Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

Get to know the Department of Communication Studies

Until now, the Communication Sciences major is still one of the study programs that is most in demand by prospective new students. This is because communication is a field that is very close to everyday life, so it is always developing and always needed.

At the 2022 SBMPTN registration yesterday, Communication Studies was also one of the majors with the most applicants at several PTNs. One of them is at UPN Veteran Jakarta, with 4,291 enthusiasts and a capacity of 160 seats. Wow, that’s really tight.

What do you study in the Communications Major?

The Department of Communication Studies is a study program that studies the process of conveying messages effectively so that they can be received and understood by audiences. In addition, the Communication Studies major studies communication at various levels, such as between individuals, groups, media, culture, and so on.

Communication Science is the parent of several derivative sciences, such as Advertising, Broadcasting, Journalism, Media Studies, Public Relations and so on. Therefore, when you enter the Communication Sciences major, you will be directed to take specializations. However, each campus has different specializations. So, you don’t need to be confused.

Communication Department course

In the first year lectures, Communication Science students meet with several general subjects, such as Introduction to Communication Studies, Introduction to Political Science, Introduction to Anthropology, Communication Philosophy and the like. Because it belongs to the Soshum family, the subjects studied are still related to other social sciences.

Just now, in semesters 3 and 4, you will learn various kinds of communication skills at various levels. How to communicate with individuals, groups, or while doing business. There is also mass communication that studies methods of packaging messages on television, radio and online media. So, if you look at the table below, there is a Communication Psychology course. Here, you will be trained to be a good communicator so that messages can be received clearly and not offend the other person.

Going up to semesters 5 and 6, you are allowed to take specialization courses. For example, you choose Journalism as a specialization, then the courses you will get are those related to Journalism. For example, Fundamentals of Journalism, Law and Journalistic Ethics, Journalistic Language, or Interview Techniques.

Then, in semester 7, there is something called Internship. Communication students can do internships in various places, such as TV stations, radio, production houses, ministries, public relations consultants, advertising agencies, and others. If you are already an apprentice, are you ready to write a thesis in semester 8? Well, there are 2 degrees for Communication students, namely S.Ikom or S.Sos if they are under the auspices of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

Skills that Communication Studies Students Must Have

In Communication Studies, one of the basic soft skills that you must have is public speaking skills. Public speaking itself means the ability to convey a good message to the audience.

Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

“Oh, it’s just a matter of talking, does that mean?”

Eits, make no mistake! Public speaking also has to be trained and there are many techniques, you know. One of them is body gesture or body language. You also have to be confident, be able to speak with clear articulation, and master the material before speaking in public

Apart from soft skills, in Communication Studies your hard skills will also be honed. You will learn how to write well, learn videography techniques, photography, strategies for composing social media content, marketing, and much more. So, the knowledge of communication is not only useful in the world of work, but also in business or everyday life.

Where Can Communication Majors Work?

“What kind of work will a communication science student do next?”

Don’t worry, the job prospects of Communication Science graduates are diverse and promising, you know. You can become a Public Relations Officer or Public Relations staff. The role of PR or Public Relations is to bridge the company with other parties, to achieve its goals.

Apart from public relations, Communication Science graduates can also work as reporters. Reporters are tasked with reporting news in the field, in the form of written media online and print media.

In addition, Communication students can work as bloggers, radio broadcasters, photographers, lecturers, event organizers (EOs), editors, MCs, copywriters, and many others. The initial salary for a graduate of Communication Studies also varies, ranging from 5 million – 7 million rupiah for a fresh graduate.

Tuition and Campus Fees with a Major in Communication
We can easily find the Department of Communication at various universities in Indonesia. You need to know, the Communications major can be under the auspices of the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) or the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

For example, at the University of Indonesia, the Communications major is still affiliated with FISIP. That is why, the degree obtained after graduation is S.Sos. Meanwhile at the University

Padjadjaran, the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) has been established, so you will get a S.Ikom degree.

Regarding the duration of study, the Communications major can be taken for 3 years through a vocational study program, or 4 years through an undergraduate and Applied Bachelor (D4) study program. For tuition fees, it ranges from 5 million to 15 million rupiah per semester, depending on campus accreditation and entry pathways. The following is a list of PTN and PTS choices that have the best communication majors in Indonesia:

  • University of Indonesia
  • Padjadjaran University
  • Gadjah Mada University
  • Airlangga University
  • Diponegoro University
  • UIN Jakarta
  • UPN Veteran Jakarta
  • Telkom University
  • Binus University
  • London School Public Relations
  • Multimedia Nusantara University

How about Brainies, are you interested in majoring in Communication Studies? Apart from improving your public speaking skills, you also have to prepare yourself so that you can be accepted by a Communication Science major on your ideal campus. Come on, improve your academic skills with Brain Academy!

Read helpful educational articles:

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Understanding Educational Psychology and Its Benefits and Scope

Psychology is defined as the study of science that studies the psychology and human behavior. Educational psychology is intended to influence educational activities and teaching and learning processes more effectively by paying attention to the psychological responses and behavior of students. The state of the learning system, teaching methods, and students in each region is not the same.
The habits of students when they are in the family environment and the educational environment are sometimes also different. Educational psychology appears to provide improvements in the world of education in implementing curriculum, teaching and learning processes, counseling and evaluation services to get better quality students.

Understanding Educational Psychology According to Experts

Psychology can be interpreted as a science that studies the behavior and symptoms of the human soul (Abu, 2003).
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, education is the process of changing the attitude and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature humans in a learning or training (KBBI).
According to Muhibin Syah (2003), educational psychology is a psychological discipline that addresses psychological problems that occur in the world of education.
Educational psychology is a systematic study of processes and factors related to education (Whiterington, 1982).
Meanwhile, Djiwandono (2002), said that psychology is a science that studies human behavior and experience.
Educational psychology intends to apply psychology to processes that bring about changing behavior, in other words to teach. While the meaning of educational psychology is the study of learning, growth, and individual maturity and the application of scientific principles to human reactions. Such education aims to influence the process of teaching and learning.

The definition of educational psychology according to these experts can be concluded that educational psychology is a discipline of psychology that influences the teaching and learning process in the world of education.

Scope of Educational Psychology

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Educational psychology has a scope that forms the basis and boundaries or what distinguishes it from other psychological sciences. According to Sumadi Suryobroto, the scope of educational psychology includes:


Educators or teachers need to have more knowledge to provide teaching to their students. The teaching and learning process has a knowledge (cognitive) impact on students who initially do not know about the material provided to know. Teachers or instructors need to have knowledge of learning methods and other knowledge about problems that may exist in students.

Knowledge of student mental activity, intelligence, personality, individual character, student talent, growth and development, fostering discipline in the classroom, learning motivation, teacher behavior, teaching and learning strategies, and special problems in teaching and education.


The interactive learning process from the teacher will provide motivation and positive responses from students during the teaching and learning process. Innate owned by a teacher as a style of delivery of material, the concept of teaching while in class. And it is also necessary to change the atmosphere which stimulates students to always be active will improve the quality of learning outcomes.

Behavioral processes

According to Soerjabrata, educational psychology is reviewed dynamically, which includes changes in behavior such as:

Changes in behavior due to growth and development.
Behavior change due to learning is an important factor in learning.

The interactive learning process given by the teacher to students will bring about changes in behavior such as skills during the learning process such as speaking in front of the class, discussing, or activities that involve sensory and motor responses. These activities provide changes to students to become more active and change attitudes (affective) from an unfavorable attitude to a positive attitude. The positive attitude that is brought when returning to the family, to the community is the result of a quality education process.

The nature and scope of learning

Nature is the underlying thing in the learning process. The nature and scope of learning refers to learning processes such as interactions, materials given to students.

Student development

The teacher influences student development from the behavior shown when in class, interest or activeness when following lessons, the results obtained during tests. And also the development of students which can be seen from the attitude, way of speaking, interactions with teachers and friends. All of that is the result of the learning process. A positive development if you look at the progress of students in their interactions and their intelligence increases to

good direction.

Factors that influence learning

The learning situation greatly influences the learning process. Situations such as place and atmosphere greatly affect the success of teaching a teacher. The condition of classrooms, laboratory rooms, library rooms are facilities that help influence the quality of teaching and learning.

Room conditions in terms of cleanliness, air circulation, adequate room capacity, bench and seating conditions, lighting, and quiet conditions are needed to arouse students’ interest in learning and also the teacher’s teaching enthusiasm. Teacher attitudes, class spirit, family and community attitudes are also factors that influence learning situations and ultimately affect the quality of learning processes and outcomes.

Other factors that affect learning come from within or within the student, namely motivation, talent, intelligence, self-ability to adapt to the learning environment.

Education measurement

Educational measurement is an evaluation carried out on students after getting the learning process within a certain time to measure the educational development that has been obtained.

Practical aspects of measurement

The practical aspect of measurement is a measuring tool used to determine changes in student behavior as a result of the learning process.

Learning transfers

Learning with good and positive systems and interactions with pleasant communication between teachers and students causes students to accept the knowledge given and like their teachers. However, if the teacher’s interaction and communication with students is not good, then students will dislike it and show a negative attitude. The positive attitude that is taught and applied while at school will be owned by students such as those who were initially undisciplined became disciplined, those who previously could not dress neatly became uniformed neatly.

Mental health

The mental health of students is marked by their participation and activeness in participating in every learning activity both individually and in groups.

character building

Psychological character is formed from the culture that is applied during the learning period at school by educators. Culture is in the form of disciplinary rules or principles of culture that exist in an area.

Short curriculum

The curriculum is a learning framework for effective and efficient learning purposes.

Learning Theory in Educational Psychology

There are several educational psychology theories which are the basic concepts of implementing psychology in the world of education.

Theory of Behaviorism

According to the theory of behaviorism, learning is a change in behavior. These changes are the impact of the interaction between stimulus and response. It can be interpreted that learning is a form of behavior change in students from interactions with stimuli. A person is said to have learned if there is a change in his behavior.

Then, in this theory, the concept that takes precedence is the input or stimulus given such as the teacher teaching students how to read. Then the output which is the result or response as a result of the stimulus, such as students being able to read even though they are still stuttering. That’s what learning is. However, if at the output students are still unable to read, then the process is not considered a learning activity because there is no result from the stimulus given.

Operant conditioning Theory

Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by the consequences that can be obtained. The key to operant conditioning is positive and negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment. Positive support is giving something pleasant to a behavior. For example: a teacher who gives praise to his students for having answered correctly. Negative support is discarding something unpleasant as an acceptable gesture. For example: It is very noisy outside, so turning on the TV loudly makes it more comfortable and reduces unpleasant noises.

Then, positive punishment is used to reduce the unpleasant behavior. For example: When there is a child who is naughty in class, he receives a punishment standing in front of the class. Negative punishment is used to reduce unpleasant behavior by taking away something pleasurable. Example: Kevin broke his sister’s doll, so he is not allowed to play outside with his friends (Saul, 2015).

Classical conditioning Theory

Classical conditioning is a theory that involves learning new behaviors through a continuous process. There are three stages in this theory by providing a new stimulus at each stage.

  • Stage 1 – Before Conditioning: at this stage the stimulus from the environment issues a response that has not been studied and there is a response that has never been thought of. Example: Perfume can cause a response happiness.
  • Stage 2 – During Conditioning: Stimulus from the environment does not respond to a known stimulus. Example: perfume may be associated with a person.
  • Stage 3 After Conditioning: the formation of a new response. Example: Someone who was previously associated with fragrant perfume becomes very attractive (Mcleod, 2008).
  • Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory focuses on the changes in mental processes and structures that occur as a result of trying to make sense of our surroundings. Cognitive theory is used for simple learning processes such as remembering telephone numbers and others. Then, cognitive theory has four basic principles: (1) Students are active to gain an understanding of the knowledge given, (2) Development of knowledge depends on what they have learned, (3) learning builds experience (4) learning is a change in one’s mental structure .


Connectionism theory was developed by Edward L. Thorndike (1878-1949) and is known as the stimulus-response theory. According to him, the basis of learning is the association of stimulus and response. The stimulus will give a message to the five senses and then respond with behavior. Such associations are called connections. This principle is called connectionism.

Gestalt theory

Gestalt is a theory that explains the process of perception through the arrangement of components of sensation that have a relationship or pattern to form a whole. It is concluded that, a person tends to see something around him as a unified whole. Gestalt theory explains how visual perception can be formed. For example, when we are looking at a cloud and see a shape that looks like an object.

The Role of Psychology on Education
Educational psychology has become the basis for the formation and development of curriculum, learning and assessment systems in the world of education. His contribution to the development of the world of education can be explained as follows:

1. The role of psychology in the educational curriculum

Psychologically, self-development of students is based on affective, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities. This ability can be seen from the development of attitudes, motivation, behavior, and other components. The learning component is a process from input to output. Then, the use of the curriculum as a framework for input flow towards output or good results requires psychological properties.

The curriculum currently being developed is a competency-based curriculum. Competence aims to develop abilities in skills, knowledge, and reflection in thinking and acting. The habit of thinking and acting with consistent self-reflection enables the formation of superior and competent individuals.

2. The role of psychology in the learning system

Related to psychological theories that have an impact on a person’s behavior, psychology also influences the learning system in the world of education positively. Students become serious about learning when their psychological responses are well guided by the teacher.

And also, the process of understanding the learning of a topic becomes easier by solving the learning problems experienced. Desire or desire to be higher with a psychological approach from the teacher with pleasant interactions and communication.

In addition, educational psychology has also given birth to learning principles as described by Sudirwo, 2002:

Someone who studies must have a goal.
Goals are born out of necessity not compulsion
Must be willing to experience some difficulties.
Learning is evidenced by changes in behavior.
Learning requires insight into what must be learned and understood.
Someone needs guidance.
Exams need to be done but preceded by understanding.

3. The role of psychology in the rating system

Psychology has also given its role in the assessment system. For example, with psychological tests to determine the level of intelligence of students, aptitude tests to find out potential talents in students so that it is easier to provide guidance in helping students develop their potential.

Tests on personality aspects can also help teachers get to know their students better so they can provide a better approach to the learning process. These various psychological tests help provide an assessment of each student to make it easier to bridge the desires, potential, and dreams of students according to their abilities and talents.

Benefits of Studying Educational Psychology
There are several benefits of studying educational psychology according to Muhammad and Wiyani (2013), namely:

1. Understand student differences

Each student has different abilities and potential. As a teacher, it is necessary to understand the differences in the characteristics of each student, the stages of growth and development, and the type of behavior. This understanding can produce

appropriate learning interactions and effective and efficient learning.

Not only that, the teacher’s understanding of these differences makes it possible to provide different learning interactions for each student so that the approach and learning process are more acceptable without discriminating between students personally or favoritism.

2. Creating a conducive learning climate in the classroom

The teacher’s ability to create a conducive learning climate increases the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Knowledge of the basic principles of fun approaches and interactions with students according to each student’s characteristics will provide a conducive learning climate and an effective learning process.

3. Choose the right learning strategy

Studying psychology to get to know the characteristics of each student and get to know the preferred learning methods, will provide the ability to choose appropriate learning strategies in the classroom. Learning strategies that are appropriate, will provide an effective teaching and learning situation.

4. Provide guidance to students

Psychology gives teachers the ability to become a guide for their students with an emotional heart-to-heart approach to gain students’ trust. When students have given their trust to the teacher, the process of helping to solve problems for an effective learning process can be done easily.

5. Interact appropriately with students

The principles of psychology underlie the right way of communicating in learning. Communication with students is expressed by placing oneself according to the stages of student growth and development. So that it can provide a pleasant interaction. Adjustment to the stages of student growth and development creates an understanding of the teacher from the student’s point of view and knows the wishes or preferred learning process as well as the character of each student.

6. Provide evaluation of learning outcomes

As an educator, studying educational psychology will be able to provide a fair assessment of learning outcomes. In addition, it can also adjust to the abilities of each student without distinguishing one from another. Evaluation of learning outcomes can be in the form of intelligence test scores, attitude values, and active participation in school activities. These three things determine the quality of improving student behavior for the better.

7. Motivate learning

Provision of educational psychology for teachers so that teachers are able to provide support, encouragement or motivation for their students in a higher learning enthusiasm. Educational psychology teaches about understanding each student’s characteristics and providing motivation according to these characters so that they can more effectively influence student learning enthusiasm. Providing positive support to students results in increased enthusiasm for learning.

8. Set learning goals

Educational psychology helps students to determine learning objectives regarding what kind of behavior changes are desired as learning outcomes. Learning objectives are set for each material that will be given. Therefore, learning objectives are used as a benchmark for the suitability of learning outcomes whether they are considered successful or not.

9. Use of appropriate learning media

Knowledge of educational psychology is also useful for determining the right learning media for students, for example audio, visual, motor media, and so on as fun learning activities. Learning media is also adapted to the learning material to be delivered. Students are sometimes more interested in learning processes that use audiovisual components in the process of understanding material and are more efficient in developing students’ imaginations.

10. Preparation of appropriate lesson schedules

The preparation of the lesson schedule is also adjusted to the conditions of the students, such as lessons that require more complicated thinking such as mathematics which would be better if placed during the first study hour, when students’ minds are still fresh and their concentration is still maximum. If a subject like math is placed at the end of the class, it will not be as effective. Students are tired, their comprehension decreases, concentration decreases, and learning becomes ineffective.

Educational psychology provides impacts and benefits from various aspects of learning. Educational psychology helps teachers to understand students more deeply based on their characteristics, stages of development, behavior and behavior, emotionally to provide an appropriate and appropriate teaching and learning process so as to produce an effective and efficient learning process. A good learning process will have an impact on satisfying results. Students who get a good learning process will apply good habits after they enter the family and m

society and impact positive behavior in every life.

Hopefully, this article on educational psychology can help teachers to better understand the character of their students and adjust the learning process accordingly so that they are able to produce generations that are superior both in intelligence and attitudes and behavior which will later be brought into social life so that they can provide a positive and useful role.

Read educational articles:

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

Did you know that there are over 7 million people over the age of 25 who are enrolled in academic courses? If you’re thinking of going back to school, know that it is never too late to start!

You might be wondering which career path you should choose as heading back to school can be a big life change it should be worth your time. There are so many career paths to choose from but you should make sure that you pick something you will enjoy.

Do you envision yourself in a specific role or job a few years down the line? We’re here to help you pick a career path for you!

Keep reading for our guide on how to determine which career path you should choose when going back to school.

Think of What You Enjoy Doing

When determining your career path, you should first think about your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing. Turning your hobby into a career is a lifelong dream for many people.

If going back to school can help you achieve that dream, then go for it!

One way to do this is by writing down all of your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing outside of work. Do you enjoy cooking, writing, talking with people, playing sports, or gardening?

Writing down all of your hobbies and then linking them to real-life jobs is a good way to get started in figuring out what your career path could be.

For someone who enjoys talking to people or solving problems, then you may consider the career path of an addiction counselor. This might not have been something that you realized until you wrote down everything that you enjoyed doing.

Imagine You’re a Kid Again

Do you remember being a young kid and being asked what you want to be when you grow up? Chances are you may not have done the job you said you were gonna do when you were a child. If you do still have that same dream, then go for it!

On the other hand, if you have the opportunity to go back to school, then the world is your oyster. Imagine being a kid again and think of all the possibilities that you once had.

Going back to school means that you get the chance to pick any career path that your heart desires.

As a child, you may have dreamed of being a dentist and you totally have that opportunity to do that now. You can go back to school to become a dental assistant!

When choosing your career path you can truly dream as if you were a child again and follow your heart.

Try Taking a Test

If you’re not keen on following your heart, then you can try taking a career test. There are numerous online career aptitude tests that can match you with the perfect career that will fit your career needs.

Taking one of these tests will make you answer tons of questions regarding your skillset and personality to match you with the best career.

Don’t worry, the greatest career tests that you can find online are free so you won’t have to pay any money for this insight. Of course, taking a test shouldn’t determine your future.

Use the answers you receive from a career aptitude test lightly. Make sure you research and choose a career path that you feel will be suited for you.

If anything, taking a career test can help to give you a bit of a start on choosing the right career for you.

List Your Strengths and Weaknesses

One common job interview question that is normally asked in interview questions is what are your strengths and weaknesses. This is a great question to ask yourself when it comes to figuring out what your career path could be.

Get out a pen and paper and write down your five strengths and five weaknesses.

Think about what types of careers would require people who would possess your strengths and weaknesses. For example, if one of your weaknesses is public speaking, then you may want to avoid careers that would require you to speak in front of large crowds.

On the other hand, you can also work to improve the weaknesses that you’ve listed. If you know that you’re not good at public speaking, then you might want to take a communications class so that you can get better at it.

Talk With a Career Counselor

Talking with a career counselor can help to give you a guideline for what you want your career path to be. If you feel like you’re being pulled in a few different directions by a bunch of different careers, then they can help to weigh the pros and cons with you.

A career counselor is someone that you can talk with and they can understand the frustrations of going back to school and even changing careers.

You might even find that talking to a career counselor has opened your eyes to careers you never even knew existed. Having another person assist you in finding the perfect career could be something that you didn’t even know you needed.

Here at ICC, our Career Services Coordinator will work with you on gaining employment in your career path. We can help with your resume, conduct mock interviews, help you network, and even find job leads.

Ask If You Can Job Shadow Someone

Once you find a career that you believe you will enjoy then job shadowing someone is the best way to see if you will truly like it. It takes researching a job one step further by actually getting hands-on and doing it for a day.

One of the easiest ways to job shadow someone is by asking someone you know who is in that career field. Unfortunately, if you don’t know anyone in the career that you’re interested in, then this can be rather difficult.

The best way to go about landing a job shadow is by researching companies that you’re interested in. You should know what to ask and who to ask.

There is a chance that you might get shot down the first time that you ask about job shadowing. Companies can be busy or they might not be accepting job shadowing positions.

If that’s the case, then don’t give up. Move on and look for another company to ask about job shadowing!

The best thing about reaching out and doing a job shadow for a day is that it will look really good when you go to apply for a job later on. During interviews, you can actually mention that you job shadowed someone when deciding on a career.


On the other hand, if you’re unable to job shadow someone you can always volunteer within that career field. Volunteering is an awesome thing to do especially if your career field needs volunteers!

The medical field is always looking for volunteers to do a number of different jobs and tasks. If you’re looking to get into a certain position, then check to see if they have any volunteer opportunities near you.

Volunteering can expose you to the field and position without committing to an internship or job shadow position. It is also a great way to see what’s going on on the inside in a more easygoing and laid back environment.

As a volunteer, you can even talk with the people who work in that career. Make sure to spend your time as a volunteer wisely. Obviously, you won’t be able to interview the workers but asking them a few questions about their job and why they like it won’t hurt.

Take the Leap

Going back to school and picking a new career can be scary! It is definitely not an easy thing to do but you’ll be proud of yourself for taking the leap and going for it.

Finding the right career path for you might take some time. Don’t be afraid to make phone calls, send emails, or ask businesses if you can follow someone around for the day or get some questions answered.

Getting as much information as possible will help to make your decision easier and your transition smoother.

Overall, don’t be afraid to take the leap! Jump right into going back to school and preparing for your new career. If you’ve chosen the right career path, then it is going to be something that you will love doing.

Going Back to School and Choosing Your Career Path

Going back to school can completely turn your life upside down but for the better. You should take the time to choose a career path that you will enjoy and one you can see yourself doing for a long time.

Make sure that you take the time to research and look into each career path that you’re interested in before making your final decision.

Classes are starting soon and if you’re looking to apply you can do so directly online!

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

Many people reflect on their interests in skills in order to choose the right career path. Deciding on a career path allows you to attain the right education and experiences and develop necessary skills to succeed in your chosen field. It’s important to reflect on your interests and career goals as you make certain life choices, such as which school to attend, which entry-level job is right for you or whether to obtain a postgraduate degree or specialized certification.

In this article, we define what a career path is, provide a nine-step guide detailing how to choose a career path depending on personal characteristics and offer some examples of career paths you can pursue within different industries.

What is a Career Path?

A career path is a plan detailing the positions you aim to hold as you advance in your field. Your first job or college degree, for example, can mark the beginning of your career path. As you gain additional knowledge and skills, you may progress, or move vertically, into more advanced roles. Some employees also move laterally into equal but different job roles as they specialize or change career paths.

How to choose a career path

Here are some steps you can follow as you develop your career path:

1. Outline your career goals

Before selecting a career, self-reflect by asking and answering guided questions. Active reflection helps narrow your choices into something more specific.

Consider asking yourself:

  • What do I want from my career?
  • What are my core values?
  • What activities do I most enjoy, professionally or in my free time?
  • What are my interests?
  • What are my strengths and aptitudes?

Do I want to specialize in certain technical skills or seek management roles?

Once you answer questions like these and any others that are important to you, you can better research potential career paths. It’s also important to revisit your career goals as you grow personally and professionally to ensure your goals remain achievable and aligned with your interests.

Related: Setting Goals To Improve Your Career

2. Create a five- and 10-year plan

Once you’ve narrowed down your options, consider establishing milestones for your career. Research where other people in your field are at five or 10 years into their career, and make a note of the job titles they have. Decide what title or advancements you want to have at these future points. Then, research what you can do to reach those goals. You may undergo training programs, seek specific responsibilities or pursue prerequisite positions.

By establishing career goals, you can plan based on what progress you expect every year. Schedule time regularly to reflect on your career and goals.

Related: 7 Tools To Plan Your Career the Right Way Here!

3. Discover your personality type

A personality type is a set of personality traits

that you can organize into groups. There are multiple methods for discovering your personality type, many of which focus on your responses to different situations. Different personality types may naturally possess different interests and develop different strengths, including careers.

Different tests list common career choices for each personality type. If you take a variety of tests and one or two careers appear across multiple tests, that specific career is likely worth researching. Some popular tools you can use to identify your personality type include:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: This questionnaire is a self-reporting inventory that includes introspective questions to identify your psychological preferences. Using this information, the type indicator system classifies people based on four key dichotomies, allowing you to identify your personality type out of 16 options.

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter: While this self-assessment questionnaire is like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, it more closely identifies roles that match each temperament type. The questionnaire focuses on behaviors and temperaments rather than preferences.

The Jungian Type Index: The Jung Typology Test

is a self-assessment that can summarize your personality type and recommended careers by identifying Jungian cognitive functions or explanations behind certain psychological preferences.

Related: Myers-Briggs Indicator: 16 Personality Types in the Workplace

4. Review your previous experience

Your job satisfaction in previous roles can also help guide your career choices. Identify trends in your previous positions, such as focusing on a specific technical skill. Also, review your job history to identify positions you found fulfilling.

Related: How To Get Hands-On Experience

5. Compare job requirements to your education

Many jobs have specific education requirements for candidates and new hires, such as obtaining a high school diploma, completing a bachelor’s degree program or having a master’s degree. Some positions also require candidates to have degrees in a specific field related to the position. Review the education requirements for jobs you’re interested in and apply for jobs that accept your current level of education.

Related: What Are Job Requirements?

6. Assess your current skill set

Make a list of your current skills, certifications and areas of expertise. You can also ask coworkers and colleagues for feedback about your technical, interpersonal and people management skills. This evaluation can help you find careers that match your experience.

Related: Top 10 Skills To Put on Your Resume (With Examples)

7. Note your interests

Depending on your personality, you may have interests that are particularly tailored for different careers. Examine your hobbies, past volunteer experiences and interests to identify activities you enjoy. While this information is outside of a professional context, creating a list of activities can help you narrow down your career path. For example, you may enjoy a career in cybersecurity if you enjoy logic puzzles, or you may enjoy a traveling sales role if you like meeting new people.

Use this knowledge to apply for short-term positions or volunteer opportunities to explore new career options. This firsthand experience allows you to test your suitability for a career. If you’re currently in school or have a job, consider taking a course or certification program that’s helpful for a field that interests you. This experience can help you determine if the career’s skills and content are something you enjoy.

8. Identify your core values

Identifying your core values can help you focus on a career you find fulfilling. It can also help you find fields or niche areas you enjoy. Consider making a list of qualities you think are important in a company or its employees. You can use this list to search for companies and job descriptions that share these values.

Related: Core Values in the Workplace: 84 Powerful Examples

9. Consider your salary needs

Different career paths can have a wide variety of incomes. This data can be a good start for determining how much money you might earn at first, as well as your earning potential after you’ve gained a certain amount of time and experience. While salary certainly doesn’t guarantee an engaging, satisfying job, it’s an important factor to consider when mapping your career path.

Example Career Paths

Here are a few examples of career paths in various industries:

  • Education: Teacher → curriculum coordinator → assistant principal → principal
  • Retail: Sales associate → cashier → assistant manager → store manager → regional manager
  • Restaurant: Dishwasher → prep cook → line cook → sous chef → chef de cuisine → executive chef
  • Editorial: Intern → editorial assistant → assistant editor → editor → senior editor → executive editor → editor in chief
  • Human resources (HR): HR assistant → HR specialist → assistant director of HR → director of HR
  • Marketing: Public relations assistant → public relations representative → assistant director of PR → director of communications

How To Play Winning Poker

How To Play Winning Poker

It doesn’t matter if you’re a recreational card player who enjoys a game once a month, or an aspiring pro spending hours grinding out profits every day.

But I’m guessing you always knew truly successful players do something different than the rest.

Some say it’s ‘natural instinct’…

Others put it down to years of practice… practice… and more practice…

But the reality is, almost all professional poker players use a small selection of ‘techniques’ that they employ to beat the game… time and time again.

And in the next few minutes, I’m going to reveal exactly what these techniques are… And how you can use them in your game to see consistent wins in both cash games and tournaments.

To do this, I’m going to take you behind the scenes with some of the world’s best poker players, and reveal exactly how they’ve been able to make millions of dollars online and in live games.

But before we get into the specifics, there are two main reasons why professionals have an ‘unfair advantage’ before the cards even hit the table.

Note: If you’re serious about improving your game, I’ve prepared a FREE guide for you.

What Are These Reasons?

The first, is their ‘edge’. Or, to put it simply, the advantage professional poker players hold over their opponents, regardless of the cards dealt, chip stacks, or situation.

You see, the great poker players – Phil Ivey, Daniel Negreanu, Phil Hellmuth – understand who they’re playing. And they’ll use this basic thought-pattern to outsmart, outwit, and manipulate their opponents, giving them a winning edge.

In fact, every professional poker player on the planet would admit to using their knowledge of who they’re playing in conjunction with one of the following play-styles:

  • Play aggressively to win a large pot with a strong hand
  • Play passively to try to win with a weak hand
  • Play aggressively to make your opponent fold a better hand

And while what they’re able to do may seem like ‘magic,’ these are just the basic fundamentals of poker, with the added benefit of using their edge.

In just a few moments, you’ll discover how you can think, act, and win like the pros.

But let’s look at the second reason the pros are winning consistently.

Understanding Poker Game Theory

Poker theory is, in essence, the fundamental rules of profiting from poker.

This means understanding how the game works, basic mathematics, percentages, and how to make the best decisions that are profitable in the long run.

And as David Sklansky – author of “The Theory Of Poker” – stated: It’s the aim of maximizing wins and minimizing losses.

So how do you do this?

It’s easy – Using theoretically balanced ranges, professionals are able to play in line with the most profitable playing style. This means that against 99.9% of players you’ll make profitable plays, virtually every time.

Of course, there will be times when your aces get cracked by kings or where he hits his one-outer on the river.

But stick to these profitable styles of play, and you can guarantee yourself a big, fat, juicy income stream.

And the beauty is that even many players who call themselves ‘professionals,’ don’t use these theories correctly. They put their money in and hope for the best.

And don’t get me wrong – they do well. But they could be doing a lot better.

And that’s why I’ve been consistently crushing cash games and tournaments for the past 12 years. I’ve made millions of dollars in my career (yes that’s net profit). And I’ve played against the biggest names in the game… and won.

And today, I’m sharing these powerful techniques with you… for FREE!

The 5 Things That Will Get You Winning at Poker Consistently

So we’ve looked at the reasons why the great professionals hold such a dominance over all other players. But now let’s look at the 5 most important steps to getting your winning poker strategy working.

These are…

  1. Knowing what cards you are going to play
  2. Disguising your holdings
  3. Finding the right game to play in
  4. Making adjustments for your opponents
  5. Simplifying major decisions

Part 1 – Know the cards you are going to play

“Every battle is won before it is ever fought” – Sun Tzu.

Poker, at its most simple, is a game where you play your cards against those of your opponent. There are a lot more variables involved in playing, but choosing the hands you play is at the very core of successful poker playing.

It may seem obvious which hands to play… and which hands not to play… But are you actively going into games with a detailed understanding of which hands to play, and from what position?

Above, you’ll see a standard 10 handed poker table. Each named position requires different playing strategies, so you should be playing different hands from that position.

As a general rule of thumb, the closer you are to the button, the more hands you should be playing.

This might sound obvious to the “aggressive” players, but even then, they often make a lot of mistakes, simply because they…

  • Don’t map out the hands they want to play before the session
  • Become scared to implement this strategy facing other players

To avoid this problem, study beforehand which hands you should be playing and from which position.

You’d be amazed just how much difference this can make to your game. When you discover some of the hands you should be playing, and some of the hands you shouldn’t be playing, you’ll likely be pretty surprised.

Here’s a simple exercise you can use to help you understand positioning, and the importance of hand selection. As an example, pick which locations on the poker table you would play these hands from:

  • [Ts 9s]
  • [Ah Td]
  • [7s 5s]
  • [Jc Jd]

Each of these hands is different from the other one, and they should be played from different positions. Let’s look at some sample answers below.

  • [Ts 9s] – All Positions
  • [Ah Td] – Mid to Late Position
  • [7s 5s] – Button
  • [Jc Jd] – All Positions

Weak poker players think this level of study is unnecessary…

And luckily for you, that’s why they’ll always stay weak players, letting you take their money time and time again.

Don’t fall into the trap of thinking it’s unnecessary to understand hand selection – by putting a proper strategy in place, you eliminate all doubt from your preflop game, and you’ll become a far stronger, more-confident, winning poker player.

Part 2 – Disguise Your Holdings

So now that we’ve covered the art of hand selection, it’s time to make sure that the hands you do choose are played correctly.

Take for example, a player called John. He’s incredibly tight, and he raises preflop maybe once an hour. At showdown, he’s only ever shown monsters, and you’re confident that each time he raises preflop he has 10-10 minimum.

This style of play can work – short-term – but savvy players will exploit his weak tendencies, and he’ll soon become very easy to beat.

In poker, you don’t want to become predictable. In other words, you always want to keep your opponents guessing, meaning they have a tough time putting you on a hand.

We can achieve this by using a few techniques, which are designed to confuse them and leave them unable to read you.

Here are four cardinal rules for playing your hands:

  • Raise to the same size with all hands you play.
  • Play many hands postflop with the same actions.
  • Play some weak and strong hands in the same way.
  • Do not show your opponents your cards at any point you do not have to.
  • Let’s look at each of these individually.

1 – By keeping your bet sizings the same, it becomes virtually impossible for your opponent to put you on a hand. Plus, when your opponents think you’re raising with bad cards, they’ll pay you off when you have a monster (just watch Tom Dwan get gifted chips in HSP).

2 – By playing many hands postflop while using the same actions, it helps to keep your holdings disguised, and it means your opponents will become extremely frustrated with your constant barreling-style. This helps to continue the pre-flop secrecy in the previous point.

3 – Playing weak and strong hands in the same way adds yet another layer of depth to your game. It’s another tool to stop your opponents from putting you on hands, and they’ll often continually fold in resentment, not wanting to risk their stack to find out what you have.

4 – Do not show your opponents your cards at any point. Watch Phil Ivey play – You’d struggle to find even one time where he shows his opponents his hands, and this is crucial. You don’t want to give your opponents any information you don’t need to. And by never revealing your holdings when you don’t have to, you’ll add yet more mystery to your game.

Part 3 – Find the Right Game to Play In

Finding the correct game to play in is probably one of the most overlooked aspects in poker, yet it’s one of the most critical. In his book, ‘Super System,’ Doyle Brunson talks about how he’d always be on the lookout for games with guys who were drunk, steaming, or just plain bad players.

And while things are a little different with the rise of the Internet, there are some core principles you should remember before jumping right into a game.

Here are some of the considerations you should be making before even THINKING about joining a table:

  • How high the house rake is.
  • Whether the players are weak, average, or good.
  • How the players are playing – are they playing lots of hands, or is the table being tight?
  • If in a live situation, is the environment safe to play?
  • Have you played with any of the players before? That knowledge of his play could give you an edge.

Poker is a game for people. We talk together, we play it together, we win and lose at the table together. That said, you always get to pick who you play with.

There are many different aspects to finding the right game to play in. Let’s look at the list of good places to play:

  • A game with no rake taken by the house.
  • A game played with many recreational players who play for fun.
  • A game where much alcohol is being consumed.
  • A game with a lot of loose action by various players at the table.
  • A game that you know is safe.

Some of these are more realistic than others, and it’s not always possible to control some of these factors, but the most important thing is that you’re aware of them and keep them in the back of your mind.

Don’t fall into the ego-war trap of many poker players. If you see players at a table that you know are better than you, then simply move on and find another table. It can be tempting to play against players who are more skilled than you – and don’t get me wrong, I know it can be tempting to take a shot into the big game – but at the end of the day, you’re here to make money, and you can maximize your profits by playing against weaker, less-able players.

Part 4 – Make Adjustments to Your Opponents

Making adjustments dependent on your opponent’s game is where the best players in the world shine through and really show their edge. Determining what tendencies their opponents have, and taking advantage of those tendencies, allows them to beat them consistently.

Again, Phil Ivey is a great example of how good players adjust. Ivey studies his opponents intently, looking for any information he can get. You’ll rarely see him talking or laughing throughout a hand. Watch him – he’ll stare down his opponent, analyzing their every move and determining how best to play against them.

However, while this stare-down approach works well for players like Ivey and Mike McDonald, it doesn’t work for everyone, and I for one, don’t feel that staring into my opponent’s soul gives me a huge deal of information.

Instead, I look for actual tendencies I can take advantage of and manipulate.

Some of these include noticing:

  • How aggressive they’re playing.
  • What hands they’re turning over at showdown.
  • When they appear tilted, or they’re getting fed up with waiting around for hands.
  • When they play hands that just don’t make sense.

Using these techniques can help you build a strong mental image of your opponent’s play style, letting you use this information to make the best decision possible.

In reality, you’re not always going to be able to tell if a player is bluffing or if they have the nuts. But using these techniques, you can begin reading your opponents and gaining information other players at the table don’t have.

For example, if an aggressive player is looking worn-out, bored, or annoyed, I am far more likely to check my strong hands rather than betting them. This induces them into making bets, even when they have absolutely nothing.

I wouldn’t check all my hands, but I would analyze the situation dependent on the factors above, and begin to set the trap.

Try to keep focused at the table at all times. Notice what hands players are showing down, and decipher whether their pre-flop raise was correct or incorrect. If it was incorrect, then chances are they’ll be making other mistakes, allowing you to capitalize and make profits from them.

Part 5 – Simplify Your Decisions

When playing in any poker game – be it a tournament, cash game or sit n go – it’s important you keep a level head and don’t stress yourself out. When you feel as though the information before you is overwhelming, it’s a great idea to mentally slow down and analyze the situation.

Don’t feel afraid of annoying other players or getting the clock called on you. Take as much time as you need, and logically think through the hand in progress.

Think about what hands you can have in this situation, and what hands your opponents can have. And use this information to determine your most profitable move.

If you ever feel stuck, then think about all the hands you would play in the same way. Don’t feel obliged to three-barrel bluff just because you have no showdown value.

Sometimes it’s far better to cut your losses and wait for better opportunities, rather than risk your stack on marginal decisions. This largely comes back to knowing what hands you should be opening the pot with, and how you should be playing them.

These are called raised first in ranges, and they allow you to know what hands to play, and from what position to play them.

Today, I’m going to give you access to a FREE resource that’s helped me make millions of dollars playing poker. And soon, it can help YOU become a profitable, winning poker player.

You’ll discover how these ranges can help you become a poker player consistently booking profits, by understanding…

  • Early Position Raises
  • Middle Position Raises
  • Hijack Raises
  • Cutoff Raises
  • Button Raises
  • Small Blind Raises

By acting now, you can get access to these powerful charts, revealing exactly what hands to play, from what position, and how regularly – absolutely free of charge.

Simply click the link below, and you’ll get instant access to these charts, allowing you to begin making big changes to your game right away and seeing your profits increase.

But be quick– today might be the only day I’ll be giving this away for free. Come back another day, and you may well find I’m charging for this powerful information.

So, if you want to become a successful, profitable, respected poker player, then enter your name and email below; Discover how you can win at poker by playing the right hands.

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

Are you dreaming of becoming a pilot? The thrill of exploring the world from above is something that many people aspire to experience. But becoming a pilot isn’t just about having a dream — it’s about putting in the time, money, and effort to make that dream a reality.

Whether you’re interested in becoming a professional pilot for your career or are just looking to fly for fun, you might be wondering where exactly to start. So, we’re answering the most common questions we hear from aspiring pilots and taking you through the basic steps of what it takes to start on your journey to the skies.

How Long Does It Take To Become a Pilot?

The amount of time it takes to become a pilot depends on a number of factors, including the type of pilot’s license you are seeking, the country in which you are training and your dedication and willingness to learn the necessary skills and material. But to determine how long it’ll take you, you’ll need to account for training both in the skies and on the ground.

In general, it takes a minimum of 40-60 hours of flight time to obtain a private pilot’s license, which allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To become a commercial pilot, which will enable you to fly for hire, you’ll need a minimum of 250 hours of flight time and more advanced training.

In addition to training in the air, you’ll also need to complete a certain number of ground school classes. These classes cover crucial topics you’ll need to be familiar with as a pilot, including aviation regulations, aircraft systems, navigation, and meteorology. These classes can be completed online, in a classroom or through a hybrid program.

Overall, the process of becoming a pilot can take several months to several years, depending on your circumstances and the type of pilot’s certificate you desire. Some flight schools offer accelerated programs that allow students to finish training faster than average. However, these programs typically require full-time availability, so they may not be the best fit if you plan to complete training while attending high school or college or working a full-time job.

Bottom line? Becoming a pilot requires significant time, effort and commitment. If you’re passionate about this career path, it’s important to be patient and stay focused on your goals, regardless of how long it takes you.

To become a pilot, you must complete a certain amount of flight training and pass a series of knowledge exams. You’ll also need to pass an oral exam and practical test, during which you will demonstrate your aeronautical knowledge and flying skills to an examiner.

In addition to the technical skills and knowledge required to become a pilot, you will also need good physical coordination and mental focus, as well as the ability to handle stress and make quick decisions. Pilots are responsible for the safety of their passengers and crew, so they must be able to perform their duties effectively and efficiently.

Overall, becoming a pilot is a challenging but rewarding process. Even though flight training requires a lot of hard work and dedication at times, students have access to a wide range of resources to help them accomplish their flight training. Student pilots fly with a Certified Flight Instructor who is trained to provide one-on-one assistance and help students succeed. When your flight training is complete, the sense of accomplishment and the opportunity to pursue a fulfilling career make it well worth the effort.

Take our quiz to see if you have what it takes to be a pilot!

What Is the Best Age To Become a Pilot?

No particular age is considered the “best” age to become a pilot. In the U.S., you can earn a student pilot certificate beginning at age 16, a private pilot certificate at age 17, and commercial pilot at age 18 — but these are minimums, not maximums! Many people learn to fly much later in life, even into their 70s and 80s. As long as you can hold an FAA medical certificate, you can hold a pilot certificate. If flying has been a lifelong dream, there’s no reason to let age hold you back!

What Qualifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

  • To become a pilot, you will need to meet specific qualifications, which vary depending on the type of pilot’s license you are seeking and the country in which you are training. In general, you’ll need to:
  • Meet the minimum age requirement: This varies from country to country and based on the type of aircraft you wish to operate. Research your local aviation laws and regulations ahead of time.
  • Meet the minimum education requirement: The specific educational requirements prospective students need to meet depend on the school you choose to train at. Some pilot training programs require applicants to have at least a high school diploma or equivalent, while others allow students to begin training while still in high school. Certain universities also offer aviation programs that allow students to earn their pilot’s license alongside a four-year degree. For more information on the requirements for flight schools near you, check out our list of Piper Flight School Alliance partners.
  • Pass a medical examination: Pilots must pass a medical examination to ensure they are physically and mentally fit to fly. In the U.S., pilots must be examined and approved by an FAA-designated Aviation Medical Examiner (AME) to obtain a Medical Certificate. This examination includes a physical exam, vision and hearing tests, and a review of your medical history. The FAA suggests getting your Medical Certificate before beginning flight training. Your certification class should be based on your career goals. Private pilots and students only need a third-class certificate. Commercial pilots need a second-class certificate, while airline transport pilots need a first-class certificate.
  • Meet language proficiency requirements: Pilots must be able to speak and understand English, as it is the international language of aviation. Some countries may have additional language proficiency requirements for pilots.

What Certifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

In order to become a pilot, you’ll need to obtain a pilot certificate and complete the required training. The specific type of pilot certificate you will need depends on the flying you want to do and the type of aircraft you wish to fly.

In the United States, the FAA issues several types of pilot certificates and ratings, including:

  • Private pilot certificate: Allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To obtain a private pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 40 hours of flight time and pass written, oral and practical exams.
  • Instrument rating: An instrument rating demonstrates that you can fly solely by referring to your aircraft’s instruments. It is arguably one of the most valuable ratings you can add to your pilot certificate and is a fun and challenging discipline of flight training. An Instrument Rating gives you the opportunity to fly in more varied meteorological conditions. You will need to complete at least 15 hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in the aircraft category for the instrument rating you’re seeking, along with a minimum of 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time.
  • Commercial pilot certificate: Allows you to fly for hire. To obtain a commercial pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 250 hours of flight time in addition to written, oral and practical exams.

Depending on the direction you would like to point your career, there are other certificates and ratings you can pursue once you become a commercial pilot. Typically, to pursue a career in aviation, you will have to meet the hiring hour minimums for your desired company. These will vary depending on what field of the industry you choose. There are many ways to build this flight time, but one of the most common methods is to become a Certified Flight Instructor. As an instructor, you’ll use the skills and knowledge you’ve built up over the course of your flight training to help future pilots build the competence they’ll need to be safe and successful aviators.

If instructing isn’t for you, there are other job opportunities where you can use your commercial certificate to build time and gain valuable experience, such as aerial survey, agricultural flying, towing banners, working as a ferry pilot, and more. Once you build the flight time required, you’ll be ready to take your aviation career to the next level.

In addition to these certificates, pilots may need to obtain additional ratings or endorsements to fly certain types of aircraft or to fly in certain conditions. For example, a pilot may need a multi-engine rating to fly a multi-engine aircraft. It’s important to carefully research the specific requirements for the flying you want to do and to work with a Certified Flight Instructor to ensure that you’re adequately trained and prepared.

Is It Expensive To Become a Pilot?

With all that flight time, training, and certification, becoming a pilot can be expensive. The specific cost of your pilot training depends on a number of factors, including the type of license you are seeking, the location and duration of your training, and the type of aircraft you are using for your training.

Generally, the cost of pilot training can range from several thousand dollars for a private pilot’s license to tens of thousands of dollars for training through more advanced certificates and ratings. These costs include flight time, ground school classes, exam fees, and other training expenses.

It is important to carefully research the cost of pilot training before you begin and prepare for the financial investment involved. Some people may be able to offset the cost of training through scholarships or grants, while others may want to save up and pay for training out of pocket. Many students in training are aided by loans or other financing options, so regardless of your financial situation, take time to explore your options!

How To Pick a Flight School

Choosing a flight school can be a challenging process, but it’s an important decision that can greatly impact your future as a pilot. It may be a good idea to tour the flight school so you can physically see the aircraft and interact with the instructors at the school to ensure it will be a good match for you. Additionally, many flight schools offer what’s called a Discovery Flight, where you have the chance to fly with a Certified Flight Instructor and try flying in a small flight training aircraft for the very first time. A Discovery Flight is a wonderful tool to help determine if becoming a pilot is the right choice for you.

Another parameter to consider when choosing a flight school is the school’s location. Aside from the convenience of finding a flight school near you, you may also want to consider the local weather conditions, as they may impact your training. Schools in areas with a lower cost of living may also be more affordable overall. You can also speak with current students and instructors to see how their training experience has been at that particular location.

It’s also smart to examine the types of aircraft the school uses for training and whether they are well-maintained. Aircraft availability and reliability are two important parameters to consider at your prospective flight school. If you’re looking for a school with Piper aircraft as part of its fleet, our Flight School map lists high-quality flight schools all over the world. Piper aircraft are consistently rated as some of the best to learn to fly in, having been used to train student pilots for decades.

If you’re ready to start your journey to becoming a pilot, find a flight school near you today!
Find a Flight School

COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

Dozens of studies have come out over the past months concluding that the pandemic had a negative—and uneven—effect on student learning click here.

National analyses have shown that students who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, and that Black and Latino students experienced greater declines in test scores than their peers.

But taken together, what implications do they have for school and district leaders looking for a path forward?

Here are four questions and answers, based on what we’ve learned from the most salient studies, that dig into the evidence.

Did students who stayed in remote learning longer fare worse than those who learned in person?

Generally, yes—but not in every single instance.

School buildings shut down in spring 2020. By fall 2021, most students were back learning in person. But schools took a variety of different approaches in the middle, during the 2020-21 school year.

Several studies have attempted to examine the effects of the choices that districts made during that time period. And they found that students who were mostly in-person fared better than students who were mostly remote.

An analysis of 2021 spring state test data across 12 states found that districts that offered more access to in-person options saw smaller declines in math and reading scores than districts that offered less access. In reading, the effect was much larger in districts with a higher share of Black and Hispanic students.

Assessment experts, as well as the researchers, have urged caution about these results, noting that it’s hard to draw conclusions from results on spring 2021 state tests, given low rates of participation and other factors that affected how the tests were administered.

But it wasn’t just state test scores that were affected. Interim test scores—the more-frequent assessments that schools give throughout the year—saw declines too.

Another study examined scores on the Measures of Academic Progress assessment, or MAP, an interim test developed by NWEA, a nonprofit assessment provider. Researchers at NWEA, the American Institutes for Research, and Harvard examined data from 2.1 million students during the 2020-21 school year.

Students in districts that were remote during this period had lower achievement growth than students in districts that offered in-person learning. The effects were most substantial for high-poverty schools in remote learning districts.

Still, other research introduces some caveats.

The Education Recovery Scorecard, a collaboration between researchers at Stanford and Harvard, analyzed states’ scores on the 2022 National Assessment of Educational Progress. They compared these scores to the average amount of time that a district in the state spent in remote learning.

For the most part, this analysis confirmed the findings of previous research: In states where districts were remote longer, student achievement was worse.But there were also some outliers, like California. There, students saw smaller declines in math than average, even though the state had the highest closure rates on average. The researchers also noted that even among districts that spent the same amount of time in 2020-21 in remote learning, there were differences in achievement declines.

Are there other factors that could have contributed to these declines?

It’s probable. Remote learning didn’t take place in a vacuum, as educators and experts have repeatedly pointed out. But there’s not a lot of empirical evidence on this question just yet.

Children switched to virtual instruction as the pandemic unfolded around them—parents lost jobs, family members fell sick and died. In many cases, the school districts that chose remote learning served communities that also suffered some of the highest mortality rates from COVID.

The NWEA, AIR, and Harvard researchers—the group that looked at interim test data—note this. “It is possible that the relationships we have observed are not entirely causal, that family stress in the districts that remained remote both caused the decline in achievement and drove school officials to keep school buildings closed,” they wrote.

The Education Recovery Scorecard team plans to investigate the effects of other factors in future research, “such as COVID death rates, broadband connectivity, the predominant industries of employment and occupations for parents in the school district.”

Most of this data is from the 2020-21 school year. What’s happening now? Are students making progress?

They are—but it’s unevenly distributed.

NWEA, the interim assessment provider, recently analyzed test data from spring 2022. They found that student academic progress during the 2021-22 school did start to rebound.

But even though students at both ends of the distribution are making academic progress, lower-scoring students are making gains at a slower rate than higher-scoring students.

“It’s kind of a double whammy. Lower-achieving students were harder hit in that initial phase of the pandemic, and they’re not achieving as steadily,” Karyn Lewis, the lead author of the brief, said earlier in November.

What should schools do in response? How can they know where to focus their efforts?

That depends on what your own data show—though it’s a good bet that focusing on math, especially for kids who were already struggling, is a good place to start.

Test results across the board, from the NAEP to interim assessment data, show that declines have been larger in math than in reading. And kids who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, widening gaps with higher-achieving students.

But these sweeping analyses don’t tell individual teachers, or even districts, what their specific students need. That may look different from school to school.

“One of the things we found is that even within a district, there is variability,” Sean Reardon, a professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University and a researcher on the Education Recovery Scorecard, said in a statement.

“School districts are the first line of action to help children catch up. The better they know about the patterns of learning loss, the more they’re going to be able to target their resources effectively to reduce educational inequality of opportunity and help children and communities thrive,” he said.

Experts have emphasized two main suggestions in interviews with Education Week.

  • Figure out where students are. Teachers and school leaders can examine interim test data from classrooms or, for a more real-time analysis, samples of student work. These classroom-level data are more useful for targeting instruction than top-line state test results or NAEP scores, experts say.
  • Districts should make sure that the students who have been disproportionately affected by pandemic disruptions are prioritized for support.

“The implication for district leaders isn’t just, ‘am I offering the right kinds of opportunities [for academic recovery]?’” Lewis said earlier this month. “But also, ‘am I offering them to the students who have been harmed most?’”

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Nelson Mandela was right when he stated, “Education is the most powerful weapon you can utilize to transform the world.” Yes, the solution to any issue lies in education. Education is essential if you want to progress and succeed.

You can use education to increase both the economical and sociological quality of life in today’s society. Education is power, without any doubt. It has the capacity to transform your entire life. It is a gesture where you accept knowledge and then give methodical directions in return, ranging from promoting gender equality to eliminating poverty. Read More!

Importance of Education

You can understand the importance of education by reading the following points that I am going to discuss.

1. Helps Us Become Better Citizens

The truth is that despite being the most sophisticated and advanced species on Earth, humans are merely creatures with the capacity for rational thought and behaviour. However, a person cannot develop that rationalism within themselves without education. So, education helps us think rationally, take the right decisions, and aid in becoming better and more responsible citizens.

2. Enhances the Nation’s Progress

People who are educated are the foundation of any nation. If you are educated, you can distinguish between right and wrong. You are reasonably knowledgeable about the resources that are available as well as the best ways to use them. So, you will work for the betterment of your country and ultimately your country.

3. Ensures a Promising Future

The key to leading a contented and prosperous life is education. It assists us in identifying our hidden abilities and talents, which we can use to advance our careers, find work, and ensure our promising future. So, with education, you can have a successful profession and achieve your professional and personal goals.

How Does Education Influence the Society?

Learning is a lifelong process that never ends. New ideas arise with learning, and before you know it, you are questioning the previous concepts and beliefs. Your environment and personality have changed, which makes it easier for you to communicate with one another and feel free to share your thoughts. So, education aids in shaping one’s perspective on life and their ideas of it.

Although there are people from all different backgrounds and ideologies living in Pakistan and we have a very diverse population. So, the one thing that unites us all and compels us to support educational reform is education.

A person with education not only improves his or her own life but also the lives of those around him. They can provide each other with advice and a variety of suggestions related to political involvement, social justice, or ecological sustainability. As a result, education is a tool that can aid in making the right choices and bringing about change in the world.

What are The Ways Education Bring Change in Society?

Let me tell you how education brings about change in our society.

1. Provides Knowledge

As social creatures, we must be mindful of our surroundings, our community, and other societies. That is because we understand what is incorrect and how we can improve it. Knowledge of the world around us and the modifications that can be made to improve it is the first thing you receive through education. While education is not the only source of world information, it does offer a means of turning that information into knowledge.

2. Solve Problems

Whether there is a problem with the economy, society, medicine, or politics, knowledgeable and educated people who have a thorough understanding of the situation are always called upon to provide a solution

So, with education, you will learn to:

  • Differentiate between reliable and unreliable information.
  • Identify trustworthy sources of knowledge.
  • Perform research.
  • Recognize partiality.
  • Draw conclusions and judgments.
  • Encourage inquiry

3. Fighting social evils

Every society struggles to overcome some of the other flaws and social evils. We are attempting to combat societal issues like:

  • Casteism
  • Gender inequality
  • Poverty

, etc.

These societal problems will continue to exist and spread as long as some educated individual does not realize how they are consuming and damaging our economy.

4. Encourages to Speak Up

We need people who have the bravery to speak up against all that is going on in the world. Knowledge and education in your area of expertise are also necessary for having the guts to express your opinions and persuade others to listen. Education is the tool that provides you with the confidence to speak your mind without worrying about whom you are speaking to or what others may think of you.

5. Society’s Growth

Education is more than just acquiring a job and earning a living; it also involves the many bright entrepreneurs who develop a reputation for themselves and contribute to the advancement of society and the country as a whole. Your education gives you the self-assurance to take the first step toward realizing your greatest goals and dreaming of a future in which you would own your organization.

Education is the Key to Society’s Success

Education serves as the most powerful weapon. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen have the power to change the world. The only remedy is education. first, put education.

Therefore, after reviewing all of the aforementioned examples of how education can be used as a weapon, we can all conclude that education is a great equalizer that helps raise living standards, benefits communities, and even protects people from abuse and unrealistic expectations. Improving educational access and quality leads to greater outcomes at all levels.

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

Biology is fascinating, but not all of us have access to state-of-the-art laboratory equipment to do biology experiments. However, it is possible to do some simple experiments at home with the right materials. These DIY biology experiments are suitable for all ages and levels of knowledge. The main goal is to have fun with science and get curious.

To be on the safe side, the list doesn’t include genetic engineering experiments; in many countries, you are not allowed to perform them in uncertified facilities. If you are very keen, though, some people have been able to get their homes certified to create genetically modified microbes.

1. Extract your own DNA

It is very easy to extract DNA at home just using everyday kitchen supplies. You can extract your own DNA from your saliva, or you can use any fruit or vegetable you can find at home — bananas and strawberries are some of the most popular at science fairs.

Follow the steps here to extract the DNA. At the end of the process, you should have obtained a white, cloudy substance that you can pick up with a toothpick. You can then observe it under a microscope, or try out some methylene blue, a dye commonly used in biology labs that binds to DNA and makes it turn blue — note that it should be used with caution outside a lab. If you dry the DNA and store it in a paper bag or envelope, you will be able to use it in future experiments.

It is also possible to analyze the extracted DNA at home, although this step can be more pricey. Equipment for electrophoresis, a technique to separate DNA molecules according to their size, can be bought from around €300. It can also be built at home with some dedication. If you want to take it a step further, you can get a pocket-sized DNA sequencer for around €1,000 — scientists often use this portable sequencing equipment when going to remote locations without access to a lab.

2. Culture bacteria on homemade agar

Bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms are all around us. You can easily prepare culture medium at home and then collect samples from different places to find out what lives there.

In this video, you can find a step-by-step tutorial on how to make agar plates in your kitchen. Once you get some microbes to grow on the plates, you can experiment with how different conditions affect their growth or test the effect of antibiotics on the different microorganisms. (And if you have a DNA sequencer, you can use it to find which species are growing on your petri dish.)

For the creative souls out there, you can also make petri dish art by taking advantage of the different colors and textures of the different microbes you can find. Every year, the American Society for Microbiology runs a worldwide contest of agar art where you can submit your best creations.

3. Ferment your own food

Fermentation is one of the things bacteria and yeast make best. We’ve been using these microorganisms to make food since ancient times, and it’s quite easy to ferment your own food at home.

There are many options to choose from, ranging from drinks such as kombucha, kefir, or mead, to yogurt, cheese, kimchi, and sauerkraut. In most cases, what you need is just a starter culture of the bacteria or fungi that make the food you will be fermenting. You can get it from someone that is already doing fermentation at home, or buy them online.

Each fermented food has different requirements, so make sure you have everything you need before starting. There are plenty of online tutorials you can follow, and once you get comfortable with the techniques, you can start playing with different conditions and starter ingredients to modify the taste and texture of your food.

4. Look at cell division under the microscope

Nowadays you can easily find cheap digital microscopes with high magnification power that can be connected directly to your laptop or smartphone. You can take the digital microscope with you and observe every little thing you find at home or outdoors. (Tip: you’ll find many interesting forms of life in ponds or any other source of untreated water.)

A great experiment to do at home with a microscope is to look at how cells divide in different organisms. One of the easiest is baker’s yeast. With a magnification of at least 400x, you can start discerning the shapes of individual yeast cells in water. You will notice that some of them have little buds on them, which is the way they grow and divide.

The cells located at the tips of onion roots are also a very good subject of study. Whether you prepare and stain them yourself or you buy premade microscope slides, these cells are great to observe the different stages of mitosis and how the DNA gets duplicated and rearranged as the cells divide.

5. Make a bioluminescent lamp

Some microorganisms are able to generate light by themselves. When enough of them gather, they can make whole beaches glow at night. Luckily, we live in the age of the internet and it is possible to order these microbes online and get them delivered directly home. (For example, from shops like Carolina or Sea Farms.)

Bioluminescent organisms can last for several months under the right conditions, which includes making sure they receive enough light during the day to recharge their ability to glow. At night, they will start producing light when you shake them up.

You can experiment with growing these organisms in different conditions and play with their ability to make light. Another cool idea is introducing them into a closed fountain, where they will be constantly shaken and glowing (at least until they run out of energy).


These biology experiments will get you started with the world of DIY biology. If you are keen to dive deeper into doing biology outside the lab, the DIY biology community is growing rapidly around the globe. You can find labs and other biology enthusiasts in many cities across Europe and the US, where you will be able to attend workshops, access more advanced equipment, and meet people from all backgrounds keen to help you with your wildest biology projects. Have fun! Check more at