you’re looking for a school with Piper aircraft as part of its fleet, our Flight School map lists high-quality flight schools all over the world. Piper aircraft are consistently rated as some of the best to learn to fly in, having been used to train student pilots for decades.

If you’re ready to start your journey to becoming a pilot, find a flight school near you today!
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COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

Dozens of studies have come out over the past months concluding that the pandemic had a negative—and uneven—effect on student learning click here.

National analyses have shown that students who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, and that Black and Latino students experienced greater declines in test scores than their peers.

But taken together, what implications do they have for school and district leaders looking for a path forward?

Here are four questions and answers, based on what we’ve learned from the most salient studies, that dig into the evidence.

Did students who stayed in remote learning longer fare worse than those who learned in person?

Generally, yes—but not in every single instance.

School buildings shut down in spring 2020. By fall 2021, most students were back learning in person. But schools took a variety of different approaches in the middle, during the 2020-21 school year.

Several studies have attempted to examine the effects of the choices that districts made during that time period. And they found that students who were mostly in-person fared better than students who were mostly remote.

An analysis of 2021 spring state test data across 12 states found that districts that offered more access to in-person options saw smaller declines in math and reading scores than districts that offered less access. In reading, the effect was much larger in districts with a higher share of Black and Hispanic students.

Assessment experts, as well as the researchers, have urged caution about these results, noting that it’s hard to draw conclusions from results on spring 2021 state tests, given low rates of participation and other factors that affected how the tests were administered.

But it wasn’t just state test scores that were affected. Interim test scores—the more-frequent assessments that schools give throughout the year—saw declines too.

Another study examined scores on the Measures of Academic Progress assessment, or MAP, an interim test developed by NWEA, a nonprofit assessment provider. Researchers at NWEA, the American Institutes for Research, and Harvard examined data from 2.1 million students during the 2020-21 school year.

Students in districts that were remote during this period had lower achievement growth than students in districts that offered in-person learning. The effects were most substantial for high-poverty schools in remote learning districts.

Still, other research introduces some caveats.

The Education Recovery Scorecard, a collaboration between researchers at Stanford and Harvard, analyzed states’ scores on the 2022 National Assessment of Educational Progress. They compared these scores to the average amount of time that a district in the state spent in remote learning.

For the most part, this analysis confirmed the findings of previous research: In states where districts were remote longer, student achievement was worse.But there were also some outliers, like California. There, students saw smaller declines in math than average, even though the state had the highest closure rates on average. The researchers also noted that even among districts that spent the same amount of time in 2020-21 in remote learning, there were differences in achievement declines.

Are there other factors that could have contributed to these declines?

It’s probable. Remote learning didn’t take place in a vacuum, as educators and experts have repeatedly pointed out. But there’s not a lot of empirical evidence on this question just yet.

Children switched to virtual instruction as the pandemic unfolded around them—parents lost jobs, family members fell sick and died. In many cases, the school districts that chose remote learning served communities that also suffered some of the highest mortality rates from COVID.

The NWEA, AIR, and Harvard researchers—the group that looked at interim test data—note this. “It is possible that the relationships we have observed are not entirely causal, that family stress in the districts that remained remote both caused the decline in achievement and drove school officials to keep school buildings closed,” they wrote.

The Education Recovery Scorecard team plans to investigate the effects of other factors in future research, “such as COVID death rates, broadband connectivity, the predominant industries of employment and occupations for parents in the school district.”

Most of this data is from the 2020-21 school year. What’s happening now? Are students making progress?

They are—but it’s unevenly distributed.

NWEA, the interim assessment provider, recently analyzed test data from spring 2022. They found that student academic progress during the 2021-22 school did start to rebound.

But even though students at both ends of the distribution are making academic progress, lower-scoring students are making gains at a slower rate than higher-scoring students.

“It’s kind of a double whammy. Lower-achieving students were harder hit in that initial phase of the pandemic, and they’re not achieving as steadily,” Karyn Lewis, the lead author of the brief, said earlier in November.

What should schools do in response? How can they know where to focus their efforts?

That depends on what your own data show—though it’s a good bet that focusing on math, especially for kids who were already struggling, is a good place to start.

Test results across the board, from the NAEP to interim assessment data, show that declines have been larger in math than in reading. And kids who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, widening gaps with higher-achieving students.

But these sweeping analyses don’t tell individual teachers, or even districts, what their specific students need. That may look different from school to school.

“One of the things we found is that even within a district, there is variability,” Sean Reardon, a professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University and a researcher on the Education Recovery Scorecard, said in a statement.

“School districts are the first line of action to help children catch up. The better they know about the patterns of learning loss, the more they’re going to be able to target their resources effectively to reduce educational inequality of opportunity and help children and communities thrive,” he said.

Experts have emphasized two main suggestions in interviews with Education Week.

  • Figure out where students are. Teachers and school leaders can examine interim test data from classrooms or, for a more real-time analysis, samples of student work. These classroom-level data are more useful for targeting instruction than top-line state test results or NAEP scores, experts say.
  • Districts should make sure that the students who have been disproportionately affected by pandemic disruptions are prioritized for support.

“The implication for district leaders isn’t just, ‘am I offering the right kinds of opportunities [for academic recovery]?’” Lewis said earlier this month. “But also, ‘am I offering them to the students who have been harmed most?’”

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Nelson Mandela was right when he stated, “Education is the most powerful weapon you can utilize to transform the world.” Yes, the solution to any issue lies in education. Education is essential if you want to progress and succeed.

You can use education to increase both the economical and sociological quality of life in today’s society. Education is power, without any doubt. It has the capacity to transform your entire life. It is a gesture where you accept knowledge and then give methodical directions in return, ranging from promoting gender equality to eliminating poverty. Read More!

Importance of Education

You can understand the importance of education by reading the following points that I am going to discuss.

1. Helps Us Become Better Citizens

The truth is that despite being the most sophisticated and advanced species on Earth, humans are merely creatures with the capacity for rational thought and behaviour. However, a person cannot develop that rationalism within themselves without education. So, education helps us think rationally, take the right decisions, and aid in becoming better and more responsible citizens.

2. Enhances the Nation’s Progress

People who are educated are the foundation of any nation. If you are educated, you can distinguish between right and wrong. You are reasonably knowledgeable about the resources that are available as well as the best ways to use them. So, you will work for the betterment of your country and ultimately your country.

3. Ensures a Promising Future

The key to leading a contented and prosperous life is education. It assists us in identifying our hidden abilities and talents, which we can use to advance our careers, find work, and ensure our promising future. So, with education, you can have a successful profession and achieve your professional and personal goals.

How Does Education Influence the Society?

Learning is a lifelong process that never ends. New ideas arise with learning, and before you know it, you are questioning the previous concepts and beliefs. Your environment and personality have changed, which makes it easier for you to communicate with one another and feel free to share your thoughts. So, education aids in shaping one’s perspective on life and their ideas of it.

Although there are people from all different backgrounds and ideologies living in Pakistan and we have a very diverse population. So, the one thing that unites us all and compels us to support educational reform is education.

A person with education not only improves his or her own life but also the lives of those around him. They can provide each other with advice and a variety of suggestions related to political involvement, social justice, or ecological sustainability. As a result, education is a tool that can aid in making the right choices and bringing about change in the world.

What are The Ways Education Bring Change in Society?

Let me tell you how education brings about change in our society.

1. Provides Knowledge

As social creatures, we must be mindful of our surroundings, our community, and other societies. That is because we understand what is incorrect and how we can improve it. Knowledge of the world around us and the modifications that can be made to improve it is the first thing you receive through education. While education is not the only source of world information, it does offer a means of turning that information into knowledge.

2. Solve Problems

Whether there is a problem with the economy, society, medicine, or politics, knowledgeable and educated people who have a thorough understanding of the situation are always called upon to provide a solution

So, with education, you will learn to:

  • Differentiate between reliable and unreliable information.
  • Identify trustworthy sources of knowledge.
  • Perform research.
  • Recognize partiality.
  • Draw conclusions and judgments.
  • Encourage inquiry

3. Fighting social evils

Every society struggles to overcome some of the other flaws and social evils. We are attempting to combat societal issues like:

  • Casteism
  • Gender inequality
  • Poverty

, etc.

These societal problems will continue to exist and spread as long as some educated individual does not realize how they are consuming and damaging our economy.

4. Encourages to Speak Up

We need people who have the bravery to speak up against all that is going on in the world. Knowledge and education in your area of expertise are also necessary for having the guts to express your opinions and persuade others to listen. Education is the tool that provides you with the confidence to speak your mind without worrying about whom you are speaking to or what others may think of you.

5. Society’s Growth

Education is more than just acquiring a job and earning a living; it also involves the many bright entrepreneurs who develop a reputation for themselves and contribute to the advancement of society and the country as a whole. Your education gives you the self-assurance to take the first step toward realizing your greatest goals and dreaming of a future in which you would own your organization.

Education is the Key to Society’s Success

Education serves as the most powerful weapon. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen have the power to change the world. The only remedy is education. first, put education.

Therefore, after reviewing all of the aforementioned examples of how education can be used as a weapon, we can all conclude that education is a great equalizer that helps raise living standards, benefits communities, and even protects people from abuse and unrealistic expectations. Improving educational access and quality leads to greater outcomes at all levels.

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

Biology is fascinating, but not all of us have access to state-of-the-art laboratory equipment to do biology experiments. However, it is possible to do some simple experiments at home with the right materials. These DIY biology experiments are suitable for all ages and levels of knowledge. The main goal is to have fun with science and get curious.

To be on the safe side, the list doesn’t include genetic engineering experiments; in many countries, you are not allowed to perform them in uncertified facilities. If you are very keen, though, some people have been able to get their homes certified to create genetically modified microbes.

1. Extract your own DNA

It is very easy to extract DNA at home just using everyday kitchen supplies. You can extract your own DNA from your saliva, or you can use any fruit or vegetable you can find at home — bananas and strawberries are some of the most popular at science fairs.

Follow the steps here to extract the DNA. At the end of the process, you should have obtained a white, cloudy substance that you can pick up with a toothpick. You can then observe it under a microscope, or try out some methylene blue, a dye commonly used in biology labs that binds to DNA and makes it turn blue — note that it should be used with caution outside a lab. If you dry the DNA and store it in a paper bag or envelope, you will be able to use it in future experiments.

It is also possible to analyze the extracted DNA at home, although this step can be more pricey. Equipment for electrophoresis, a technique to separate DNA molecules according to their size, can be bought from around €300. It can also be built at home with some dedication. If you want to take it a step further, you can get a pocket-sized DNA sequencer for around €1,000 — scientists often use this portable sequencing equipment when going to remote locations without access to a lab.

2. Culture bacteria on homemade agar

Bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms are all around us. You can easily prepare culture medium at home and then collect samples from different places to find out what lives there.

In this video, you can find a step-by-step tutorial on how to make agar plates in your kitchen. Once you get some microbes to grow on the plates, you can experiment with how different conditions affect their growth or test the effect of antibiotics on the different microorganisms. (And if you have a DNA sequencer, you can use it to find which species are growing on your petri dish.)

For the creative souls out there, you can also make petri dish art by taking advantage of the different colors and textures of the different microbes you can find. Every year, the American Society for Microbiology runs a worldwide contest of agar art where you can submit your best creations.

3. Ferment your own food

Fermentation is one of the things bacteria and yeast make best. We’ve been using these microorganisms to make food since ancient times, and it’s quite easy to ferment your own food at home.

There are many options to choose from, ranging from drinks such as kombucha, kefir, or mead, to yogurt, cheese, kimchi, and sauerkraut. In most cases, what you need is just a starter culture of the bacteria or fungi that make the food you will be fermenting. You can get it from someone that is already doing fermentation at home, or buy them online.

Each fermented food has different requirements, so make sure you have everything you need before starting. There are plenty of online tutorials you can follow, and once you get comfortable with the techniques, you can start playing with different conditions and starter ingredients to modify the taste and texture of your food.

4. Look at cell division under the microscope

Nowadays you can easily find cheap digital microscopes with high magnification power that can be connected directly to your laptop or smartphone. You can take the digital microscope with you and observe every little thing you find at home or outdoors. (Tip: you’ll find many interesting forms of life in ponds or any other source of untreated water.)

A great experiment to do at home with a microscope is to look at how cells divide in different organisms. One of the easiest is baker’s yeast. With a magnification of at least 400x, you can start discerning the shapes of individual yeast cells in water. You will notice that some of them have little buds on them, which is the way they grow and divide.

The cells located at the tips of onion roots are also a very good subject of study. Whether you prepare and stain them yourself or you buy premade microscope slides, these cells are great to observe the different stages of mitosis and how the DNA gets duplicated and rearranged as the cells divide.

5. Make a bioluminescent lamp

Some microorganisms are able to generate light by themselves. When enough of them gather, they can make whole beaches glow at night. Luckily, we live in the age of the internet and it is possible to order these microbes online and get them delivered directly home. (For example, from shops like Carolina or Sea Farms.)

Bioluminescent organisms can last for several months under the right conditions, which includes making sure they receive enough light during the day to recharge their ability to glow. At night, they will start producing light when you shake them up.

You can experiment with growing these organisms in different conditions and play with their ability to make light. Another cool idea is introducing them into a closed fountain, where they will be constantly shaken and glowing (at least until they run out of energy).

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These biology experiments will get you started with the world of DIY biology. If you are keen to dive deeper into doing biology outside the lab, the DIY biology community is growing rapidly around the globe. You can find labs and other biology enthusiasts in many cities across Europe and the US, where you will be able to attend workshops, access more advanced equipment, and meet people from all backgrounds keen to help you with your wildest biology projects. Have fun! Check more at www.jyoungblood.com