Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology

Anatomy, a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body. “Gross anatomy” customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined without the help of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy is concerned with the study of structural units small enough to be seen only with a light microscope. Dissection is basic to all anatomical research. The earliest record of its use was made by the Greeks, and Theophrastus called dissection “anatomy,” from ana temnein, meaning “to cut up.”

Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.

Gross anatomy

This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the world’s oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth, and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, Herophilus (flourished 300 bce), who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the 2nd century ce, Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to “restore” the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; “The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galen’s authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

From Vesalius’s exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabricius’s detailed descriptions of the venous valves.

Microscopic anatomy

The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research. Primitive early microscopes enabled Marcello Malpighi to discover the system of tiny capillaries connecting the arterial and venous networks, Robert Hooke to first observe the small compartments in plants that he called “cells,” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek to observe muscle fibres and spermatozoa. Thenceforth attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of bodily structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size.

The use of the microscope in discovering minute, previously unknown features was pursued on a more systematic basis in the 18th century, but progress tended to be slow until technical improvements in the compound microscope itself, beginning in the 1830s with the gradual development of achromatic lenses, greatly increased that instrument’s resolving power. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognize in 1838–39 that the cell is the fundamental unit of organization in all living things. The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections. In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century anatomists tended to scrutinize tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the 1950s and became the prime tool of anatomical research. About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspecialty of molecular anatomy.

Anatomical nomenclature

Scientific names for the parts and structures of the human body are usually in Latin; for example, the name musculus biceps brachii denotes the biceps muscle of the upper arm. Some such names were bequeathed to Europe by ancient Greek and Roman writers, and many more were coined by European anatomists from the 16th century on. Expanding medical knowledge meant the discovery of many bodily structures and tissues, but there was no uniformity of nomenclature, and thousands of new names were added as medical writers followed their own fancies, usually expressing them in a Latin form.

By the end of the 19th century the confusion caused by the enormous number of names had become intolerable. Medical dictionaries sometimes listed as many as 20 synonyms for one name, and more than 50,000 names were in use throughout Europe. In 1887 the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardizing the nomenclature, and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in 1895 that reduced the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, the Basle Nomina Anatomica, had to be subsequently expanded, and in 1955 the Sixth International Anatomical Congress at Paris approved a major revision of it known as the Paris Nomina Anatomica (or simply Nomina Anatomica). In 1998 this work was supplanted by the Terminologia Anatomica, which recognizes about 7,500 terms describing macroscopic structures of human anatomy and is considered to be the international standard on human anatomical nomenclature. The Terminologia Anatomica, produced by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (later known as the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies), was made available online in 2011.

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Business Economics

Business Economics

Business Economics

What is Business Economics?

Business economics is a field of study that reviews the implementation of the economic system in business operations. It assists in utilizing the nature and importance of financial analysis to clarify business problems. Moreover, the introduction to this definition helps balance between limited sources and unlimited aspirations.

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The nature and importance of business economics lie in the future prediction and drafting of several regulations for profit maximization. The relevant areas pertained to this discipline are demand analysis and forecasting, cost and production analysis, pricing decisions, profit management, and wealth governance.

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The business economics definition implicates blending business processes with economic theories to simplify the decision-making procedure.
It reviews the study of the firm’s financial, market-related, environmental, and organizational issues. Moreover, it is considered both an art and science.
It covers demand analysis and forecasting, cost and production analysis, pricing decisions and strategies, profit management, and wealth management.
Its objectives include future prediction, recognition, and clarification of business issues, drafting business policies, and establishing relations between different economic aspects.

Business Economics Explained

Business economics or managerial economics discusses the usage and importance of economic policies and concepts in business governance. Moreover, it analyzes economic models, approaches, and philosophies applied to solve rational business issues. The introduction to business economics is certainly both an art and a science.

It is a sphere of economicsEconomics is an area of social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of limited resources within a more analyzing the study of organizational, fiscal, environmental, and market-related problems. Therefore, this includes the topics of product factors, scarcity, consumption, and dissemination.

It is important to comprehend the nature of business economics, which is closely related to normative economicsNormative economics refers to economists’ opinions about what they believe. It may be true for some, but false for others. Furthermore, the statements mentioned under normative economics cannot be verified or more. Simply put, economic theory is utilized for administration in a doubtful situation to solve or elucidate difficulties in company management.

For instance, demand, profitProfit refers to the earnings that an individual or business takes home after all the costs are paid. In economics, the term is associated with monetary gains. read more, pricing, competition, production, national income, business cycles, etc.

Scope Of Business Economics

In the same vein, the below-mentioned disciplines describe the scope of introduction to business economics:

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#1 – Demand Analysis and Forecasting

This aids in directing the organization to arrange production schedules and harness resources. Additionally, it assists the leadership preserve and boosting the revenueRevenue is the amount of money that a business can earn in its normal course of business by selling its goods and services. In the case of the federal government, it refers to the total amount of income generated from taxes, which remains unfiltered from any more base and market position through discerning various factors affecting the product demand.

#2 – Cost And Production Analysis

The business economics definition entails the production of cost assessment of various outputs and recognizing elements behind the deviations in estimated costs. That is to say, the manager selects cost reduction output levels and also avoids the time and material wastage to attain the desired profit percentageThe profit percentage formula calculates the financial benefits left with the entity after it has paid all the expenses. Profit percentage is of two types – markup expressed as a percentage of cost price or profit margin calculated using the selling more. This also constitutes the implementation of Break-even analysisBreak-even analysis refers to the identifying of the point where the revenue of the company starts exceeding its total cost i.e., the point when the project or company under consideration will start generating the profits by the way of studying the relationship between the revenue of the company, its fixed cost, and the variable more.

#3 – Costing Decisions and Strategies

Valuation is the root of the company’s earningsEarnings are usually defined as the net income of the company obtained after reducing the cost of sales, operating expenses, interest, and taxes from all the sales revenue for a specific time period. In the case of an individual, it comprises wages or salaries or other more since its success is mostly based on the accuracy of costing decisions. Moreover, the key aspects incorporate pricing methods, price discovery in numerous market forms, product line pricing, and differential pricing.

#4 – Profit Management

The manager must be able to devise a more or less precise evaluation of the company’s expected gains and pricing at distinct output levels. To clarify, uncertainty reduction assists the firm in achieving higher revenues. While comprehending the importance of business economics, profit calculation and profit planning are the most difficult concepts.

#5 – Wealth Management

It infers regulation and drafting of capital expenses due to the involvement of a huge amount. Disposing of the capital assets is quite complicated and hence, demands a substantial amount of labor and time. Subsequently, this requires the business to manage current assetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, more and current liabilitiesCurrent Liabilities are the payables which are likely to settled within twelve months of reporting. They’re usually salaries payable, expense payable, short term loans more properly.


Here are some examples of introduction to business economics for better comprehension.

Example #1

Suppose that an enterprise named XYZ Corp. deals in manufacturing home furnishings. Now, it performs demand forecasting to evaluate its market penetrationMarket penetration is calculated as how much the customers are using the product or service compared to the total market for that product or more rate. Next, the firm computes estimated equipment and labor costs and executes production analysis to exploit the available resources.

Adopting smart pricing tactics and product line pricing aids the enterprise in avoiding overspending. Then, it determines the opportunity costThe difference between the chosen plan of action and the next best plan is known as the opportunity cost. It’s essentially the cost of the next best alternative that has been more and profit planning to ensure goal attainment within the stipulated period. Lastly, the company designs and controls capital expendituresCapex or Capital Expenditure is the expense of the company’s total purchases of assets during a given period determined by adding the net increase in factory, property, equipment, and depreciation expense during a fiscal more to maintain and enhance its market stature.

So, the process mentioned above implies the application of economic theories to the corporate decision-making process.

Example #2

During its initial phase, Uber didn’t strategize to be high on the fixed investment aspect owing to its doubts about market penetration. Instead, it began with an aggregator business model responsible for connecting riders to drivers.

The latter drove the cars as and when deemed feasible and were paid weekly according to the terms of the ride. Then, with an increased market horizon, Uber started connecting drivers permanently to the car fleet owners and hired drivers. This helped the firm satisfy all the rider requests without relying on the availability of drivers.

Needlessly, this transformation is a clear testament to the definition and importance of business economics. After the intensive market assessment, Uber then decided to soar the supply. It conducted the cost-benefit evaluation and expanded its employee base for fulfilling the surging ride demands.
Business Economics Objectives

The following points explain the objectives of business economics:

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#1 – Identification And Resolution of Business Problems

Managerial economics involves many significant concepts like short-run and long-run costs, demand and supply analysis, and the law of diminishing marginal utilityThe law of diminishing marginal utility states that the amount of satisfaction provided by consuming every additional unit of goods decreases as we increase that goods consumption. Marginal utility is the change in the contentment derived from consuming an extra unit of more. This certainly aids the business manager in recognizing and clarifying the business issues.

#2 – Designing Numerous Profitable Business Policies

Keeping profit maximization in mind aids in drafting several business policies like cost policies and pricing policies. Please note that the depiction of these regulations is done as per economic assessment and data.

#3 – Future Prediction

The intensive evaluation of multiple economic variables, including business capital and cost production, assists firms in future prediction. Subsequently, it permits the enterprise to detect and avert any unwanted situation by capitalizing on the available resources.

#4 – Building Relations Between Distinct Financial Aspects

Managerial economics assists build relations between diverse economic factorsEconomic factors are external, environmental factors that influence business performance, such as interest rates, inflation, unemployment, and economic growth, among more such as profits, income, market structure, and losses. This certainly aids in supervising the managers for efficient decision-making and seamless business administration.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What Is the Scope of Business Economics?

The scope of business economics is extensive and covers the below-mentioned fields:

1. Demand analysis and prediction
2. Pricing and production analysis
3. Pricing plans and decisions
4. Profit management
5. Wealth management

What Is the Nature of Business Economics?

Generally, the nature of business economics is normative. It provides insights into the exercise of economic concepts during decision-making, policy formation, and future planning. Nonetheless, companies must completely understand the atmosphere for establishing decision policies.

What Are the Two Components of Business Economics?

The two major components of business economics introduction are supply and demand and the effect of scarcity. Other subjects included in this discipline are product factors, consumption, and dissemination.

Precisely put, managerial economics aims at the factors and components throughout business activities and their relation to the economy. Additionally, it involves assessing external financial factors and their impact on company decisions.

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This has been a guide to Business Economics & its Definition. Here we explain the introduction of business economics, its scope, importance, and nature. You may learn more about our articles below on Economics –

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

The Ultimate Guide to Japanese Speaking

If you follow the instructions in this over the top, step-by-step guide, you will reach your goal of Japanese fluency.

However, this journey is going to take a lot of effort and hard work on your part. Anyone who tells you learning a language is going to be easy is either misinformed or trying to sell you something. And eventually, after the honeymoon phase of learning wears off, progress feels slower. You burn out. Sh*t hits the fan. If you’ve ever tried learning something new, you know exactly what I’m talking about.

Instead, you need to do things the hard way (i.e. the correct way) right from the start.

Just because we’re doing it right doesn’t mean it has to be inefficient.

This method for learning Japanese starts at the very beginning. I assume you have zero knowledge of the Japanese language and guide you through each step. I’ll cover reading, writing, speaking, and listening. And we explain what you should use, when, and why.

This should be everything you need to progress, that way you don’t use all of that fresh enthusiasm you’re feeling on planning how to learn, and instead spend it on actual learning.

Make like those famous shoes and just do it.
Learning to read hiragana

Our goal is to reach Japanese fluency as directly as possible. Unlike a teacher or a textbook, we have the freedom to be ruthless in the path we take to get there.

There are no tests or quizzes to take. You don’t have to move at the speed of the slowest learner in your group. All you need to do is follow each step, do the work, and progress.

Just keep in mind that because of this, some steps may seem counterintuitive. They may even seem slow compared to other methods, but everything has been carefully selected to get you to the finish line faster and more efficiently. We’ll talk more about that later.

A bit of housekeeping first: This is a living document, meaning it will be updated from time to time. Check back, subscribe to our email list, or follow us on Twitter to know when these updates happen. And, if you already have experience with Japanese, I still recommend you give it a read. There’s a good chance you’ll find something important to help you on your own Japanese language journey.

Zero Knowledge of Japanese

Welcome to learning Japanese! This section is for the true beginner. You know little-to-no Japanese. Maybe a “konnichiwa” here and a “baka” there. These first steps you take are especially important because they’re going to set a foundation you can build off of.

The more deliberate your steps, the easier everything that follows will be.

Carefully completing this section is going to be necessary if you want to avoid the thing that takes down most learners: the intermediate wall. Instead, take your time on these foundational steps. What feels slow now is actually speed later on.
Learn to Read Hiragana

Estimated Time: 1 day to 1 week
Learning to read hiragana

Hiragana is Japan’s version of the alphabet. It is one of three Japanese writing systems you need to learn to be able to read. The other two are katakana and kanji, but hiragana is where everything starts.

The ability to read hiragana is going to be a prerequisite for most beginner Japanese textbooks and resources. It’s the first thing you learn in a traditional classroom. Surprisingly, I agree with everyone else. This is a good place to start.

Most Japanese classrooms spend an entire month learning how to read and write hiragana. That’s too long! Instead of writing out each hiragana character over and over to memorize them, use the guide below and you may be reading hiragana later tonight. It uses mnemonics and worksheets that are designed to help you learn and be able to recall hiragana faster than you thought possible.

Do it: Learn How to Read Hiragana

It’s important to note that this guide is going to teach you how to read hiragana and not how to write it. This has a purpose! While it is important to learn how to hand write Japanese eventually, right now it will slow you down immensely with very little payoff. Typing covers 99% of modern day writing so you will learn how to type hiragana (and katakana and kanji) instead.

This, in combination with mnemonics and worksheets, will allow you to learn how to read hiragana in a day or two instead of a month.

Remember: You’re not in a class. You don’t have to move at the speed of the slowest 10%. There is no speed limit.

In order to complete this section and move on, you need to get to the point where you can read all of the hiragana. Even if you’re slow, as long as you can recall each character, as well as the contractions, without cheating, that’s enough. You’re about to get plenty of practice and your reading speed will naturally increase over time as you move on.

Note: Read “Japanese Pronunciation, Part 1” (below) before you start learning hiragana.

Basic Japanese Pronunciation

Estimated Time: n/a
Learning to read hiragana

Good pronunciation starts with hiragana. While hiragana alone won’t teach you everything, it is the key to understanding how and why Japanese words sound the way they do. It will also help you get the foundation you need for a native-sounding accent. At the very least, hiragana will get you 80% of the way there.

For the remaining 20%, we wrote a guide covering the basics of Japanese pronunciation. Before you begin learning how to read hiragana, you should read up to the “Japanese Sounds and Your Mouth” section.

Once you’ve finished learning how to read hiragana, go though that section again, but this time read about “Important Differences” as well. This section will cover all of the sounds that don’t exist in English, giving you a head start. Make sure you can pronounce all of the hiragana characters correctly before moving on.

Read: Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide

With pronunciation, it’s best to put the time and work in now, at the beginning. Don’t ignore it because it’s hard. When things get more difficult, it’s very important that you’ve spent time speaking and hearing these sounds so that you can learn about all the differences and exceptions headed your way.

Okay, now go ahead and get back to learning how to read hiragana. Get to the point where you can read and recall everything, then move on to the next section.

Learning to Type Hiragana in Japanese

Estimated Time: 1-2 days (or less)
Prerequisite: Able to read hiragana
Learning to read hiragana

Now that you can read and pronounce hiragana (remember, slowly is okay!) it’s time to learn how to type it on your computer or smartphone.

First, you need to install a Japanese keyboard. Luckily, you don’t have to buy a special piece of hardware or computer to do this thanks to a type of software called an IME (input method editor). You can add an IME onto almost any kind of computer, phone, or operating system. Just follow the instructions in this guide to add them to your devices:

Read: How to Install a Japanese Keyboard

After you’re done installing, it’s time to learn how to actually type. Use the following guide, and only focus on the hiragana portion (since that’s all you know how to read right now):

Read: How to Type in Japanese

Assuming you are able to read hiragana, typing in hiragana is surprisingly straightforward. Once you feel confident in your typing abilities, including trickier things like contractions, small tsu, and dakuten, move on to the next section. It’s time to talk about the elephant in every Japanese learner’s room: kanji.

Understanding the Concept of “Kanji”

Estimated Time: n/a
Learning to read hiragana

In our Japanese learning method, you’re going to learn to read kanji characters very early. As soon as you can read and type hiragana it’s time to start tackling kanji.

Here is our reasoning:

The most difficult thing about learning Japanese is kanji. At least, that’s what people say. But trying to save it or brush it off until later isn’t going to help you learn Japanese. Almost everything uses kanji, making it one of the most important aspects of learning this language. Your learning quality of life will drop drastically if you choose to ignore it.

A lot of a beginner’s time when using a textbook is spent looking up kanji and vocabulary. This takes your focus away from the grammar you’re trying to learn and makes progression slow and frustrating. Learning (some) kanji and vocabulary first makes learning grammar a lot faster and, more importantly, easier. Think of it this way: you’re losing a little time now to save a ton of time later.

Kanji leads to vocabulary, vocabulary aids communication, and grammar is like the glue that holds vocabulary together. Without vocabulary there’s nothing for the grammar glue to stick to and everything gets messy. It makes grammar abstract and difficult to learn, when it doesn’t have to be.

Like hiragana, we have a way for you to learn kanji that’s way more effective than the traditional methodology (rote memorization). Thanks to that, it won’t be as difficult as everyone says. It may even *gasp* be a pleasure to learn! Maybe.

This kanji-vocabulary-first route will get you to the point where you can use Japanese quickly. It feels slow at first, but soon you will rocket past your fellow Japanese learning compatriots. You’ll also be able to get over that “intermediate wall” easier and quicker than if you were to use a traditional method. This lowers your chances of burnout and giving up all together.

If you’re on board with this philosophy, you need to start at the very beginning: understanding what kanji is and how it’s used. For that, we have another guide for you to read:

Read: On’yomi vs. Kun’yomi: What’s the Difference?

Once you understand how Japanese kanji readings work, you’ll be ready to learn some actual kanji.
Beginning Kanji & Stockpiling Kanji Knowledge

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
Learning to read hiragana

Important note about this section: You should start to learn katakana (the next section) at the same time as this step. “Beginning Kanji & Stockpiling Kanji Knowledge” will take 1-3 months. In fact, you can complete all of the steps up to “The Beginner of Japanese” while you work on this one!

Okay, so it’s time to actually learn kanji. Let’s define what “learn kanji” means before you get started. That way you know what is expected of you.

When I say “learn kanji” I mean learn the kanji’s most important (English) meaning(s), and their most important (Japanese) reading(s). As you know from reading about on’yomi and kun’yomi, some kanji have a lot of readings. And, unfortunately, English meanings are just translations and can’t always match the Japanese meaning one-to-one. That means there can be many correct English meanings for a single kanji that you’ll need to deal with. We’ll narrow those down so you only learn the most important meanings and readings first—the ones used 80-90% of the time. The remaining meanings and readings will come via vocabulary and other practice.

As you learn kanji you will also learn vocabulary that use those kanji. Not only will this help solidify those kanji concepts in your mind, but it will also be where you learn the remaining kanji readings. Plus, as you know, this vocabulary will be used to give you something to glue together with grammar later.

By the end of this guide, your goal is to know around 2,000 of the most important kanji as well as 6-7000 vocabulary words that use them. With this groundwork you should be able to read almost anything—or at least have the tools to easily decipher the rest on your own.

Your goal should be to learn 20-30 kanji and ~100 vocabulary words that use those kanji (and only those kanji) each week. If that seems like a lot, don’t worry: there is a method for memorization that will speed things up considerably. Please read up on the Radicals Mnemonic Method. As a bonus, you will learn some important foundational knowledge about how kanji works in here as well.

Read: Learn kanji with the radicals mnemonic method

In this guide you will learn how to narrow down kanji meanings and readings to the most important ones. You will learn how to use radicals and mnemonics and how to create an effective routine.

You should be able to use these techniques to create a weekly study plan on your own for free, as long as you put in the work. But, if you would like all of the above (and then some) in one, complete package, we recommend the kanji learning program, WaniKani.

We’ll be referencing it going forward, but just know that creating your own content and schedule is totally fine and doable. You’ll just need to make sure you maintain your pace to keep up. Or, for some of you, make sure you slow down so you don’t burn out!

Once you begin learning vocabulary in WaniKani (or your own system) read the Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide from the Pronouncing Vocabulary section all the way through to the end. You will learn about long and short vowel sounds, double consonants, dropping sounds (all common stumbling blocks for beginners), and more. You will also learn about pitch accent. Although it may be difficult now, just knowing pitch accent exists and how it works in Japanese will give you a leg up.

Read: Basic Japanese Pronunciation Guide

Okay! Make sure you get started now. Do the work, don’t just plan to do it! Sitting down and starting is the hardest part.

Learn to Read Katakana

Estimated Time: 2 days to 2 weeks
Prerequisite: Able to read hiragana

Learning how to read katakana

Learning katakana is about the same as learning hiragana, with a few Shyamalanian twists. We have yet another mnemonic-based guide for you, and chances are you’ll be able to read katakana within the next few days if you’re willing to put in the work.

You should get to the point where you can read all of the katakana, however slowly, by the time you start unlocking vocabulary in WaniKani (or by the time you start vocabulary in your own kanji method). Although katakana words won’t show up a lot right from the start, there are enough to make it worthwhile. It’s also a good way to spend your extra time while the number of kanji you’re learning is still quite low.

Do it: Learn to Read Katakana

Note: Katakana tends to give learners more trouble than hiragana. This is because it seems to be used less than hiragana and kanji, especially at the beginning stages. Later on, katakana will appear more frequently, but for now simply being able to read katakana is enough. There will be plenty of opportunities to get better at it—just know that reading katakana may not come as quickly as it did with hiragana. And that’s okay. Hiragana and kanji are just more useful right now, so spend your limited time and energy there.

Once you can read each katakana character—no matter how slowly—move on to the next section about typing katakana.
Learning to Type Katakana

Estimated Time: 1-2 hours
Prerequisites: Able to type hiragana, able to read katakana
Learning how to type katakana with your keyboard

Katakana is similar to hiragana in many ways, and thanks to this, learning how to type it should be fairly easy. There are a few differences to figure out, but you will be able to apply your hiragana knowledge to it and progress quickly. Jump to the katakana section of our typing guide and get started.

Read: How to Type Katakana

Note: Make sure you keep working on your kanji! If you’re using WaniKani, just do your reviews as they become available. It’s important to make this a habit. Because WaniKani is a spaced repetition system there must be spaces between reviews. Longer and longer ones, in fact (though it will depend on how well you’re doing). Do your reviews on time and you’ll get through this initial “slow” phase in a week or two. That’s a drop in the bucket compared to your entire Japanese-learning career, so try to be patient. The waiting time is critical to testing your ability to recall information.

Learning to Type Kanji

Estimated Time: 1-2 hours
Prerequisite: Able to read 20-30 kanji

Learning how to type kanji on your keyboard

Before starting this step, make sure you can read a handful of kanji. Twenty or thirty will do just fine. If you’re using WaniKani, this is when you start unlocking vocabulary or are around level 2.

Okay, are you done?

Typing in kanji is a little more complicated than typing in hiragana or katakana, but it still follows similar rules. Learn how to type in kanji using the kanji section of our guide then read to the end. There are some additional tips and tricks in there (punctuation, symbols, etc.) that may come in handy.

Read: How to type kanji

Now you know how to type everything there is to type in Japanese (that is, unless you count kaomoji)! If you can type in English, typing in Japanese is surprisingly easy. With practice, you’ll be able to type it as naturally as you type in your native language.

To continue using this typing knowledge, you’ll need to know more kanji and vocabulary. Once you get there though, you’ll be ready for “The Beginner of Japanese” section!

Before moving on, you should reach level 10 on WaniKani (or around 300 kanji and 1,000 vocabulary words using your own method).

This is an important time in terms of pronunciation too. Make sure you consciously mimic the vocabulary audio. Think about pitch accent as you do it. This work will prepare you for sentences later.

With this kanji knowledge (and good pronunciation, to boot!), grammar is going to come quickly to you. You won’t be spending your grammar study time looking up every other word. Instead, you’ll be able to focus solely on grammar, and you’ll know the contents of 80% of every sentence you see for the first time. When you say these sentences out loud, you won’t be tripping over your tongue because you’ll already be intimately familiar with Japanese sounds and pronunciation. The time you put into kanji, vocabulary, and pronunciation will begin to pay off.

Put your head down, trust in this, and do the work each day.

Go on, get to it, and come back here when you’re done.
The Beginner of Japanese

Being a beginner of anything is great. Everything is new, everything feels like real, tangible progress, and even if you’re bad at something, you can’t really tell because you don’t know enough yet anyway.

Enjoy it while it lasts.

At this point, you have a strong base of kanji and vocabulary. If you are using WaniKani, you should be at level 10 or above. If you are doing kanji on your own, or using another resource, you should know the most common meaning and reading of around 300 kanji and 1,000 vocabulary words. If you are using a resource that only teaches you the meaning of a kanji (and not how to read it), that doesn’t count. You need to be able to do the whole thing, not just the easiest 20%.

With this assumption about your knowledge in place, we’re going to go through some options for how you can learn Japanese grammar. This includes using a textbook as well as creating your own grammar program from scratch. We offer some of our own material as well. Most likely, you’ll end up doing a hybrid of the above. No matter what you choose, your foundation of kanji, vocabulary, and pronunciation will make everything much easier. Without it, even the best Japanese textbook will be a frustrating experience.

Using a Spaced Repetition System For Vocabulary

Estimated Time: 2-4 hours + ongoing
Increasing your kanji knowledge

You will learn a lot of vocabulary purely from your kanji studies. As long as you have a good kanji system in place, you shouldn’t worry too much. However, you will definitely need to learn all of the words that do not use kanji too. In the beginning, this will largely be grammatical things, and words that don’t use kanji, from your textbook. Later it will be vocabulary you pick up from signs, manga, and other real life sources.

It’s time to learn how and when to introduce vocabulary words from outside your kanji studies into your study routine. The most important thing is to have a good system in place.

You need to be able to record and store these words so that you can study them later. You also need a good system to handle and process these words. It’s a waste if you record them once and never look at them again.

At your currently level, most of the new words you encounter will probably be hiragana or katakana-only words. Once you start reading more and more Japanese, the number of new words you encounter will increase, so being able to keep track and add these to your routine becomes even more important. For now though, your goal is to develop a habit of collecting, processing, and studying vocabulary that is unfamiliar to you. This should become second nature.

1. Collecting Vocabulary

Most likely, you will find most of the vocabulary that you want to learn in your Japanese textbook (we’ll cover that really soon!). As I mentioned earlier, these might be words that don’t have kanji, or maybe they’re words that you didn’t learn in WaniKani. There are a lot of words out there and no one resource will teach you all of them.

Once you’ve found some words that you want to learn you need to collect them. How you do this doesn’t matter as much as actually doing it. Put them in a spreadsheet, a tool like Evernote or OneNote, or just write them down on a piece of paper. Make sure wherever you put these new words is easily accessible and make a trigger for yourself that essentially says “if I see a vocabulary word I want to learn, then I add it to my list.”

There are plenty of list-apps and pieces of paper out there, so it’s going to be difficult for me to say what you should use. I’m partial to Evernote and have my own processes built up there. And Airtable is a great spreadsheet app for people who don’t think in math. But maybe you like physical pocket-sized notebooks, to-do lists, your smartphone camera (with a special folder for future processing), or something else.

Whatever you use, make sure it’s easy for you. Figure out what makes sense and make it work. If this step doesn’t happen, everything else will fall apart.

2. Processing

The next step is processing. I’d recommend you create a habit where every day, week, or month (it depends on how much new vocabulary you want to introduce to your routine) you go through this list and put them into your SRS of choice. What is an SRS? I’m glad you asked.

3. Adding the Words to Your SRS

If you’ve been using WaniKani, you’ve been using a “Spaced Repetition System” (a.k.a. SRS) this whole time! But you’ll want to use something else for the vocabulary you find out in the wild. For this, we wrote a guide. In it you’ll learn how to collect vocabulary and add them to your SRS.

Read: Spaced Repetition and Japanese: The Definitive Guide

One additional piece of reading I’d recommend is this article on Keyword Mnemonics. For the non-kanji vocabulary you want to learn this is a surprisingly simple (and effective) mnemonic method which will allow you to learn more vocabulary in one sitting, and be able to recall it for longer.

Read: Keyword Mnemonic Method for Learning Japanese Vocabulary

As I said earlier, you won’t be working with a ton of vocabulary at the start. For now, let your kanji studies give you most of your vocabulary. Then, when stray street vocabulary does start coming up, send it through the vocabulary process you’ve built.

Make this a habit.

Habit generally means 3-6 weeks of doing something regularly. And you should start now, because in six weeks you’ll be needing to utilize this habit a lot more.

Beginning Japanese Grammar

Estimated Time: It’s a mystery
Learning how to pronounce Japanese vocabulary

It’s (finally!) time to start learning grammar. If you followed this guide to the letter, you’re probably 2-4+ months into your Japanese studies. If it’s more than that, don’t worry about it. We all go at our own speeds and the important thing is that you kept moving forward. You should know around 300 kanji and 1,000 Japanese vocabulary words, and your pronunciation should be getting better, or at least you’re being conscious about improving it. Now it’s time to kick Japanese grammar’s butt.

Let’s start by internalizing a philosophy. Carry this with you for the rest of your life:

When learning something new, you should already know 80% of it.

This means that each new thing you learn should be a 20% (or smaller) incremental step. A +1 from where you are, rather than a +20 or +100.

Most people go into a textbook with zero knowledge and wind up spending a large chunk of their time looking up words they don’t know. How much of a sentence is vocabulary? Depending on the length, it’s easy to answer “more than 80%.”

So when you’re learning grammar with a textbook, coming into it with prior vocabulary knowledge brings you to that 80%. Leaving you just the grammar, which you can then point your laser-like focus towards. Instead of constantly flipping to the index to look up a word or kanji and deal with context switching when you finally get back to the lesson, all you have to worry about is learning the grammar and nothing else.

That’s the +1 we’re talking about.

Let’s assume for a moment that your Japanese vocabulary knowledge doesn’t get you to 80% (or more). If that’s the case, there are a few possible reasons:

  • You don’t know enough vocabulary: If you don’t know a lot of the words in a sentence before studying with it, then you don’t understand 80% of the sentence before you start. In this case, go back to your kanji/vocabulary studies for a while and reconsider the level of the resource you’re using. Another solution would be to pull the vocabulary from the resource, study them with your SRS method, and then come back once you’ve learned them.
  • You don’t know enough grammar: Imagine you’re looking at a sentence that contains three separate grammar points. If you’re being taught one of the three, but you don’t know the other two, you’re dipping way below that ideal 80%.
  • The sentence is very short: If a phrase only has three parts (ex. “[vocabulary] + [particle] + [vocabulary]”), and you don’t know one of them, you’re going to be at 66%. In cases like this, you can make an exception. Knowing 66% of a three piece phrase, or 75% of a four piece phrase is acceptable. This will be very common in the beginning.

That’s the philosophy we’re working off of going forward, so double-check that you have that base of kanji and vocab before continuing with this guide. Your failure rate increases dramatically if this foundation is weak!

A Beginner’s Japanese Textbook / Program

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
A student wondering what Japanese textbook they should use

It’s time to take our philosophy and apply it to a beginner textbook. All the things that would have normally tripped you up (the things teachers and textbooks have a tough time explaining, due to the curse of knowledge) should now be less difficult to deal with. And with kanji and vocabulary already in your tool belt, learning grammar should be much more interesting. You won’t be spending 90% of your time and energy on looking up kanji and vocabulary you don’t know. Instead, you’ll just be doing it.

With this base knowledge, choosing a specific textbook or program to follow becomes less important, but there are still many “good” textbooks and many “bad” textbooks out there. Most will teach you the same content one way or another, so pick one that you feel fits your learning style.

To help you with this choice, we wrote a guide:

Read: The Best Japanese Textbooks for Beginners

Whatever you end up choosing, get started right away. It’s so easy for people to get trapped in a “preparation loop” where they spend all of their time planning and getting ready, only to stop before any actual work gets done.

At this point you will focus on working through your textbook of choice. Try to progress through the entire thing from beginning to end. Doing this will create a strong foundation of Japanese inside of you, something you can use to base other knowledge off of.

Once all of the basic, foundational grammar is in place you’ll be able to really accelerate and work toward fluency.

It will take around 2-6 months to get through most beginner Japanese textbooks. Though, this does depend on how much time you have to spend on your studies and what grammar method you choose. You can even go through a couple different textbooks at the same time, if you want. What one textbook doesn’t teach well, another probably does. That being said, if you don’t feel like you understand a concept, or you want to know more, there’s plenty of ways to get your questions answered. I recommend not skipping questions—instead, follow your curiosity! Learning is supposed to be fun, though school may have “taught” you otherwise.

Read the next section as you start your textbook studies. You’ll eventually run into something you don’t know that your textbook doesn’t explain. You might as well be ready for it.
Answering Your Japanese Language Questions

Answering questions about Japanese

As you’re going through your textbook, you’re going to run into things you don’t understand. Or, you’ll find you don’t know 80% anymore. It’s not necessarily a failure of your textbook, it’s just that many of them were designed for teachers to use in a classroom. They expect someone to be there to answer questions for you. Or, there just isn’t enough paper in the world to cover everything.

Not to worry. When you run into something you don’t understand you can look it up. No matter what kind of question you’re asking or answer you’re searching for, we wrote up a guide that will tell you how to find anything Japanese language related:

Read: How to Answer your Japanese Language Questions

Note: You should continue to use WaniKani (or whatever kanji learning method you chose) as you continue on. You should keep going until you finish, and/or you reach the end of this guide. It is important to keep your kanji-vocabulary knowledge ahead of your grammar knowledge at all times. If you don’t, that 80% ratio will tick down until your studies no longer feel sustainable or fun.

Alternative: Learning Japanese Grammar On Your Own

Estimated Time: 1-3 months
A student studying Japanese grammar online

By gathering all that kanji and vocabulary knowledge you’re making it possible to learn grammar on your own. Learning grammar is easy comparatively. That being said, if you decide not to use a Japanese textbook as your main resource, there are some things you’ll want to consider:

Order of Learning

This is a topic we’ll be writing a big guide on. But, it’s quite complicated so I haven’t gotten around to it yet. We’ll fill in this section with that guide in the near future, but for now don’t use my slowness as an excuse. Just get started. If you do, ordering will, for the most part, naturally fall into place if you follow the “know 80% of all new things” philosophy.

Fact Checking / Cross Referencing

Don’t just trust any ol’ thing you read on the internet. The same goes for textbooks and teachers, too. When you learn a new piece of Japanese grammar, make sure to read explanations from multiple sources. Some will be complicated with hard linguistic language while others will be overly simplified. And a few here and there will be just right! Making a habit out of using multiple explanations and resources for one thing will feel like it’s slowing you down at first, but it’s much faster overall. We’ll list some really good reference books at the end of the Beginning Japanese section, so make sure to take a look.

Do the Work

If you’re studying Japanese grammar on your own, it’s even more important to do the work. It’s not hard to study and use what you’ve learned. It’s hard to sit down and start. Even more so than a class or textbook, you’ll need to make sure you actually sit down and make progress. Measurable progress, preferably, though you’ll have to figure out just how to measure it.

With a textbook, you can just say, “I could answer all the questions,” or, “I made it through twelve pages this week.” Doing grammar on your own makes it harder to see and feel yourself moving forward. You are, but it’s a bit hidden.

Sometimes, You’ll Just Get Stuck

If this is happening a lot—and no amount of research gets you through it—you might want to consider finding a professional to help. Speaking of professionals…

Optional: Finding A Japanese Language Tutor

Estimated Time: n/a
A Japanese teacher and her student

This may be the time to consider finding a Japanese language tutor, especially if you feel like you’re not able to answer your questions about Japanese on your own. With a foundation of kanji and vocabulary already in place, you will be able to focus on the things that a tutor can help you with the most: speaking, listening, and answering questions.

Keep in mind that focusing on kanji and vocabulary with a tutor tends to be a poor use of this time. Most teachers don’t have any idea how to teach kanji (it’s just, “go learn these kanji and vocab by next week”) and many tutors try to promote rote memorization because that’s how they learned as a child.

When using a tutor it’s important to focus on things only a tutor will be able to help you with. Those include their ability to speak, think, and explain nuances that haven’t been written about or studied (yet).

You’re not required to get a tutor or a teacher at this point, but if you were really looking forward to this part, now is the appropriate time to do it. Everything from here on out won’t rely on your having access to a teacher, tutor, or native speaker, so you can still progress without needing to complete this step.

Suggested Books and Resources

Estimated Time: n/a

A student reading Japanese reference books

As you’re moving along, there’s always going to be more to learn. Don’t be afraid to stop moving forward to indulge your curiosity. These “slowdowns” will speed you up as you strengthen past knowledge and make connections between them.

For times like this, reference books are quite good. If you’re only going to buy one, I’d recommend the “Basic” book from the Dictionary of Japanese Grammar series. It is the best Japanese language reference book out there, in my opinion.

Other than that, look through the “Reference Books” section of our Beginner Japanese Textbooks, Reference Books, and Dictionaries article. There are quite a few good ones!

Read: The Best Japanese Reference Books & Dictionaries

Note: With any skill, it’s important that you focus on the things you’re worst at. “Raise the floor, not the ceiling,” so to speak. If you do that, you’ll find everything else gets elevated, and you’ll be less frustrated overall. You’ll have more data to reference in your brain as more unknown ideas and concepts pop up. For example, if you’re bad at verbs, pick up The Handbook of Japanese Verbs and just read through it. It might take you an afternoon, but every verb you see from that day on won’t be a detriment to your progress. Instead, it will positively affect all other aspects of your Japanese.

Raise the floor, because no matter how high your ceiling, you’ll still be down on the ground.

The “intermediate” level of Japanese is by far the worst. Most of the people who ultimately give up on learning do it here (assuming they made it past the first few weeks).

Available resources begin to dry up, in both number and quality, and learners get stuck or plateau. Without guidance, it can feel like progressing is an impossible task.

This is the intermediate wall.

The thing that makes the intermediate level the hardest, though, is what got you here: your competence.

The beginner section was your unconscious incompetence stage. That is, you didn’t realize you were incompetent, so you never felt discouraged, overly embarrassed, or stupid. But now you know a thing or two, and it’s just enough to know you’re not actually amazing at this thing called the Japanese language. It hurts and it’s because you are now consciously incompetent, which is no fun at all.

Thankfully, a lot of the pain most learners feel at this stage comes from poor learning or teaching methods from the beginner stages. Things that you, hopefully, avoided. And although everyone will experience conscious incompetence to some degree, some people can get through it quickly and some get trapped here for years. Most, unfortunately, can’t make it through at all and give up.

Be the type of person that gets through this stage quickly.

The other side of this wall is extremely fun and rewarding, so don’t give up and don’t let your conscious incompetence get you down.

Here’s how you do it:

  1. Recognize this stage exists and know that you’re supposed to feel these uncomfortable feelings. This helps a surprising amount. You don’t have to feel dumb because you know that everyone goes through this exact same situation. It’s all a part of the process and if other people made it out, you can too.
  2. You’ve already been preparing for this moment. This guide has prepped you to get through this fairly quickly. You’re at an advantage! Most people wallow in the conscious incompetence stage for a long time because they lack two things: kanji and vocabulary. But by this point, you know more kanji and vocabulary than any intermediate level Japanese language student ought to. This is why you spent so much time on WaniKani (or one of its alternatives). It slows you down in the beginning so that you can blast through this wall.

With all that in mind, it’s time to start on some intermediate material. Make sure you are good on 100% of the previous sections before moving on. This is, by far, the most difficult portion of your Japanese education. You must have a good foundation to jump off of. When you’re ready, you can start browsing our Japanese articles and Grammar pages. Good luck! 💪🏻

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

How to Improve Your Spoken English: 8 Tips

When you ask a language student what their goals are, almost everyone says “improve my speaking”. When learning a foreign language, you’ll find yourself talking with all kinds of native speakers – your teacher, servers in restaurants, taxi drivers and your landlord, so it’s vital that you feel comfortable. Just like improving your writing, listening or any other skill, there are techniques you can use to improve your spoken English in a targeted way. Here are eight of our favorites:

1. Speak, speak, speak

Let’s start right off by saying that there isn’t a magic pill for better speaking. That would be too easy, right? Basically, the best way to speak better is to, well – speak! Commit to practicing often and with as many different people as possible. Do you already live or study overseas? Take advantage of the thousands of native speakers in your immediate community, such as your friends, their families, your coworkers, classmates, employees at the coffee shops, supermarket, post-office and other places you visit. If you’re learning in your own country, increase your practice time by meeting your classmates after class, finding an language exchange partner or joining an online community of learners.

2. Reflect on your conversations

After your conversation is over, take a moment to reflect. How did it go? How much do you think you understood? How comfortable did you feel with that subject matter? Did you encounter any unknown words? The mere act of thinking about it in this way will increase your confidence for the next time you speak (and give your targeted things to work on, for example vocabulary you didn’t understand).

3. Listen and read

You need words in order to talk, right? Class time is great for learning vocabulary, but there are other ways you can increase yours: Watch movies, listen to music, the radio and to podcasts. Read books, magazines and blogs. When listening and reading, find new and interesting expressions, slang terms and synonyms, write down this new material and look up anything you’re not familiar with. All this will provide more “meat” for you to use next time you practice.

4. Prepare cheat sheets

Part of nervousness around speaking is the feeling of not knowing what to say. To combat this, prepare a cheat sheet. Are you going to the doctor’s? Before your appointment, research vocabulary relating to your condition and some common phrases you’ll probably need. Use the technique before going to pay a bill, eating at a restaurant, job interviews, making a complaint, or for any other situation that might make you anxious.

5. Pick up the phone

Most people find phone conversations particularly challenging. Why? Because on the phone, we can’t see the other person’s body language or watch their mouth move, both of which are tools that really help communication. To feel more confident on the phone, start small with phone conversations with friends – then move on to more challenging calls like making appointments or inquiries. (This is a great time to use tip 4, and prepare a list of questions and useful vocabulary to help you during your call!)

6. Record your voice

We know, we know – most people dislike hearing their voice recorded – but it’s actually an extremely beneficial way to improve your speaking! Hearing yourself on tape shows you things you might not realize (maybe you tend to speak quickly when nervous, swallow your “s’s” or mumble). On the other hand, you could be pleasantly surprised to hear that your speaking is far better than you thought! For bonus points, take your recording to your teacher or to a native speaker friend and have them give you feedback.

7. Learn phrases rather than single words

Another tip to increase your fluency is to speak using a variety of phrases rather than individual words. (You probably do this all the time in your native language.) Instead of automatically asking “Hello, how are you today?”, mix it up by choosing other expressions like “What’s up, man?” “Hey dude!” or “How ya going, mate?” (Be careful though: Some expressions will be very informal and not ideal for some situations!)

8. Have fun

Let’s face it. It’s far easier to learn something new when you’re having fun. Inject silliness into your speaking practice by talking to yourself when you’re alone, singing along with popular songs in English, doing tongue twisters (Try our top tongue twisters) or doing one-minute “impromptu speeches” on randomly-chosen topics (such as snakes, coffee, India or subjects such as “If I ruled the world, I would…”, “Three surprising facts about me,” or “Which came first, the chicken or the egg?”). Great practice and great, silly fun.

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Seven Simple Ways to Improve Your Speaking skills

Speaking English confidently is an important goal for many. Often, we hesitate because we are afraid of making mistakes or embarrassing ourselves in front of others. Sometimes mistakes are unavoidable. But like any other skill, you can improve your spoken English if you practise regularly and follow these simple techniques.

1. Listen

The first step in improving your speaking skills is actually working on your listening.

Listening to English has several benefits – it allows you to pick up new words, phrases, and ways to respond in conversations. Secondly, listening provides opportunities to understand pronunciation, how some words are omitted when speaking, how some are joined together, the rhythm, the intonation, and the sounds of language.

What should you listen to? There are many resources available to you to listen to for free. Start with short English clips or videos: pick your favourite English TV show or YouTube channel. Listen to a clip and notice carefully what the characters are saying. Repeat any dialogues or phrases that interest you. Replay the same clip until you understand every word. You could also turn on the subtitles or look at the transcript of the video if available and practise saying the dialogues with the characters.

Here are some easy conversations in English with transcripts.

The practice activities that accompany these audios and videos will provide you plenty of opportunities to practise the new vocabulary and pronunciation.

English podcasts are another popular way to listen to English and improve your listening and speaking skills. Podcasts are short audio clips that are available online on various topics. They are usually released regularly as episodes on a larger theme or range of topics. Our Podcasts for Professionals is a great resource to listen to some English in the context of the workplace. Each episode focuses on a different business issue and provides some useful tips and techniques to deal with that issue. We also have an app – LearnEnglish Podcasts . A new episode is released weekly on the app, so you never run out of content to listen to.

The third most interesting way to improve your listening and speaking is by listening to audio books. Audio books have become very popular over the past couple of years. They are great for people who are have no time to invest in reading books. They are also a wonderful way to perfect your pronunciation. Here is a great selection of books for people who are learning English. Try to listen to a portion of the text, pause the audio, and read aloud to practise saying the words yourself.

Finally, nothing can beat actual English conversations with people. Listen to your colleagues speaking in English, listen to your boss giving presentations and conduct meetings in English, listen to your teacher speaking in English – all of these real-life conversations will help you become a better listener and a better speaker of the language. Remember that listening as much as possible will help your speaking significantly.

2. Imitate

Now that you have listened to lots of English conversations, it’s time for some imitation. Yes, that’s right! Imitating or copying someone is a wonderful to improve your speaking skills. Not convinced? Watch babies and children – how do they learn a language? They copy everything an adult says.

Another benefit of imitation is that it will help you become more accurate in English without having to learn grammar rules. With lots of practice you will begin to remember chunks of words and phrases. This helps in remembering word patterns in a sentence and how certain words go with others.

To effectively improve your speaking skills, you need to follow these steps:

Listen: Pick your favourite video or audio clip from any of the sources provided in the earlier section of this article. Play the audio and listen to it carefully. Play as many times as you like to understand how each word is spoken.
Repeat and record: After playing the audio, repeat saying the words and conversations exactly as you heard. Pay special attention to the intonation, stress, and rhythm of language. Record yourself while repeating the words. You could use a voice recorder on your phone or a use a web-service like Vocaroo . Recording will provide you an opportunity to listen to yourself and self-correct. So, do not skip this step.
Compare: Listen to the audio again and compare it with your recording. Does it match? Note down changes that you may need to make.
Correct: Repeat the entire process again until you get better and more accurate.
As this process involves listening to the same audio clip several times, choose a topic that is interesting to you. If you stick with the routine, you will see improvement in your pronunciation, vocabulary, accuracy, and overall speaking abilities in no time!

3. Read

Reading is yet another important skill to have when learning a language. Whether you prefer a novel or an article, reading a few minutes every day will help you acquire new vocabulary.

The most common reason why people hesitate with reading is that it takes quite a lot of time to read a book from start to finish. However, when learning English, reading even for a few minutes is greatly beneficial. Short articles or notes in English are great for this. They only take a few minutes to read and are quite easy to find.

You can start with materials you find every day. Think of notes and memos at work, pamphlets and brochures at your local supermarket, or notices and safety instructions in the elevators – wherever you are there is always something to read.

Here is a selection of reading materials specifically designed to help you improve your language abilities. There are different types of texts and interactive exercises with which you can practise the reading skills you need to do well in your studies, to get ahead at work, and to communicate in English in your free time.

These articles provide a chance to learn about global issues, special days, and festivals while learning English. You will improve your reading comprehension and develop your vocabulary on a diverse range of international events, celebrations, and topics. Each article has interactive exercises to help you understand and use the language.

If you prefer stories, the Story Zone on our LearnEnglish website gives you a wide range to choose from. There are several stories written specifically for language learners. They are easy to read and provide language practice though short activities.

If you are looking to improve your workplace skills along with your vocabulary, try our Business Magazine . You will learn useful language for a wide range of business topics from different perspectives, as well as tips and techniques for dealing with business issues.

Remember that if your goal is improving speaking skills, it is a good idea to read aloud. This will not only help you practise unfamiliar words, but also help you improve your pronunciation and fluency.

4. Reflect

Reflection is a very useful step in improving your speaking skills. Reflection is nothing but asking questions to think about what you learnt, how you learnt, what progress you see, what could be done differently, and how to change the way you learn to allow progress.

It is important to reflect on your language learning abilities on a daily basis, especially if you are learning a new language independently. Reflection is another way to provide yourself some good feedback in the absence of a teacher.

Say you had a great conversation in English. After your conversation is over, take a moment to reflect. Ask yourself questions such as the following:

  • How was it?
  • How much did you understand the other person?
  • How confident did you feel in responding to the questions asked or continuing the conversation?
  • How comfortable did you feel about the topic of discussion?
  • How quickly were you able to think of the right thing to say or the right word to say?
  • Did you come across any unfamiliar words?
  • What did the other person do when they couldn’t think of the right word?

Thinking about these questions will help you see your strengths more clearly and gain confidence. You will also find opportunities for improvement and specific areas to work on.

You could also reflect after reading or listening to something in English. Ask yourself these questions.

What are some of the key points you learned from the article or podcast?
Can you summarise them in your own words?
Are there some words or ideas that were new to you?
Can you use the words and sentences around the new word to guess the meaning of this new word? Look up a dictionary soon after to confirm if you really got the meaning right.
Recording your reflections in a notebook after every learning session will help you see your progress over time.

5. Prepare

A lot of us hesitate to speak or take part in conversations in English because we are nervous about what to say. We are anxious that what we say may not be appropriate or we may make mistakes. We can easily fix this problem by preparing ahead. Are you going to a restaurant with your colleagues? Think of situations that require you to speak English. Order food, perhaps? Ask for changes to a dish? Ask your colleagues’ preferences? Ask for the bill? What vocabulary do you need in these situations? Write up a simple list of phrases to use.

Here is an example:

Situation Useful phrases
Arriving at the restaurant and asking for a table (if booked) Hello. We’ve booked a table for ___. (say the number of people for which you booked the table)
The booking is in _________ ‘s name. (say the name of the person you provided at the time of booking)
Arriving at the restaurant and asking for a table (if not booked) Hello. We need a table for _______ (say the number of people). Can you fit us in?
Asking for the menu Could we see the food menu, please?
Could we see the drinks menu, please?
Asking about food Is this dish suitable for vegetarians?
Does this dish contain nuts? I am allergic to nuts.
Could you help me understand what this dish contains?
Choosing what to order among your colleagues I’d like to order a hamburger with a side of fries. What about you?
I prefer coffee to tea.
What would you like to have?
Do you prefer soup or salad?
That sounds delicious.
Placing your order We are ready to place our order.
Could we have bottled water for everyone?
I would like ___________ (say what you would like to eat)
Could I have ___________ (say what you would like to eat)?
Giving feedback That was delicious. Thank you.
That was lovely. Thank you.
It was a great meal. Thank you.

The food was a bit cold.
The dish was a bit spicy for my taste.

Paying your bill Could we have the bill please?
Can I pay by card?

This is on me. (When you want to insist on paying for everyone).

Create similar cheat sheets for everyday situations. You will find yourself becoming more confident and ready to speak in English. If you need help, you will find many useful phrases for different situations here .

6. Speak

Yes, speaking. There is no magic pill that would help you speak better. You must put yourself in situations where you are forced to speak in English to get better at it. Start small. Do you live or work at a place where you need to speak English to get by? Great! Take advantage of this situation by speaking to people around you. It could be at your workplace or even at a coffee shop – doesn’t matter where, as long as you can speak.

If you don’t have that advantage, practise speaking in English with your colleagues or classmates. It is easier if you choose someone who speaks a different language than you do as it forces you to communicate in English.

You could also consider joining an English language course to improve your range of vocabulary and speaking. You get tons of practice and a teacher to provide you with some personal feedback on your speaking skills. You will meet likeminded learners from all over the country or even another country.

These days, a lot of online forums and discussion groups focus on language learning as a goal. Joining such a forum will help you practise speaking with students from different parts of the world with similar goals. Many of these groups are easy to find. Try Facebook, Reddit, or Discord. Just a word of caution – it is important to keep in mind internet safety and security. Remember safety should be your priority. Read these online safety tips before joining a group.

7. Practise

We cannot stress this enough. Regular and consistent practice is the key to success when it comes to speaking English. The tips and suggestions that we’ve described above only work if you use them regularly. So, here’s what we recommend. Start small – spend just 10 minutes every day doing 1-2 of the above things. Maybe listen to a short video clip today and imitate. Reflect on what you learned. Tomorrow, pick up a short article. Read aloud and summarise in your own words. Reflect on what you read and the new words.

Some days you will find more time. Dedicate more time when you can but do the minimum every single day. You will see a big change in your abilities in no time! As you improve, you’ll get more confident and more ready for bigger challenges. This is the time to find speaking partners and to put yourself in situations that require speaking in English. Don’t worry about making mistakes. Most people don’t care if you make mistakes.

Finally, don’t forget to have fun. It’s easier to learn something new and commit to learning when you’re having fun. Practise English by singing along to popular songs. Practise tongue twisters with your friends. There are several here .

Try all these tips today and start your language learning journey right away!

What Is Educational Psychology?

What Is Educational Psychology?

What Is Educational Psychology?

Educational psychology is the study of how people learn, including teaching methods, instructional processes, and individual differences in learning. It explores the cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social influences on the learning process. Educational psychologists use this understanding of how people learn to develop instructional strategies and help students succeed in school.

This branch of psychology focuses on the learning process of early childhood and adolescence. However, it also explores the social, emotional, and cognitive processes that are involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan.

The field of educational psychology incorporates a number of other disciplines, including developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology. Approaches to educational psychology include behavioral, developmental, cognitive, constructivist, and experiential perspectives.

This article discusses some of the different perspectives taken within the field of educational psychology, topics that educational psychologists study, and career options in this field.

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8 Things to Know About Educational Psychology

Perspectives in Educational Psychology

As with other areas of psychology, researchers within educational psychology tend to take on different perspectives when considering a problem. These perspectives focus on specific factors that influence learning, including learned behaviors, cognition, experiences, and more.

The Behavioral Perspective

This perspective suggests that all behaviors are learned through conditioning. Psychologists who take this perspective rely firmly on the principles of operant conditioning to explain how learning happens.1

For example, teachers might reward learning by giving students tokens that can be exchanged for desirable items such as candy or toys. The behavioral perspective operates on the theory that students will learn when rewarded for “good” behavior and punished for “bad” behavior.

While such methods can be useful in some cases, the behavioral approach has been criticized for failing to account for attitudes, emotions, and intrinsic motivations for learning.

The Developmental Perspective

This perspective focuses on how children acquire new skills and knowledge as they develop.2 Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is one example of an important developmental theory looking at how children grow intellectually.3

By understanding how children think at different stages of development, educational psychologists can better understand what children are capable of at each point of their growth. This can help educators create instructional methods and materials aimed at certain age groups.

The Cognitive Perspective

The cognitive approach has become much more widespread, mainly because it accounts for how factors such as memories, beliefs, emotions, and motivations contribute to the learning process.4 This theory supports the idea that a person learns as a result of their own motivation, not as a result of external rewards.

Cognitive psychology aims to understand how people think, learn, remember, and process information.

Educational psychologists who take a cognitive perspective are interested in understanding how kids become motivated to learn, how they remember the things that they learn, and how they solve problems, among other topics.

The Constructivist Approach

This perspective focuses on how we actively construct our knowledge of the world.5 Constructivism accounts for the social and cultural influences that affect how we learn.

Those who take the constructivist approach believe that what a person already knows is the biggest influence on how they learn new information. This means that new knowledge can only be added on to and understood in terms of existing knowledge.

This perspective is heavily influenced by the work of psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who proposed ideas such as the zone of proximal development and instructional scaffolding.

Experiential Perspective

This perspective emphasizes that a person’s own life experiences influence how they understand new information.6 This method is similar to constructivist and cognitive perspectives in that it takes into consideration the experiences, thoughts, and feelings of the learner.

This method allows someone to find personal meaning in what they learn instead of feeling that the information doesn’t apply to them.


Different perspectives on human behavior can be useful when looking at topics within the field of educational psychology. Some of these include the behavioral perspective, the constructivist approach, and the experiential perspective.

Topics in Educational Psychology

From the materials teachers use to the individual needs of students, educational psychologists delve deep to more fully understand the learning process. Some these topics of study in educational psychology include:

  • Educational technology: Looking at how different types of technology can help students learn
  • Instructional design: Designing effective learning materials
  • Special education: Helping students who may need specialized instruction7
  • Curriculum development: Creating coursework that will maximize learning
  • Organizational learning: Studying how people learn in organizational settings, such as workplaces
  • Gifted learners: Helping students who are identified as gifted learners8

Careers in Educational Psychology

Educational psychologists work with educators, administrators, teachers, and students to analyze how to help people learn best. This often involves finding ways to identify students who may need extra help, developing programs for students who are struggling, and even creating new learning methods.

Many educational psychologists work with schools directly. Some are teachers or professors, while others work with teachers to try out new learning methods for their students and develop new course curricula. An educational psychologist may even become a counselor, helping students cope with learning barriers directly.

Other educational psychologists work in research. For instance, they might work for a government organization such as the U.S. Department of Education, influencing decisions about the best ways for kids to learn in schools across the nation.

In addition, an educational psychologist work in school or university administration.9 In all of these roles, they can influence educational methods and help students learn in a way that best suits them.

A bachelor’s degree and master’s degree are usually required for careers in this field; if you want to work at a university or in school administration, you may need to complete a doctorate as well.


Educational psychologists often work in school to help students and teachers improve the learning experience. Other professionals in this field work in research to investigate the learning process and to evaluate programs designed to foster learning.

History of Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is a relatively young subfield that has experienced a tremendous amount of growth. Psychology did not emerge as a separate science until the late 1800s, so earlier interest in educational psychology was largely fueled by educational philosophers.10

Many regard philosopher Johann Herbart as the father of educational psychology.11

Herbart believed that a student’s interest in a topic had a tremendous influence on the learning outcome. He believed teachers should consider this when deciding which type of instruction is most appropriate.

Later, psychologist and philosopher William James made significant contributions to the field. His seminal 1899 text “Talks to Teachers on Psychology” is considered the first textbook on educational psychology.12

Around this same period, French psychologist Alfred Binet was developing his famous IQ tests.13 The tests were originally designed to help the French government identify children who had developmental delays and create special education programs.

In the United States, John Dewey had a significant influence on education.14 Dewey’s ideas were progressive; he believed schools should focus on students rather than on subjects. He advocated active learning, arguing that hands-on experience was an important part of the process.

More recently, educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom developed an important taxonomy designed to categorize and describe different educational objectives.15 The three top-level domains he described were cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning objectives.

Significant Figures

Throughout history, a number of additional figures have played an important role in the development of educational psychology. Some of these well-known individuals include:

  • John Locke: Locke is an English philosopher who suggested the concept of tabula rasa, or the idea that the mind is essentially a blank slate at birth.16 This means that knowledge is developed through experience and learning.
  • Jean Piaget: A Swiss psychologist who is best known for his highly influential theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget’s influence on educational psychology is still evident today.
  • B.F. Skinner: Skinner was an American psychologist who introduced the concept of operant conditioning, which influences behaviorist perspectives.17 His research on reinforcement and punishment continues to play an important role in education.


Educational psychology has been influenced by a number of philosophers, psychologists, and educators. Some thinkers who had a significant influence include William James, Alfred Binet, John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Benjamin Bloom.

A Word From Verywell

Educational psychology offers valuable insights into how people learn and plays an important role in informing educational strategies and teaching methods. In addition to exploring the learning process itself, different areas of educational psychology explore the emotional, social, and cognitive factors that can influence how people learn. If you are interested in topics such as special education, curriculum design, and educational technology, then you might want to consider pursuing a career in the field of educational psychology.
Frequently Asked Questions

  • What can you do with a masters in educational psychology?

A master’s in educational psychology can prepare you for a career working in K-12 schools, colleges and universities, government agencies, community organizations, and counseling practices. A career as an educational psychologist involves working with children, families, schools, and other community and government agencies to create programs and resources that enhance learning.

  • What is the primary focus of educational psychology?

The primary focus of educational psychology is the study of how people learn. This includes exploring the instructional processes, studying individual differences in how people learn, and developing teaching methods to help people learn more effectively.

  • Why is educational psychology important?

Educational psychology is important because it has the potential to help both students and teachers. It provides important information for educators to help them create educational experiences, measure learning, and improve student motivation.

  • How does educational psychology help teachers?

Educational psychology can aid teachers in better understanding the principles of learning in order to design more engaging and effective lesson plans and classroom experiences. It can also foster a better understanding of how learning environments, social factors, and student motivation can influence how students learn.

Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

Get to know the Department of Communication Studies

Until now, the Communication Sciences major is still one of the study programs that is most in demand by prospective new students. This is because communication is a field that is very close to everyday life, so it is always developing and always needed.

At the 2022 SBMPTN registration yesterday, Communication Studies was also one of the majors with the most applicants at several PTNs. One of them is at UPN Veteran Jakarta, with 4,291 enthusiasts and a capacity of 160 seats. Wow, that’s really tight.

What do you study in the Communications Major?

The Department of Communication Studies is a study program that studies the process of conveying messages effectively so that they can be received and understood by audiences. In addition, the Communication Studies major studies communication at various levels, such as between individuals, groups, media, culture, and so on.

Communication Science is the parent of several derivative sciences, such as Advertising, Broadcasting, Journalism, Media Studies, Public Relations and so on. Therefore, when you enter the Communication Sciences major, you will be directed to take specializations. However, each campus has different specializations. So, you don’t need to be confused.

Communication Department course

In the first year lectures, Communication Science students meet with several general subjects, such as Introduction to Communication Studies, Introduction to Political Science, Introduction to Anthropology, Communication Philosophy and the like. Because it belongs to the Soshum family, the subjects studied are still related to other social sciences.

Just now, in semesters 3 and 4, you will learn various kinds of communication skills at various levels. How to communicate with individuals, groups, or while doing business. There is also mass communication that studies methods of packaging messages on television, radio and online media. So, if you look at the table below, there is a Communication Psychology course. Here, you will be trained to be a good communicator so that messages can be received clearly and not offend the other person.

Going up to semesters 5 and 6, you are allowed to take specialization courses. For example, you choose Journalism as a specialization, then the courses you will get are those related to Journalism. For example, Fundamentals of Journalism, Law and Journalistic Ethics, Journalistic Language, or Interview Techniques.

Then, in semester 7, there is something called Internship. Communication students can do internships in various places, such as TV stations, radio, production houses, ministries, public relations consultants, advertising agencies, and others. If you are already an apprentice, are you ready to write a thesis in semester 8? Well, there are 2 degrees for Communication students, namely S.Ikom or S.Sos if they are under the auspices of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

Skills that Communication Studies Students Must Have

In Communication Studies, one of the basic soft skills that you must have is public speaking skills. Public speaking itself means the ability to convey a good message to the audience.

Kenal Lebih Dekat dengan Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Yuk!

“Oh, it’s just a matter of talking, does that mean?”

Eits, make no mistake! Public speaking also has to be trained and there are many techniques, you know. One of them is body gesture or body language. You also have to be confident, be able to speak with clear articulation, and master the material before speaking in public

Apart from soft skills, in Communication Studies your hard skills will also be honed. You will learn how to write well, learn videography techniques, photography, strategies for composing social media content, marketing, and much more. So, the knowledge of communication is not only useful in the world of work, but also in business or everyday life.

Where Can Communication Majors Work?

“What kind of work will a communication science student do next?”

Don’t worry, the job prospects of Communication Science graduates are diverse and promising, you know. You can become a Public Relations Officer or Public Relations staff. The role of PR or Public Relations is to bridge the company with other parties, to achieve its goals.

Apart from public relations, Communication Science graduates can also work as reporters. Reporters are tasked with reporting news in the field, in the form of written media online and print media.

In addition, Communication students can work as bloggers, radio broadcasters, photographers, lecturers, event organizers (EOs), editors, MCs, copywriters, and many others. The initial salary for a graduate of Communication Studies also varies, ranging from 5 million – 7 million rupiah for a fresh graduate.

Tuition and Campus Fees with a Major in Communication
We can easily find the Department of Communication at various universities in Indonesia. You need to know, the Communications major can be under the auspices of the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) or the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP).

For example, at the University of Indonesia, the Communications major is still affiliated with FISIP. That is why, the degree obtained after graduation is S.Sos. Meanwhile at the University

Padjadjaran, the Faculty of Communication Sciences (FIKOM) has been established, so you will get a S.Ikom degree.

Regarding the duration of study, the Communications major can be taken for 3 years through a vocational study program, or 4 years through an undergraduate and Applied Bachelor (D4) study program. For tuition fees, it ranges from 5 million to 15 million rupiah per semester, depending on campus accreditation and entry pathways. The following is a list of PTN and PTS choices that have the best communication majors in Indonesia:

  • University of Indonesia
  • Padjadjaran University
  • Gadjah Mada University
  • Airlangga University
  • Diponegoro University
  • UIN Jakarta
  • UPN Veteran Jakarta
  • Telkom University
  • Binus University
  • London School Public Relations
  • Multimedia Nusantara University

How about Brainies, are you interested in majoring in Communication Studies? Apart from improving your public speaking skills, you also have to prepare yourself so that you can be accepted by a Communication Science major on your ideal campus. Come on, improve your academic skills with Brain Academy!

Read helpful educational articles:

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Understanding Educational Psychology and Its Benefits and Scope

Psychology is defined as the study of science that studies the psychology and human behavior. Educational psychology is intended to influence educational activities and teaching and learning processes more effectively by paying attention to the psychological responses and behavior of students. The state of the learning system, teaching methods, and students in each region is not the same.
The habits of students when they are in the family environment and the educational environment are sometimes also different. Educational psychology appears to provide improvements in the world of education in implementing curriculum, teaching and learning processes, counseling and evaluation services to get better quality students.

Understanding Educational Psychology According to Experts

Psychology can be interpreted as a science that studies the behavior and symptoms of the human soul (Abu, 2003).
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, education is the process of changing the attitude and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature humans in a learning or training (KBBI).
According to Muhibin Syah (2003), educational psychology is a psychological discipline that addresses psychological problems that occur in the world of education.
Educational psychology is a systematic study of processes and factors related to education (Whiterington, 1982).
Meanwhile, Djiwandono (2002), said that psychology is a science that studies human behavior and experience.
Educational psychology intends to apply psychology to processes that bring about changing behavior, in other words to teach. While the meaning of educational psychology is the study of learning, growth, and individual maturity and the application of scientific principles to human reactions. Such education aims to influence the process of teaching and learning.

The definition of educational psychology according to these experts can be concluded that educational psychology is a discipline of psychology that influences the teaching and learning process in the world of education.

Scope of Educational Psychology

Pengertian Psikologi Pendidikan Serta Manfaat dan Ruang Lingkupnya

Educational psychology has a scope that forms the basis and boundaries or what distinguishes it from other psychological sciences. According to Sumadi Suryobroto, the scope of educational psychology includes:


Educators or teachers need to have more knowledge to provide teaching to their students. The teaching and learning process has a knowledge (cognitive) impact on students who initially do not know about the material provided to know. Teachers or instructors need to have knowledge of learning methods and other knowledge about problems that may exist in students.

Knowledge of student mental activity, intelligence, personality, individual character, student talent, growth and development, fostering discipline in the classroom, learning motivation, teacher behavior, teaching and learning strategies, and special problems in teaching and education.


The interactive learning process from the teacher will provide motivation and positive responses from students during the teaching and learning process. Innate owned by a teacher as a style of delivery of material, the concept of teaching while in class. And it is also necessary to change the atmosphere which stimulates students to always be active will improve the quality of learning outcomes.

Behavioral processes

According to Soerjabrata, educational psychology is reviewed dynamically, which includes changes in behavior such as:

Changes in behavior due to growth and development.
Behavior change due to learning is an important factor in learning.

The interactive learning process given by the teacher to students will bring about changes in behavior such as skills during the learning process such as speaking in front of the class, discussing, or activities that involve sensory and motor responses. These activities provide changes to students to become more active and change attitudes (affective) from an unfavorable attitude to a positive attitude. The positive attitude that is brought when returning to the family, to the community is the result of a quality education process.

The nature and scope of learning

Nature is the underlying thing in the learning process. The nature and scope of learning refers to learning processes such as interactions, materials given to students.

Student development

The teacher influences student development from the behavior shown when in class, interest or activeness when following lessons, the results obtained during tests. And also the development of students which can be seen from the attitude, way of speaking, interactions with teachers and friends. All of that is the result of the learning process. A positive development if you look at the progress of students in their interactions and their intelligence increases to

good direction.

Factors that influence learning

The learning situation greatly influences the learning process. Situations such as place and atmosphere greatly affect the success of teaching a teacher. The condition of classrooms, laboratory rooms, library rooms are facilities that help influence the quality of teaching and learning.

Room conditions in terms of cleanliness, air circulation, adequate room capacity, bench and seating conditions, lighting, and quiet conditions are needed to arouse students’ interest in learning and also the teacher’s teaching enthusiasm. Teacher attitudes, class spirit, family and community attitudes are also factors that influence learning situations and ultimately affect the quality of learning processes and outcomes.

Other factors that affect learning come from within or within the student, namely motivation, talent, intelligence, self-ability to adapt to the learning environment.

Education measurement

Educational measurement is an evaluation carried out on students after getting the learning process within a certain time to measure the educational development that has been obtained.

Practical aspects of measurement

The practical aspect of measurement is a measuring tool used to determine changes in student behavior as a result of the learning process.

Learning transfers

Learning with good and positive systems and interactions with pleasant communication between teachers and students causes students to accept the knowledge given and like their teachers. However, if the teacher’s interaction and communication with students is not good, then students will dislike it and show a negative attitude. The positive attitude that is taught and applied while at school will be owned by students such as those who were initially undisciplined became disciplined, those who previously could not dress neatly became uniformed neatly.

Mental health

The mental health of students is marked by their participation and activeness in participating in every learning activity both individually and in groups.

character building

Psychological character is formed from the culture that is applied during the learning period at school by educators. Culture is in the form of disciplinary rules or principles of culture that exist in an area.

Short curriculum

The curriculum is a learning framework for effective and efficient learning purposes.

Learning Theory in Educational Psychology

There are several educational psychology theories which are the basic concepts of implementing psychology in the world of education.

Theory of Behaviorism

According to the theory of behaviorism, learning is a change in behavior. These changes are the impact of the interaction between stimulus and response. It can be interpreted that learning is a form of behavior change in students from interactions with stimuli. A person is said to have learned if there is a change in his behavior.

Then, in this theory, the concept that takes precedence is the input or stimulus given such as the teacher teaching students how to read. Then the output which is the result or response as a result of the stimulus, such as students being able to read even though they are still stuttering. That’s what learning is. However, if at the output students are still unable to read, then the process is not considered a learning activity because there is no result from the stimulus given.

Operant conditioning Theory

Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by the consequences that can be obtained. The key to operant conditioning is positive and negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment. Positive support is giving something pleasant to a behavior. For example: a teacher who gives praise to his students for having answered correctly. Negative support is discarding something unpleasant as an acceptable gesture. For example: It is very noisy outside, so turning on the TV loudly makes it more comfortable and reduces unpleasant noises.

Then, positive punishment is used to reduce the unpleasant behavior. For example: When there is a child who is naughty in class, he receives a punishment standing in front of the class. Negative punishment is used to reduce unpleasant behavior by taking away something pleasurable. Example: Kevin broke his sister’s doll, so he is not allowed to play outside with his friends (Saul, 2015).

Classical conditioning Theory

Classical conditioning is a theory that involves learning new behaviors through a continuous process. There are three stages in this theory by providing a new stimulus at each stage.

  • Stage 1 – Before Conditioning: at this stage the stimulus from the environment issues a response that has not been studied and there is a response that has never been thought of. Example: Perfume can cause a response happiness.
  • Stage 2 – During Conditioning: Stimulus from the environment does not respond to a known stimulus. Example: perfume may be associated with a person.
  • Stage 3 After Conditioning: the formation of a new response. Example: Someone who was previously associated with fragrant perfume becomes very attractive (Mcleod, 2008).
  • Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory focuses on the changes in mental processes and structures that occur as a result of trying to make sense of our surroundings. Cognitive theory is used for simple learning processes such as remembering telephone numbers and others. Then, cognitive theory has four basic principles: (1) Students are active to gain an understanding of the knowledge given, (2) Development of knowledge depends on what they have learned, (3) learning builds experience (4) learning is a change in one’s mental structure .


Connectionism theory was developed by Edward L. Thorndike (1878-1949) and is known as the stimulus-response theory. According to him, the basis of learning is the association of stimulus and response. The stimulus will give a message to the five senses and then respond with behavior. Such associations are called connections. This principle is called connectionism.

Gestalt theory

Gestalt is a theory that explains the process of perception through the arrangement of components of sensation that have a relationship or pattern to form a whole. It is concluded that, a person tends to see something around him as a unified whole. Gestalt theory explains how visual perception can be formed. For example, when we are looking at a cloud and see a shape that looks like an object.

The Role of Psychology on Education
Educational psychology has become the basis for the formation and development of curriculum, learning and assessment systems in the world of education. His contribution to the development of the world of education can be explained as follows:

1. The role of psychology in the educational curriculum

Psychologically, self-development of students is based on affective, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities. This ability can be seen from the development of attitudes, motivation, behavior, and other components. The learning component is a process from input to output. Then, the use of the curriculum as a framework for input flow towards output or good results requires psychological properties.

The curriculum currently being developed is a competency-based curriculum. Competence aims to develop abilities in skills, knowledge, and reflection in thinking and acting. The habit of thinking and acting with consistent self-reflection enables the formation of superior and competent individuals.

2. The role of psychology in the learning system

Related to psychological theories that have an impact on a person’s behavior, psychology also influences the learning system in the world of education positively. Students become serious about learning when their psychological responses are well guided by the teacher.

And also, the process of understanding the learning of a topic becomes easier by solving the learning problems experienced. Desire or desire to be higher with a psychological approach from the teacher with pleasant interactions and communication.

In addition, educational psychology has also given birth to learning principles as described by Sudirwo, 2002:

Someone who studies must have a goal.
Goals are born out of necessity not compulsion
Must be willing to experience some difficulties.
Learning is evidenced by changes in behavior.
Learning requires insight into what must be learned and understood.
Someone needs guidance.
Exams need to be done but preceded by understanding.

3. The role of psychology in the rating system

Psychology has also given its role in the assessment system. For example, with psychological tests to determine the level of intelligence of students, aptitude tests to find out potential talents in students so that it is easier to provide guidance in helping students develop their potential.

Tests on personality aspects can also help teachers get to know their students better so they can provide a better approach to the learning process. These various psychological tests help provide an assessment of each student to make it easier to bridge the desires, potential, and dreams of students according to their abilities and talents.

Benefits of Studying Educational Psychology
There are several benefits of studying educational psychology according to Muhammad and Wiyani (2013), namely:

1. Understand student differences

Each student has different abilities and potential. As a teacher, it is necessary to understand the differences in the characteristics of each student, the stages of growth and development, and the type of behavior. This understanding can produce

appropriate learning interactions and effective and efficient learning.

Not only that, the teacher’s understanding of these differences makes it possible to provide different learning interactions for each student so that the approach and learning process are more acceptable without discriminating between students personally or favoritism.

2. Creating a conducive learning climate in the classroom

The teacher’s ability to create a conducive learning climate increases the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Knowledge of the basic principles of fun approaches and interactions with students according to each student’s characteristics will provide a conducive learning climate and an effective learning process.

3. Choose the right learning strategy

Studying psychology to get to know the characteristics of each student and get to know the preferred learning methods, will provide the ability to choose appropriate learning strategies in the classroom. Learning strategies that are appropriate, will provide an effective teaching and learning situation.

4. Provide guidance to students

Psychology gives teachers the ability to become a guide for their students with an emotional heart-to-heart approach to gain students’ trust. When students have given their trust to the teacher, the process of helping to solve problems for an effective learning process can be done easily.

5. Interact appropriately with students

The principles of psychology underlie the right way of communicating in learning. Communication with students is expressed by placing oneself according to the stages of student growth and development. So that it can provide a pleasant interaction. Adjustment to the stages of student growth and development creates an understanding of the teacher from the student’s point of view and knows the wishes or preferred learning process as well as the character of each student.

6. Provide evaluation of learning outcomes

As an educator, studying educational psychology will be able to provide a fair assessment of learning outcomes. In addition, it can also adjust to the abilities of each student without distinguishing one from another. Evaluation of learning outcomes can be in the form of intelligence test scores, attitude values, and active participation in school activities. These three things determine the quality of improving student behavior for the better.

7. Motivate learning

Provision of educational psychology for teachers so that teachers are able to provide support, encouragement or motivation for their students in a higher learning enthusiasm. Educational psychology teaches about understanding each student’s characteristics and providing motivation according to these characters so that they can more effectively influence student learning enthusiasm. Providing positive support to students results in increased enthusiasm for learning.

8. Set learning goals

Educational psychology helps students to determine learning objectives regarding what kind of behavior changes are desired as learning outcomes. Learning objectives are set for each material that will be given. Therefore, learning objectives are used as a benchmark for the suitability of learning outcomes whether they are considered successful or not.

9. Use of appropriate learning media

Knowledge of educational psychology is also useful for determining the right learning media for students, for example audio, visual, motor media, and so on as fun learning activities. Learning media is also adapted to the learning material to be delivered. Students are sometimes more interested in learning processes that use audiovisual components in the process of understanding material and are more efficient in developing students’ imaginations.

10. Preparation of appropriate lesson schedules

The preparation of the lesson schedule is also adjusted to the conditions of the students, such as lessons that require more complicated thinking such as mathematics which would be better if placed during the first study hour, when students’ minds are still fresh and their concentration is still maximum. If a subject like math is placed at the end of the class, it will not be as effective. Students are tired, their comprehension decreases, concentration decreases, and learning becomes ineffective.

Educational psychology provides impacts and benefits from various aspects of learning. Educational psychology helps teachers to understand students more deeply based on their characteristics, stages of development, behavior and behavior, emotionally to provide an appropriate and appropriate teaching and learning process so as to produce an effective and efficient learning process. A good learning process will have an impact on satisfying results. Students who get a good learning process will apply good habits after they enter the family and m

society and impact positive behavior in every life.

Hopefully, this article on educational psychology can help teachers to better understand the character of their students and adjust the learning process accordingly so that they are able to produce generations that are superior both in intelligence and attitudes and behavior which will later be brought into social life so that they can provide a positive and useful role.

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How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

How to Determine Which Career Path You Should Choose

Did you know that there are over 7 million people over the age of 25 who are enrolled in academic courses? If you’re thinking of going back to school, know that it is never too late to start!

You might be wondering which career path you should choose as heading back to school can be a big life change it should be worth your time. There are so many career paths to choose from but you should make sure that you pick something you will enjoy.

Do you envision yourself in a specific role or job a few years down the line? We’re here to help you pick a career path for you!

Keep reading for our guide on how to determine which career path you should choose when going back to school.

Think of What You Enjoy Doing

When determining your career path, you should first think about your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing. Turning your hobby into a career is a lifelong dream for many people.

If going back to school can help you achieve that dream, then go for it!

One way to do this is by writing down all of your hobbies and the things that you enjoy doing outside of work. Do you enjoy cooking, writing, talking with people, playing sports, or gardening?

Writing down all of your hobbies and then linking them to real-life jobs is a good way to get started in figuring out what your career path could be.

For someone who enjoys talking to people or solving problems, then you may consider the career path of an addiction counselor. This might not have been something that you realized until you wrote down everything that you enjoyed doing.

Imagine You’re a Kid Again

Do you remember being a young kid and being asked what you want to be when you grow up? Chances are you may not have done the job you said you were gonna do when you were a child. If you do still have that same dream, then go for it!

On the other hand, if you have the opportunity to go back to school, then the world is your oyster. Imagine being a kid again and think of all the possibilities that you once had.

Going back to school means that you get the chance to pick any career path that your heart desires.

As a child, you may have dreamed of being a dentist and you totally have that opportunity to do that now. You can go back to school to become a dental assistant!

When choosing your career path you can truly dream as if you were a child again and follow your heart.

Try Taking a Test

If you’re not keen on following your heart, then you can try taking a career test. There are numerous online career aptitude tests that can match you with the perfect career that will fit your career needs.

Taking one of these tests will make you answer tons of questions regarding your skillset and personality to match you with the best career.

Don’t worry, the greatest career tests that you can find online are free so you won’t have to pay any money for this insight. Of course, taking a test shouldn’t determine your future.

Use the answers you receive from a career aptitude test lightly. Make sure you research and choose a career path that you feel will be suited for you.

If anything, taking a career test can help to give you a bit of a start on choosing the right career for you.

List Your Strengths and Weaknesses

One common job interview question that is normally asked in interview questions is what are your strengths and weaknesses. This is a great question to ask yourself when it comes to figuring out what your career path could be.

Get out a pen and paper and write down your five strengths and five weaknesses.

Think about what types of careers would require people who would possess your strengths and weaknesses. For example, if one of your weaknesses is public speaking, then you may want to avoid careers that would require you to speak in front of large crowds.

On the other hand, you can also work to improve the weaknesses that you’ve listed. If you know that you’re not good at public speaking, then you might want to take a communications class so that you can get better at it.

Talk With a Career Counselor

Talking with a career counselor can help to give you a guideline for what you want your career path to be. If you feel like you’re being pulled in a few different directions by a bunch of different careers, then they can help to weigh the pros and cons with you.

A career counselor is someone that you can talk with and they can understand the frustrations of going back to school and even changing careers.

You might even find that talking to a career counselor has opened your eyes to careers you never even knew existed. Having another person assist you in finding the perfect career could be something that you didn’t even know you needed.

Here at ICC, our Career Services Coordinator will work with you on gaining employment in your career path. We can help with your resume, conduct mock interviews, help you network, and even find job leads.

Ask If You Can Job Shadow Someone

Once you find a career that you believe you will enjoy then job shadowing someone is the best way to see if you will truly like it. It takes researching a job one step further by actually getting hands-on and doing it for a day.

One of the easiest ways to job shadow someone is by asking someone you know who is in that career field. Unfortunately, if you don’t know anyone in the career that you’re interested in, then this can be rather difficult.

The best way to go about landing a job shadow is by researching companies that you’re interested in. You should know what to ask and who to ask.

There is a chance that you might get shot down the first time that you ask about job shadowing. Companies can be busy or they might not be accepting job shadowing positions.

If that’s the case, then don’t give up. Move on and look for another company to ask about job shadowing!

The best thing about reaching out and doing a job shadow for a day is that it will look really good when you go to apply for a job later on. During interviews, you can actually mention that you job shadowed someone when deciding on a career.


On the other hand, if you’re unable to job shadow someone you can always volunteer within that career field. Volunteering is an awesome thing to do especially if your career field needs volunteers!

The medical field is always looking for volunteers to do a number of different jobs and tasks. If you’re looking to get into a certain position, then check to see if they have any volunteer opportunities near you.

Volunteering can expose you to the field and position without committing to an internship or job shadow position. It is also a great way to see what’s going on on the inside in a more easygoing and laid back environment.

As a volunteer, you can even talk with the people who work in that career. Make sure to spend your time as a volunteer wisely. Obviously, you won’t be able to interview the workers but asking them a few questions about their job and why they like it won’t hurt.

Take the Leap

Going back to school and picking a new career can be scary! It is definitely not an easy thing to do but you’ll be proud of yourself for taking the leap and going for it.

Finding the right career path for you might take some time. Don’t be afraid to make phone calls, send emails, or ask businesses if you can follow someone around for the day or get some questions answered.

Getting as much information as possible will help to make your decision easier and your transition smoother.

Overall, don’t be afraid to take the leap! Jump right into going back to school and preparing for your new career. If you’ve chosen the right career path, then it is going to be something that you will love doing.

Going Back to School and Choosing Your Career Path

Going back to school can completely turn your life upside down but for the better. You should take the time to choose a career path that you will enjoy and one you can see yourself doing for a long time.

Make sure that you take the time to research and look into each career path that you’re interested in before making your final decision.

Classes are starting soon and if you’re looking to apply you can do so directly online!

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

How To Choose a Career Path in 9 Steps (With Examples)

Many people reflect on their interests in skills in order to choose the right career path. Deciding on a career path allows you to attain the right education and experiences and develop necessary skills to succeed in your chosen field. It’s important to reflect on your interests and career goals as you make certain life choices, such as which school to attend, which entry-level job is right for you or whether to obtain a postgraduate degree or specialized certification.

In this article, we define what a career path is, provide a nine-step guide detailing how to choose a career path depending on personal characteristics and offer some examples of career paths you can pursue within different industries.

What is a Career Path?

A career path is a plan detailing the positions you aim to hold as you advance in your field. Your first job or college degree, for example, can mark the beginning of your career path. As you gain additional knowledge and skills, you may progress, or move vertically, into more advanced roles. Some employees also move laterally into equal but different job roles as they specialize or change career paths.

How to choose a career path

Here are some steps you can follow as you develop your career path:

1. Outline your career goals

Before selecting a career, self-reflect by asking and answering guided questions. Active reflection helps narrow your choices into something more specific.

Consider asking yourself:

  • What do I want from my career?
  • What are my core values?
  • What activities do I most enjoy, professionally or in my free time?
  • What are my interests?
  • What are my strengths and aptitudes?

Do I want to specialize in certain technical skills or seek management roles?

Once you answer questions like these and any others that are important to you, you can better research potential career paths. It’s also important to revisit your career goals as you grow personally and professionally to ensure your goals remain achievable and aligned with your interests.

Related: Setting Goals To Improve Your Career

2. Create a five- and 10-year plan

Once you’ve narrowed down your options, consider establishing milestones for your career. Research where other people in your field are at five or 10 years into their career, and make a note of the job titles they have. Decide what title or advancements you want to have at these future points. Then, research what you can do to reach those goals. You may undergo training programs, seek specific responsibilities or pursue prerequisite positions.

By establishing career goals, you can plan based on what progress you expect every year. Schedule time regularly to reflect on your career and goals.

Related: 7 Tools To Plan Your Career the Right Way Here!

3. Discover your personality type

A personality type is a set of personality traits

that you can organize into groups. There are multiple methods for discovering your personality type, many of which focus on your responses to different situations. Different personality types may naturally possess different interests and develop different strengths, including careers.

Different tests list common career choices for each personality type. If you take a variety of tests and one or two careers appear across multiple tests, that specific career is likely worth researching. Some popular tools you can use to identify your personality type include:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: This questionnaire is a self-reporting inventory that includes introspective questions to identify your psychological preferences. Using this information, the type indicator system classifies people based on four key dichotomies, allowing you to identify your personality type out of 16 options.

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter: While this self-assessment questionnaire is like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, it more closely identifies roles that match each temperament type. The questionnaire focuses on behaviors and temperaments rather than preferences.

The Jungian Type Index: The Jung Typology Test

is a self-assessment that can summarize your personality type and recommended careers by identifying Jungian cognitive functions or explanations behind certain psychological preferences.

Related: Myers-Briggs Indicator: 16 Personality Types in the Workplace

4. Review your previous experience

Your job satisfaction in previous roles can also help guide your career choices. Identify trends in your previous positions, such as focusing on a specific technical skill. Also, review your job history to identify positions you found fulfilling.

Related: How To Get Hands-On Experience

5. Compare job requirements to your education

Many jobs have specific education requirements for candidates and new hires, such as obtaining a high school diploma, completing a bachelor’s degree program or having a master’s degree. Some positions also require candidates to have degrees in a specific field related to the position. Review the education requirements for jobs you’re interested in and apply for jobs that accept your current level of education.

Related: What Are Job Requirements?

6. Assess your current skill set

Make a list of your current skills, certifications and areas of expertise. You can also ask coworkers and colleagues for feedback about your technical, interpersonal and people management skills. This evaluation can help you find careers that match your experience.

Related: Top 10 Skills To Put on Your Resume (With Examples)

7. Note your interests

Depending on your personality, you may have interests that are particularly tailored for different careers. Examine your hobbies, past volunteer experiences and interests to identify activities you enjoy. While this information is outside of a professional context, creating a list of activities can help you narrow down your career path. For example, you may enjoy a career in cybersecurity if you enjoy logic puzzles, or you may enjoy a traveling sales role if you like meeting new people.

Use this knowledge to apply for short-term positions or volunteer opportunities to explore new career options. This firsthand experience allows you to test your suitability for a career. If you’re currently in school or have a job, consider taking a course or certification program that’s helpful for a field that interests you. This experience can help you determine if the career’s skills and content are something you enjoy.

8. Identify your core values

Identifying your core values can help you focus on a career you find fulfilling. It can also help you find fields or niche areas you enjoy. Consider making a list of qualities you think are important in a company or its employees. You can use this list to search for companies and job descriptions that share these values.

Related: Core Values in the Workplace: 84 Powerful Examples

9. Consider your salary needs

Different career paths can have a wide variety of incomes. This data can be a good start for determining how much money you might earn at first, as well as your earning potential after you’ve gained a certain amount of time and experience. While salary certainly doesn’t guarantee an engaging, satisfying job, it’s an important factor to consider when mapping your career path.

Example Career Paths

Here are a few examples of career paths in various industries:

  • Education: Teacher → curriculum coordinator → assistant principal → principal
  • Retail: Sales associate → cashier → assistant manager → store manager → regional manager
  • Restaurant: Dishwasher → prep cook → line cook → sous chef → chef de cuisine → executive chef
  • Editorial: Intern → editorial assistant → assistant editor → editor → senior editor → executive editor → editor in chief
  • Human resources (HR): HR assistant → HR specialist → assistant director of HR → director of HR
  • Marketing: Public relations assistant → public relations representative → assistant director of PR → director of communications

How To Play Winning Poker

How To Play Winning Poker

It doesn’t matter if you’re a recreational card player who enjoys a game once a month, or an aspiring pro spending hours grinding out profits every day.

But I’m guessing you always knew truly successful players do something different than the rest.

Some say it’s ‘natural instinct’…

Others put it down to years of practice… practice… and more practice…

But the reality is, almost all professional poker players use a small selection of ‘techniques’ that they employ to beat the game… time and time again.

And in the next few minutes, I’m going to reveal exactly what these techniques are… And how you can use them in your game to see consistent wins in both cash games and tournaments.

To do this, I’m going to take you behind the scenes with some of the world’s best poker players, and reveal exactly how they’ve been able to make millions of dollars online and in live games.

But before we get into the specifics, there are two main reasons why professionals have an ‘unfair advantage’ before the cards even hit the table.

Note: If you’re serious about improving your game, I’ve prepared a FREE guide for you.

What Are These Reasons?

The first, is their ‘edge’. Or, to put it simply, the advantage professional poker players hold over their opponents, regardless of the cards dealt, chip stacks, or situation.

You see, the great poker players – Phil Ivey, Daniel Negreanu, Phil Hellmuth – understand who they’re playing. And they’ll use this basic thought-pattern to outsmart, outwit, and manipulate their opponents, giving them a winning edge.

In fact, every professional poker player on the planet would admit to using their knowledge of who they’re playing in conjunction with one of the following play-styles:

  • Play aggressively to win a large pot with a strong hand
  • Play passively to try to win with a weak hand
  • Play aggressively to make your opponent fold a better hand

And while what they’re able to do may seem like ‘magic,’ these are just the basic fundamentals of poker, with the added benefit of using their edge.

In just a few moments, you’ll discover how you can think, act, and win like the pros.

But let’s look at the second reason the pros are winning consistently.

Understanding Poker Game Theory

Poker theory is, in essence, the fundamental rules of profiting from poker.

This means understanding how the game works, basic mathematics, percentages, and how to make the best decisions that are profitable in the long run.

And as David Sklansky – author of “The Theory Of Poker” – stated: It’s the aim of maximizing wins and minimizing losses.

So how do you do this?

It’s easy – Using theoretically balanced ranges, professionals are able to play in line with the most profitable playing style. This means that against 99.9% of players you’ll make profitable plays, virtually every time.

Of course, there will be times when your aces get cracked by kings or where he hits his one-outer on the river.

But stick to these profitable styles of play, and you can guarantee yourself a big, fat, juicy income stream.

And the beauty is that even many players who call themselves ‘professionals,’ don’t use these theories correctly. They put their money in and hope for the best.

And don’t get me wrong – they do well. But they could be doing a lot better.

And that’s why I’ve been consistently crushing cash games and tournaments for the past 12 years. I’ve made millions of dollars in my career (yes that’s net profit). And I’ve played against the biggest names in the game… and won.

And today, I’m sharing these powerful techniques with you… for FREE!

The 5 Things That Will Get You Winning at Poker Consistently

So we’ve looked at the reasons why the great professionals hold such a dominance over all other players. But now let’s look at the 5 most important steps to getting your winning poker strategy working.

These are…

  1. Knowing what cards you are going to play
  2. Disguising your holdings
  3. Finding the right game to play in
  4. Making adjustments for your opponents
  5. Simplifying major decisions

Part 1 – Know the cards you are going to play

“Every battle is won before it is ever fought” – Sun Tzu.

Poker, at its most simple, is a game where you play your cards against those of your opponent. There are a lot more variables involved in playing, but choosing the hands you play is at the very core of successful poker playing.

It may seem obvious which hands to play… and which hands not to play… But are you actively going into games with a detailed understanding of which hands to play, and from what position?

Above, you’ll see a standard 10 handed poker table. Each named position requires different playing strategies, so you should be playing different hands from that position.

As a general rule of thumb, the closer you are to the button, the more hands you should be playing.

This might sound obvious to the “aggressive” players, but even then, they often make a lot of mistakes, simply because they…

  • Don’t map out the hands they want to play before the session
  • Become scared to implement this strategy facing other players

To avoid this problem, study beforehand which hands you should be playing and from which position.

You’d be amazed just how much difference this can make to your game. When you discover some of the hands you should be playing, and some of the hands you shouldn’t be playing, you’ll likely be pretty surprised.

Here’s a simple exercise you can use to help you understand positioning, and the importance of hand selection. As an example, pick which locations on the poker table you would play these hands from:

  • [Ts 9s]
  • [Ah Td]
  • [7s 5s]
  • [Jc Jd]

Each of these hands is different from the other one, and they should be played from different positions. Let’s look at some sample answers below.

  • [Ts 9s] – All Positions
  • [Ah Td] – Mid to Late Position
  • [7s 5s] – Button
  • [Jc Jd] – All Positions

Weak poker players think this level of study is unnecessary…

And luckily for you, that’s why they’ll always stay weak players, letting you take their money time and time again.

Don’t fall into the trap of thinking it’s unnecessary to understand hand selection – by putting a proper strategy in place, you eliminate all doubt from your preflop game, and you’ll become a far stronger, more-confident, winning poker player.

Part 2 – Disguise Your Holdings

So now that we’ve covered the art of hand selection, it’s time to make sure that the hands you do choose are played correctly.

Take for example, a player called John. He’s incredibly tight, and he raises preflop maybe once an hour. At showdown, he’s only ever shown monsters, and you’re confident that each time he raises preflop he has 10-10 minimum.

This style of play can work – short-term – but savvy players will exploit his weak tendencies, and he’ll soon become very easy to beat.

In poker, you don’t want to become predictable. In other words, you always want to keep your opponents guessing, meaning they have a tough time putting you on a hand.

We can achieve this by using a few techniques, which are designed to confuse them and leave them unable to read you.

Here are four cardinal rules for playing your hands:

  • Raise to the same size with all hands you play.
  • Play many hands postflop with the same actions.
  • Play some weak and strong hands in the same way.
  • Do not show your opponents your cards at any point you do not have to.
  • Let’s look at each of these individually.

1 – By keeping your bet sizings the same, it becomes virtually impossible for your opponent to put you on a hand. Plus, when your opponents think you’re raising with bad cards, they’ll pay you off when you have a monster (just watch Tom Dwan get gifted chips in HSP).

2 – By playing many hands postflop while using the same actions, it helps to keep your holdings disguised, and it means your opponents will become extremely frustrated with your constant barreling-style. This helps to continue the pre-flop secrecy in the previous point.

3 – Playing weak and strong hands in the same way adds yet another layer of depth to your game. It’s another tool to stop your opponents from putting you on hands, and they’ll often continually fold in resentment, not wanting to risk their stack to find out what you have.

4 – Do not show your opponents your cards at any point. Watch Phil Ivey play – You’d struggle to find even one time where he shows his opponents his hands, and this is crucial. You don’t want to give your opponents any information you don’t need to. And by never revealing your holdings when you don’t have to, you’ll add yet more mystery to your game.

Part 3 – Find the Right Game to Play In

Finding the correct game to play in is probably one of the most overlooked aspects in poker, yet it’s one of the most critical. In his book, ‘Super System,’ Doyle Brunson talks about how he’d always be on the lookout for games with guys who were drunk, steaming, or just plain bad players.

And while things are a little different with the rise of the Internet, there are some core principles you should remember before jumping right into a game.

Here are some of the considerations you should be making before even THINKING about joining a table:

  • How high the house rake is.
  • Whether the players are weak, average, or good.
  • How the players are playing – are they playing lots of hands, or is the table being tight?
  • If in a live situation, is the environment safe to play?
  • Have you played with any of the players before? That knowledge of his play could give you an edge.

Poker is a game for people. We talk together, we play it together, we win and lose at the table together. That said, you always get to pick who you play with.

There are many different aspects to finding the right game to play in. Let’s look at the list of good places to play:

  • A game with no rake taken by the house.
  • A game played with many recreational players who play for fun.
  • A game where much alcohol is being consumed.
  • A game with a lot of loose action by various players at the table.
  • A game that you know is safe.

Some of these are more realistic than others, and it’s not always possible to control some of these factors, but the most important thing is that you’re aware of them and keep them in the back of your mind.

Don’t fall into the ego-war trap of many poker players. If you see players at a table that you know are better than you, then simply move on and find another table. It can be tempting to play against players who are more skilled than you – and don’t get me wrong, I know it can be tempting to take a shot into the big game – but at the end of the day, you’re here to make money, and you can maximize your profits by playing against weaker, less-able players.

Part 4 – Make Adjustments to Your Opponents

Making adjustments dependent on your opponent’s game is where the best players in the world shine through and really show their edge. Determining what tendencies their opponents have, and taking advantage of those tendencies, allows them to beat them consistently.

Again, Phil Ivey is a great example of how good players adjust. Ivey studies his opponents intently, looking for any information he can get. You’ll rarely see him talking or laughing throughout a hand. Watch him – he’ll stare down his opponent, analyzing their every move and determining how best to play against them.

However, while this stare-down approach works well for players like Ivey and Mike McDonald, it doesn’t work for everyone, and I for one, don’t feel that staring into my opponent’s soul gives me a huge deal of information.

Instead, I look for actual tendencies I can take advantage of and manipulate.

Some of these include noticing:

  • How aggressive they’re playing.
  • What hands they’re turning over at showdown.
  • When they appear tilted, or they’re getting fed up with waiting around for hands.
  • When they play hands that just don’t make sense.

Using these techniques can help you build a strong mental image of your opponent’s play style, letting you use this information to make the best decision possible.

In reality, you’re not always going to be able to tell if a player is bluffing or if they have the nuts. But using these techniques, you can begin reading your opponents and gaining information other players at the table don’t have.

For example, if an aggressive player is looking worn-out, bored, or annoyed, I am far more likely to check my strong hands rather than betting them. This induces them into making bets, even when they have absolutely nothing.

I wouldn’t check all my hands, but I would analyze the situation dependent on the factors above, and begin to set the trap.

Try to keep focused at the table at all times. Notice what hands players are showing down, and decipher whether their pre-flop raise was correct or incorrect. If it was incorrect, then chances are they’ll be making other mistakes, allowing you to capitalize and make profits from them.

Part 5 – Simplify Your Decisions

When playing in any poker game – be it a tournament, cash game or sit n go – it’s important you keep a level head and don’t stress yourself out. When you feel as though the information before you is overwhelming, it’s a great idea to mentally slow down and analyze the situation.

Don’t feel afraid of annoying other players or getting the clock called on you. Take as much time as you need, and logically think through the hand in progress.

Think about what hands you can have in this situation, and what hands your opponents can have. And use this information to determine your most profitable move.

If you ever feel stuck, then think about all the hands you would play in the same way. Don’t feel obliged to three-barrel bluff just because you have no showdown value.

Sometimes it’s far better to cut your losses and wait for better opportunities, rather than risk your stack on marginal decisions. This largely comes back to knowing what hands you should be opening the pot with, and how you should be playing them.

These are called raised first in ranges, and they allow you to know what hands to play, and from what position to play them.

Today, I’m going to give you access to a FREE resource that’s helped me make millions of dollars playing poker. And soon, it can help YOU become a profitable, winning poker player.

You’ll discover how these ranges can help you become a poker player consistently booking profits, by understanding…

  • Early Position Raises
  • Middle Position Raises
  • Hijack Raises
  • Cutoff Raises
  • Button Raises
  • Small Blind Raises

By acting now, you can get access to these powerful charts, revealing exactly what hands to play, from what position, and how regularly – absolutely free of charge.

Simply click the link below, and you’ll get instant access to these charts, allowing you to begin making big changes to your game right away and seeing your profits increase.

But be quick– today might be the only day I’ll be giving this away for free. Come back another day, and you may well find I’m charging for this powerful information.

So, if you want to become a successful, profitable, respected poker player, then enter your name and email below; Discover how you can win at poker by playing the right hands.

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

How to Become a Pilot: Learn if Aviation is the Right

Are you dreaming of becoming a pilot? The thrill of exploring the world from above is something that many people aspire to experience. But becoming a pilot isn’t just about having a dream — it’s about putting in the time, money, and effort to make that dream a reality.

Whether you’re interested in becoming a professional pilot for your career or are just looking to fly for fun, you might be wondering where exactly to start. So, we’re answering the most common questions we hear from aspiring pilots and taking you through the basic steps of what it takes to start on your journey to the skies.

How Long Does It Take To Become a Pilot?

The amount of time it takes to become a pilot depends on a number of factors, including the type of pilot’s license you are seeking, the country in which you are training and your dedication and willingness to learn the necessary skills and material. But to determine how long it’ll take you, you’ll need to account for training both in the skies and on the ground.

In general, it takes a minimum of 40-60 hours of flight time to obtain a private pilot’s license, which allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To become a commercial pilot, which will enable you to fly for hire, you’ll need a minimum of 250 hours of flight time and more advanced training.

In addition to training in the air, you’ll also need to complete a certain number of ground school classes. These classes cover crucial topics you’ll need to be familiar with as a pilot, including aviation regulations, aircraft systems, navigation, and meteorology. These classes can be completed online, in a classroom or through a hybrid program.

Overall, the process of becoming a pilot can take several months to several years, depending on your circumstances and the type of pilot’s certificate you desire. Some flight schools offer accelerated programs that allow students to finish training faster than average. However, these programs typically require full-time availability, so they may not be the best fit if you plan to complete training while attending high school or college or working a full-time job.

Bottom line? Becoming a pilot requires significant time, effort and commitment. If you’re passionate about this career path, it’s important to be patient and stay focused on your goals, regardless of how long it takes you.

To become a pilot, you must complete a certain amount of flight training and pass a series of knowledge exams. You’ll also need to pass an oral exam and practical test, during which you will demonstrate your aeronautical knowledge and flying skills to an examiner.

In addition to the technical skills and knowledge required to become a pilot, you will also need good physical coordination and mental focus, as well as the ability to handle stress and make quick decisions. Pilots are responsible for the safety of their passengers and crew, so they must be able to perform their duties effectively and efficiently.

Overall, becoming a pilot is a challenging but rewarding process. Even though flight training requires a lot of hard work and dedication at times, students have access to a wide range of resources to help them accomplish their flight training. Student pilots fly with a Certified Flight Instructor who is trained to provide one-on-one assistance and help students succeed. When your flight training is complete, the sense of accomplishment and the opportunity to pursue a fulfilling career make it well worth the effort.

Take our quiz to see if you have what it takes to be a pilot!

What Is the Best Age To Become a Pilot?

No particular age is considered the “best” age to become a pilot. In the U.S., you can earn a student pilot certificate beginning at age 16, a private pilot certificate at age 17, and commercial pilot at age 18 — but these are minimums, not maximums! Many people learn to fly much later in life, even into their 70s and 80s. As long as you can hold an FAA medical certificate, you can hold a pilot certificate. If flying has been a lifelong dream, there’s no reason to let age hold you back!

What Qualifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

  • To become a pilot, you will need to meet specific qualifications, which vary depending on the type of pilot’s license you are seeking and the country in which you are training. In general, you’ll need to:
  • Meet the minimum age requirement: This varies from country to country and based on the type of aircraft you wish to operate. Research your local aviation laws and regulations ahead of time.
  • Meet the minimum education requirement: The specific educational requirements prospective students need to meet depend on the school you choose to train at. Some pilot training programs require applicants to have at least a high school diploma or equivalent, while others allow students to begin training while still in high school. Certain universities also offer aviation programs that allow students to earn their pilot’s license alongside a four-year degree. For more information on the requirements for flight schools near you, check out our list of Piper Flight School Alliance partners.
  • Pass a medical examination: Pilots must pass a medical examination to ensure they are physically and mentally fit to fly. In the U.S., pilots must be examined and approved by an FAA-designated Aviation Medical Examiner (AME) to obtain a Medical Certificate. This examination includes a physical exam, vision and hearing tests, and a review of your medical history. The FAA suggests getting your Medical Certificate before beginning flight training. Your certification class should be based on your career goals. Private pilots and students only need a third-class certificate. Commercial pilots need a second-class certificate, while airline transport pilots need a first-class certificate.
  • Meet language proficiency requirements: Pilots must be able to speak and understand English, as it is the international language of aviation. Some countries may have additional language proficiency requirements for pilots.

What Certifications Do You Need To Become a Pilot?

In order to become a pilot, you’ll need to obtain a pilot certificate and complete the required training. The specific type of pilot certificate you will need depends on the flying you want to do and the type of aircraft you wish to fly.

In the United States, the FAA issues several types of pilot certificates and ratings, including:

  • Private pilot certificate: Allows you to fly small aircraft for personal use. To obtain a private pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 40 hours of flight time and pass written, oral and practical exams.
  • Instrument rating: An instrument rating demonstrates that you can fly solely by referring to your aircraft’s instruments. It is arguably one of the most valuable ratings you can add to your pilot certificate and is a fun and challenging discipline of flight training. An Instrument Rating gives you the opportunity to fly in more varied meteorological conditions. You will need to complete at least 15 hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in the aircraft category for the instrument rating you’re seeking, along with a minimum of 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time.
  • Commercial pilot certificate: Allows you to fly for hire. To obtain a commercial pilot certificate, you will need to complete a minimum of 250 hours of flight time in addition to written, oral and practical exams.

Depending on the direction you would like to point your career, there are other certificates and ratings you can pursue once you become a commercial pilot. Typically, to pursue a career in aviation, you will have to meet the hiring hour minimums for your desired company. These will vary depending on what field of the industry you choose. There are many ways to build this flight time, but one of the most common methods is to become a Certified Flight Instructor. As an instructor, you’ll use the skills and knowledge you’ve built up over the course of your flight training to help future pilots build the competence they’ll need to be safe and successful aviators.

If instructing isn’t for you, there are other job opportunities where you can use your commercial certificate to build time and gain valuable experience, such as aerial survey, agricultural flying, towing banners, working as a ferry pilot, and more. Once you build the flight time required, you’ll be ready to take your aviation career to the next level.

In addition to these certificates, pilots may need to obtain additional ratings or endorsements to fly certain types of aircraft or to fly in certain conditions. For example, a pilot may need a multi-engine rating to fly a multi-engine aircraft. It’s important to carefully research the specific requirements for the flying you want to do and to work with a Certified Flight Instructor to ensure that you’re adequately trained and prepared.

Is It Expensive To Become a Pilot?

With all that flight time, training, and certification, becoming a pilot can be expensive. The specific cost of your pilot training depends on a number of factors, including the type of license you are seeking, the location and duration of your training, and the type of aircraft you are using for your training.

Generally, the cost of pilot training can range from several thousand dollars for a private pilot’s license to tens of thousands of dollars for training through more advanced certificates and ratings. These costs include flight time, ground school classes, exam fees, and other training expenses.

It is important to carefully research the cost of pilot training before you begin and prepare for the financial investment involved. Some people may be able to offset the cost of training through scholarships or grants, while others may want to save up and pay for training out of pocket. Many students in training are aided by loans or other financing options, so regardless of your financial situation, take time to explore your options!

How To Pick a Flight School

Choosing a flight school can be a challenging process, but it’s an important decision that can greatly impact your future as a pilot. It may be a good idea to tour the flight school so you can physically see the aircraft and interact with the instructors at the school to ensure it will be a good match for you. Additionally, many flight schools offer what’s called a Discovery Flight, where you have the chance to fly with a Certified Flight Instructor and try flying in a small flight training aircraft for the very first time. A Discovery Flight is a wonderful tool to help determine if becoming a pilot is the right choice for you.

Another parameter to consider when choosing a flight school is the school’s location. Aside from the convenience of finding a flight school near you, you may also want to consider the local weather conditions, as they may impact your training. Schools in areas with a lower cost of living may also be more affordable overall. You can also speak with current students and instructors to see how their training experience has been at that particular location.

It’s also smart to examine the types of aircraft the school uses for training and whether they are well-maintained. Aircraft availability and reliability are two important parameters to consider at your prospective flight school. If you’re looking for a school with Piper aircraft as part of its fleet, our Flight School map lists high-quality flight schools all over the world. Piper aircraft are consistently rated as some of the best to learn to fly in, having been used to train student pilots for decades.

If you’re ready to start your journey to becoming a pilot, find a flight school near you today!
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COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

COVID Hurt Student Learning

Dozens of studies have come out over the past months concluding that the pandemic had a negative—and uneven—effect on student learning click here.

National analyses have shown that students who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, and that Black and Latino students experienced greater declines in test scores than their peers.

But taken together, what implications do they have for school and district leaders looking for a path forward?

Here are four questions and answers, based on what we’ve learned from the most salient studies, that dig into the evidence.

Did students who stayed in remote learning longer fare worse than those who learned in person?

Generally, yes—but not in every single instance.

School buildings shut down in spring 2020. By fall 2021, most students were back learning in person. But schools took a variety of different approaches in the middle, during the 2020-21 school year.

Several studies have attempted to examine the effects of the choices that districts made during that time period. And they found that students who were mostly in-person fared better than students who were mostly remote.

An analysis of 2021 spring state test data across 12 states found that districts that offered more access to in-person options saw smaller declines in math and reading scores than districts that offered less access. In reading, the effect was much larger in districts with a higher share of Black and Hispanic students.

Assessment experts, as well as the researchers, have urged caution about these results, noting that it’s hard to draw conclusions from results on spring 2021 state tests, given low rates of participation and other factors that affected how the tests were administered.

But it wasn’t just state test scores that were affected. Interim test scores—the more-frequent assessments that schools give throughout the year—saw declines too.

Another study examined scores on the Measures of Academic Progress assessment, or MAP, an interim test developed by NWEA, a nonprofit assessment provider. Researchers at NWEA, the American Institutes for Research, and Harvard examined data from 2.1 million students during the 2020-21 school year.

Students in districts that were remote during this period had lower achievement growth than students in districts that offered in-person learning. The effects were most substantial for high-poverty schools in remote learning districts.

Still, other research introduces some caveats.

The Education Recovery Scorecard, a collaboration between researchers at Stanford and Harvard, analyzed states’ scores on the 2022 National Assessment of Educational Progress. They compared these scores to the average amount of time that a district in the state spent in remote learning.

For the most part, this analysis confirmed the findings of previous research: In states where districts were remote longer, student achievement was worse.But there were also some outliers, like California. There, students saw smaller declines in math than average, even though the state had the highest closure rates on average. The researchers also noted that even among districts that spent the same amount of time in 2020-21 in remote learning, there were differences in achievement declines.

Are there other factors that could have contributed to these declines?

It’s probable. Remote learning didn’t take place in a vacuum, as educators and experts have repeatedly pointed out. But there’s not a lot of empirical evidence on this question just yet.

Children switched to virtual instruction as the pandemic unfolded around them—parents lost jobs, family members fell sick and died. In many cases, the school districts that chose remote learning served communities that also suffered some of the highest mortality rates from COVID.

The NWEA, AIR, and Harvard researchers—the group that looked at interim test data—note this. “It is possible that the relationships we have observed are not entirely causal, that family stress in the districts that remained remote both caused the decline in achievement and drove school officials to keep school buildings closed,” they wrote.

The Education Recovery Scorecard team plans to investigate the effects of other factors in future research, “such as COVID death rates, broadband connectivity, the predominant industries of employment and occupations for parents in the school district.”

Most of this data is from the 2020-21 school year. What’s happening now? Are students making progress?

They are—but it’s unevenly distributed.

NWEA, the interim assessment provider, recently analyzed test data from spring 2022. They found that student academic progress during the 2021-22 school did start to rebound.

But even though students at both ends of the distribution are making academic progress, lower-scoring students are making gains at a slower rate than higher-scoring students.

“It’s kind of a double whammy. Lower-achieving students were harder hit in that initial phase of the pandemic, and they’re not achieving as steadily,” Karyn Lewis, the lead author of the brief, said earlier in November.

What should schools do in response? How can they know where to focus their efforts?

That depends on what your own data show—though it’s a good bet that focusing on math, especially for kids who were already struggling, is a good place to start.

Test results across the board, from the NAEP to interim assessment data, show that declines have been larger in math than in reading. And kids who were already struggling fell further behind than their peers, widening gaps with higher-achieving students.

But these sweeping analyses don’t tell individual teachers, or even districts, what their specific students need. That may look different from school to school.

“One of the things we found is that even within a district, there is variability,” Sean Reardon, a professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University and a researcher on the Education Recovery Scorecard, said in a statement.

“School districts are the first line of action to help children catch up. The better they know about the patterns of learning loss, the more they’re going to be able to target their resources effectively to reduce educational inequality of opportunity and help children and communities thrive,” he said.

Experts have emphasized two main suggestions in interviews with Education Week.

  • Figure out where students are. Teachers and school leaders can examine interim test data from classrooms or, for a more real-time analysis, samples of student work. These classroom-level data are more useful for targeting instruction than top-line state test results or NAEP scores, experts say.
  • Districts should make sure that the students who have been disproportionately affected by pandemic disruptions are prioritized for support.

“The implication for district leaders isn’t just, ‘am I offering the right kinds of opportunities [for academic recovery]?’” Lewis said earlier this month. “But also, ‘am I offering them to the students who have been harmed most?’”

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Education is the Most Powerful Weapon

Nelson Mandela was right when he stated, “Education is the most powerful weapon you can utilize to transform the world.” Yes, the solution to any issue lies in education. Education is essential if you want to progress and succeed.

You can use education to increase both the economical and sociological quality of life in today’s society. Education is power, without any doubt. It has the capacity to transform your entire life. It is a gesture where you accept knowledge and then give methodical directions in return, ranging from promoting gender equality to eliminating poverty. Read More!

Importance of Education

You can understand the importance of education by reading the following points that I am going to discuss.

1. Helps Us Become Better Citizens

The truth is that despite being the most sophisticated and advanced species on Earth, humans are merely creatures with the capacity for rational thought and behaviour. However, a person cannot develop that rationalism within themselves without education. So, education helps us think rationally, take the right decisions, and aid in becoming better and more responsible citizens.

2. Enhances the Nation’s Progress

People who are educated are the foundation of any nation. If you are educated, you can distinguish between right and wrong. You are reasonably knowledgeable about the resources that are available as well as the best ways to use them. So, you will work for the betterment of your country and ultimately your country.

3. Ensures a Promising Future

The key to leading a contented and prosperous life is education. It assists us in identifying our hidden abilities and talents, which we can use to advance our careers, find work, and ensure our promising future. So, with education, you can have a successful profession and achieve your professional and personal goals.

How Does Education Influence the Society?

Learning is a lifelong process that never ends. New ideas arise with learning, and before you know it, you are questioning the previous concepts and beliefs. Your environment and personality have changed, which makes it easier for you to communicate with one another and feel free to share your thoughts. So, education aids in shaping one’s perspective on life and their ideas of it.

Although there are people from all different backgrounds and ideologies living in Pakistan and we have a very diverse population. So, the one thing that unites us all and compels us to support educational reform is education.

A person with education not only improves his or her own life but also the lives of those around him. They can provide each other with advice and a variety of suggestions related to political involvement, social justice, or ecological sustainability. As a result, education is a tool that can aid in making the right choices and bringing about change in the world.

What are The Ways Education Bring Change in Society?

Let me tell you how education brings about change in our society.

1. Provides Knowledge

As social creatures, we must be mindful of our surroundings, our community, and other societies. That is because we understand what is incorrect and how we can improve it. Knowledge of the world around us and the modifications that can be made to improve it is the first thing you receive through education. While education is not the only source of world information, it does offer a means of turning that information into knowledge.

2. Solve Problems

Whether there is a problem with the economy, society, medicine, or politics, knowledgeable and educated people who have a thorough understanding of the situation are always called upon to provide a solution

So, with education, you will learn to:

  • Differentiate between reliable and unreliable information.
  • Identify trustworthy sources of knowledge.
  • Perform research.
  • Recognize partiality.
  • Draw conclusions and judgments.
  • Encourage inquiry

3. Fighting social evils

Every society struggles to overcome some of the other flaws and social evils. We are attempting to combat societal issues like:

  • Casteism
  • Gender inequality
  • Poverty

, etc.

These societal problems will continue to exist and spread as long as some educated individual does not realize how they are consuming and damaging our economy.

4. Encourages to Speak Up

We need people who have the bravery to speak up against all that is going on in the world. Knowledge and education in your area of expertise are also necessary for having the guts to express your opinions and persuade others to listen. Education is the tool that provides you with the confidence to speak your mind without worrying about whom you are speaking to or what others may think of you.

5. Society’s Growth

Education is more than just acquiring a job and earning a living; it also involves the many bright entrepreneurs who develop a reputation for themselves and contribute to the advancement of society and the country as a whole. Your education gives you the self-assurance to take the first step toward realizing your greatest goals and dreaming of a future in which you would own your organization.

Education is the Key to Society’s Success

Education serves as the most powerful weapon. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen have the power to change the world. The only remedy is education. first, put education.

Therefore, after reviewing all of the aforementioned examples of how education can be used as a weapon, we can all conclude that education is a great equalizer that helps raise living standards, benefits communities, and even protects people from abuse and unrealistic expectations. Improving educational access and quality leads to greater outcomes at all levels.

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

5 Easy DIY Biology Experiments You Can Do at Home

Biology is fascinating, but not all of us have access to state-of-the-art laboratory equipment to do biology experiments. However, it is possible to do some simple experiments at home with the right materials. These DIY biology experiments are suitable for all ages and levels of knowledge. The main goal is to have fun with science and get curious.

To be on the safe side, the list doesn’t include genetic engineering experiments; in many countries, you are not allowed to perform them in uncertified facilities. If you are very keen, though, some people have been able to get their homes certified to create genetically modified microbes.

1. Extract your own DNA

It is very easy to extract DNA at home just using everyday kitchen supplies. You can extract your own DNA from your saliva, or you can use any fruit or vegetable you can find at home — bananas and strawberries are some of the most popular at science fairs.

Follow the steps here to extract the DNA. At the end of the process, you should have obtained a white, cloudy substance that you can pick up with a toothpick. You can then observe it under a microscope, or try out some methylene blue, a dye commonly used in biology labs that binds to DNA and makes it turn blue — note that it should be used with caution outside a lab. If you dry the DNA and store it in a paper bag or envelope, you will be able to use it in future experiments.

It is also possible to analyze the extracted DNA at home, although this step can be more pricey. Equipment for electrophoresis, a technique to separate DNA molecules according to their size, can be bought from around €300. It can also be built at home with some dedication. If you want to take it a step further, you can get a pocket-sized DNA sequencer for around €1,000 — scientists often use this portable sequencing equipment when going to remote locations without access to a lab.

2. Culture bacteria on homemade agar

Bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms are all around us. You can easily prepare culture medium at home and then collect samples from different places to find out what lives there.

In this video, you can find a step-by-step tutorial on how to make agar plates in your kitchen. Once you get some microbes to grow on the plates, you can experiment with how different conditions affect their growth or test the effect of antibiotics on the different microorganisms. (And if you have a DNA sequencer, you can use it to find which species are growing on your petri dish.)

For the creative souls out there, you can also make petri dish art by taking advantage of the different colors and textures of the different microbes you can find. Every year, the American Society for Microbiology runs a worldwide contest of agar art where you can submit your best creations.

3. Ferment your own food

Fermentation is one of the things bacteria and yeast make best. We’ve been using these microorganisms to make food since ancient times, and it’s quite easy to ferment your own food at home.

There are many options to choose from, ranging from drinks such as kombucha, kefir, or mead, to yogurt, cheese, kimchi, and sauerkraut. In most cases, what you need is just a starter culture of the bacteria or fungi that make the food you will be fermenting. You can get it from someone that is already doing fermentation at home, or buy them online.

Each fermented food has different requirements, so make sure you have everything you need before starting. There are plenty of online tutorials you can follow, and once you get comfortable with the techniques, you can start playing with different conditions and starter ingredients to modify the taste and texture of your food.

4. Look at cell division under the microscope

Nowadays you can easily find cheap digital microscopes with high magnification power that can be connected directly to your laptop or smartphone. You can take the digital microscope with you and observe every little thing you find at home or outdoors. (Tip: you’ll find many interesting forms of life in ponds or any other source of untreated water.)

A great experiment to do at home with a microscope is to look at how cells divide in different organisms. One of the easiest is baker’s yeast. With a magnification of at least 400x, you can start discerning the shapes of individual yeast cells in water. You will notice that some of them have little buds on them, which is the way they grow and divide.

The cells located at the tips of onion roots are also a very good subject of study. Whether you prepare and stain them yourself or you buy premade microscope slides, these cells are great to observe the different stages of mitosis and how the DNA gets duplicated and rearranged as the cells divide.

5. Make a bioluminescent lamp

Some microorganisms are able to generate light by themselves. When enough of them gather, they can make whole beaches glow at night. Luckily, we live in the age of the internet and it is possible to order these microbes online and get them delivered directly home. (For example, from shops like Carolina or Sea Farms.)

Bioluminescent organisms can last for several months under the right conditions, which includes making sure they receive enough light during the day to recharge their ability to glow. At night, they will start producing light when you shake them up.

You can experiment with growing these organisms in different conditions and play with their ability to make light. Another cool idea is introducing them into a closed fountain, where they will be constantly shaken and glowing (at least until they run out of energy).


These biology experiments will get you started with the world of DIY biology. If you are keen to dive deeper into doing biology outside the lab, the DIY biology community is growing rapidly around the globe. You can find labs and other biology enthusiasts in many cities across Europe and the US, where you will be able to attend workshops, access more advanced equipment, and meet people from all backgrounds keen to help you with your wildest biology projects. Have fun! Check more at