Your Digestive System & How it Works

Your Digestive System & How it Works

Your Digestive System & How it Works

What is the digestive system?

The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract—also called the GI tract or digestive tract—and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. The hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system.

The small intestine has three parts. The first part is called the duodenum. The jejunum is in the middle and the ileum is at the end. The large intestine includes the appendix, cecum, colon, and rectum. The appendix is a finger-shaped pouch attached to the cecum. The cecum is the first part of the large intestine. The colon is next. The rectum is the end of the large intestine.

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The digestive system

Bacteria in your GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of your nervous and circulatory NIH external link systems also help. Working together, nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs of your digestive system digest the foods and liquids you eat or drink each day.

Why is digestion important?

Digestion is important because your body needs nutrients from food and drink to work properly and stay healthy. Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins NIH external link, minerals NIH external link, and water are nutrients. Your digestive system breaks nutrients into parts small enough for your body to absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair.

  • Proteins break into amino acids
  • Fats break into fatty acids and glycerol
  • Carbohydrates break into simple sugars

MyPlate offers ideas and tips to help you meet your individual health needs External link.

Your digestive system breaks nutrients into parts that are small enough for your body to absorb.

How does my digestive system work?

Each part of your digestive system helps to move food and liquid through your GI tract, break food and liquid into smaller parts, or both. Once foods are broken into small enough parts, your body can absorb and move the nutrients to where they are needed. Your large intestine absorbs water, and the waste products of digestion become stool. Nerves and hormones help control the digestive process.

The digestive process

Previous columnNext column
Organ Movement
Mouth Chewing
Esophagus Peristalsis
Stomach Upper muscle in stomach relaxes to let food enter, and lower muscle mixes food with digestive juice
Small intestine Peristalsis
Pancreas None
Liver None
Large intestine Peristalsis

How does food move through my GI tract?

Food moves through your GI tract by a process called peristalsis. The large, hollow organs of your GI tract contain a layer of muscle that enables their walls to move. The movement pushes food and liquid through your GI tract and mixes the contents within each organ. The muscle behind the food contracts and squeezes the food forward, while the muscle in front of the food relaxes to allow the food to move.

The digestive process starts when you put food in your mouth.

Mouth. Food starts to move through your GI tract when you eat. When you swallow, your tongue pushes the food into your throat. A small flap of tissue, called the epiglottis, folds over your windpipe to prevent choking and the food passes into your esophagus.

Esophagus. Once you begin swallowing, the process becomes automatic. Your brain signals the muscles of the esophagus and peristalsis begins.

Lower esophageal sphincter. When food reaches the end of your esophagus, a ringlike muscle—called the lower esophageal sphincter —relaxes and lets food pass into your stomach. This sphincter usually stays closed to keep what’s in your stomach from flowing back into your esophagus.

Stomach. After food enters your stomach, the stomach muscles mix the food and liquid with digestive juices. The stomach slowly empties its contents, called chyme, into your small intestine.

Small intestine. The muscles of the small intestine mix food with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine, and push the mixture forward for further digestion. The walls of the small intestine absorb water and the digested nutrients into your bloodstream. As peristalsis continues, the waste products of the digestive process move into the large intestine.

Large intestine. Waste products from the digestive process include undigested parts of food, fluid, and older cells from the lining of your GI tract. The large intestine absorbs water and changes the waste from liquid into stool. Peristalsis helps move the stool into your rectum.

Rectum. The lower end of your large intestine, the rectum, stores stool until it pushes stool out of your anus during a bowel movement.

Watch this video to see how food moves through your GI tract NIH external link.

How does my digestive system break food into small parts my body can use?

As food moves through your GI tract, your digestive organs break the food into smaller parts using:

  • motion, such as chewing, squeezing, and mixing
  • digestive juices, such as stomach acid, bile, and enzymes

Mouth. The digestive process starts in your mouth when you chew. Your salivary glands make saliva, a digestive juice, which moistens food so it moves more easily through your esophagus into your stomach. Saliva also has an enzyme that begins to break down starches in your food.

Esophagus. After you swallow, peristalsis pushes the food down your esophagus into your stomach.

Stomach. Glands in your stomach lining make stomach acid and enzymes that break down food. Muscles of your stomach mix the food with these digestive juices.

Pancreas. Your pancreas makes a digestive juice that has enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The pancreas delivers the digestive juice to the small intestine through small tubes called ducts.

Liver. Your liver makes a digestive juice called bile that helps digest fats and some vitamins. Bile ducts carry bile from your liver to your gallbladder for storage, or to the small intestine for use.

Gallbladder. Your gallbladder stores bile between meals. When you eat, your gallbladder squeezes bile through the bile ducts into your small intestine.

Small intestine. Your small intestine makes digestive juice, which mixes with bile and pancreatic juice to complete the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Bacteria in your small intestine make some of the enzymes you need to digest carbohydrates. Your small intestine moves water from your bloodstream into your GI tract to help break down food. Your small intestine also absorbs water with other nutrients.

Large intestine. In your large intestine, more water moves from your GI tract into your bloodstream. Bacteria in your large intestine help break down remaining nutrients and make vitamin K NIH external link. Waste products of digestion, including parts of food that are still too large, become stool.

What happens to the digested food?

The small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients in your food, and your circulatory system passes them on to other parts of your body to store or use. Special cells help absorbed nutrients cross the intestinal lining into your bloodstream. Your blood carries simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, and some vitamins and salts to the liver. Your liver stores, processes, and delivers nutrients to the rest of your body when needed.

The lymph system NIH external link, a network of vessels that carry white blood cells and a fluid called lymph throughout your body to fight infection, absorbs fatty acids and vitamins.

Your body uses sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol to build substances you need for energy, growth, and cell repair.

How does my body control the digestive process?

Your hormones and nerves work together to help control the digestive process. Signals flow within your GI tract and back and forth from your GI tract to your brain.


Cells lining your stomach and small intestine make and release hormones that control how your digestive system works. These hormones tell your body when to make digestive juices and send signals to your brain that you are hungry or full. Your pancreas also makes hormones that are important to digestion.


You have nerves that connect your central nervous system—your brain and spinal cord—to your digestive system and control some digestive functions. For example, when you see or smell food, your brain sends a signal that causes your salivary glands to “make your mouth water” to prepare you to eat.

You also have an enteric nervous system (ENS)—nerves within the walls of your GI tract. When food stretches the walls of your GI tract, the nerves of your ENS release many different substances that speed up or delay the movement of food and the production of digestive juices. The nerves send signals to control the actions of your gut muscles to contract and relax to push food through your intestines.

Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?

Watch a video of NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers explaining the importance of participating in clinical trials.

What clinical trials are open?

Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at

Food Chain Definition, Types, Examples

Food Chain: Definition, Types, Examples

Food Chain: Definition, Types, Examples

Food Chain: Introduction

A food chain explains which organism eats another organism in the environment. The food chain is a linear sequence of organisms where nutrients and energy is transferred from one organism to the other. This occurs when one organism consumes another organism. It begins with the producer organism, follows the chain and ends with the decomposer organism. After understanding the food chain, we realise how one organism is dependent upon another organism for survival.

Now, let’s look at the other aspects of a food chain, to get a better understanding.

What is a Food Chain?

A food chain refers to the order of events in an ecosystem, where one living organism eats another organism, and later that organism is consumed by another larger organism. The flow of nutrients and energy from one organism to another at different trophic levels forms a food chain.

The food chain also explains the feeding pattern or relationship between living organisms. Trophic level refers to the sequential stages in a food chain, starting with producers at the bottom, followed by primary, secondary and tertiary consumers. Every level in a food chain is known as a trophic level.

The food chain consists of four major parts, namely:

  • The Sun: The sun is the initial source of energy, which provides energy for everything on the planet.
  • Producers: The producers in a food chain include all autotrophs such as phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, algae, and green plants. This is the first stage in a food chain. The producers make up the first level of a food chain. The producers utilise the energy from the sun to make food. Producers are also known as autotrophs as they make their own food. Producers are any plant or other organisms that produce their own nutrients through photosynthesis.
  • Consumers: Consumers are all organisms that are dependent on plants or other organisms for food. This is the largest part of a food web, as it contains almost all living organisms. It includes herbivores which are animals that eat plants, carnivores which are animals that eat other animals, parasites that live on other organisms by harming them and lastly the scavengers, which are animals that eat dead animals’ carcasses.

Here, herbivores are known as primary consumers and carnivores are secondary consumers. The second trophic level includes organisms that eat producers. Therefore, primary consumers or herbivores are organisms in the second trophic level.

  • Decomposers: Decomposers are organisms that get energy from dead or waste organic material. This is the last stage in a food chain. Decomposers are an integral part of a food chain, as they convert organic waste materials into inorganic materials, which enriches the soil or land with nutrients.

Decomposers complete a life cycle. They help in recycling the nutrients as they provide nutrients to soil or oceans, that can be utilised by autotrophs or producers. Thus, starting a whole new food chain.

Food Web:

Several interconnected food chains form a food web. A food web is similar to a food chain but the food web is comparatively larger than a food chain. Occasionally, a single organism is consumed by many predators or it consumes several other organisms. Due to this, many trophic levels get interconnected. The food chain fails to showcase the flow of energy in the right way. But, the food web is able to show the proper representation of energy flow, as it displays the interactions between different organisms.

When there are more cross-interactions between different food chains, the food web gets more complex. This complexity in a food web leads to a more sustainable ecosystem.

Types of Food Chain

There are two types of food chains, namely the detritus food chain and the grazing food chain. Let’s look at them more closely:

  • Detritus food chain: The detritus food chain includes different species of organisms and plants like algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, mites, insects, worms and so on. The detritus food chain begins with dead organic material. The food energy passes into decomposers and detritivores, which are further eaten by smaller organisms like carnivores. Carnivores, like maggots, become a meal for bigger carnivores like frogs, snakes and so on. Primary consumers like fungi, bacteria, protozoans, and so on are detritivores which feed on detritus.
  • Grazing food chain: The grazing food chain is a type of food chain that starts with green plants, passes through herbivores and then to carnivores. In a grazing food chain, energy in the lowest trophic level is acquired from photosynthesis.

In this type of food chain, the first energy transfer is from plants to herbivores. This type of food chain depends on the flow of energy from autotrophs to herbivores. As autotrophs are the base for all ecosystems on Earth, the majority of ecosystems in the environment follow this kind of food chain.


Understanding food chains is vital, as they explain the intimate relationships in an ecosystem. A food chain shows us how every living organism is dependent on other organisms for survival. The food chain explains the path of energy flow inside an ecosystem.

Frequently Asked Questions on Food Chain


What are the first organisms in a food chain?

Producers, also known as autotrophs, comprise the first level in a food chain.

What is the difference between the food chain and the food web?

A food chain follows a single path, where animals discover food. But a food web shows different paths, where plants and animals are connected. A food web comprises several food chains.

In a food chain, an organism eats a single item, whereas in a food web an organism consumes multiple items. In a food chain, there is a singular path for energy flow and in a food web, there are different paths for energy flow.


What role do humans play in a food chain?

The role of humans in the food chain varies, depending on what the human consumes as food. If humans consume only plants, they are known as primary consumers. If the human eats an organism that consumes plants, the human is known as a secondary consumer, and so on. So they are referred to as omnivores.

What are animals called in a food chain?

Animals are known as consumers in a food chain because they eat other plants and animals.

What do food chains end with?

A food chain begins with producers who make food, continues with consumers who eat the food and ends with the topmost predator.

To explore more information about food chains or other kinds of food chains, register with

Entrepreneur: What It Means to Be One and How to Get Started

Entrepreneur: What It Means to Be One and How to Get Started

Entrepreneur: What It Means to Be One and How to Get Started – Learn about the challenges facing entrepreneurs as they start new businesses

What Is an Entrepreneur?

An entrepreneur is an individual who creates a new business, bearing most of the risks and enjoying most of the rewards. The process of setting up a business is known as entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurs play a key role in any economy, using the skills and initiative necessary to anticipate needs and bring new ideas to market. Entrepreneurship that proves to be successful in taking on the risks of creating a startup is rewarded with profits and growth opportunities.

Key Takeaways

  • A person who undertakes the risk of starting a new business venture is called an entrepreneur.
  • An entrepreneur creates a firm to realize their idea, known as entrepreneurship, which aggregates capital and labor in order to produce goods or services for profit.
  • Entrepreneurship is highly risky but also can be highly rewarding, as it serves to generate economic wealth, growth, and innovation.
  • Ensuring funding is key for entrepreneurs: Financing resources include Small Business Administration loans and crowdfunding.
  • The way entrepreneurs file and pay taxes will depend on how the business is set up in terms of structure.

Why Are Entrepreneurs Important?

Entrepreneurship is one of the resources economists categorize as integral to production, the other three being land/natural resources, labor, and capital. An entrepreneur combines the first three of these to manufacture goods or provide services. They typically create a business plan, hire labor, acquire resources and financing, and provide leadership and management for the business.

Economists have never had a consistent definition of “entrepreneur” or “entrepreneurship” (the word “entrepreneur” comes from the French verb entreprendre, meaning “to undertake”). Though the concept of an entrepreneur existed and was known for centuries, the classical and neoclassical economists left entrepreneurs out of their formal models. They assumed that perfect information would be known to fully rational actors, leaving no room for risk-taking or discovery. It wasn’t until the middle of the 20th century that economists seriously attempted to incorporate entrepreneurship into their models.

Three thinkers were central to the inclusion of entrepreneurs: Joseph Schumpeter, Frank Knight, and Israel Kirzner.1 Schumpeter suggested that entrepreneurs—not just companies—were responsible for the creation of new things in the search for profit. Knight focused on entrepreneurs as the bearers of uncertainty and believed they were responsible for risk premiums in financial markets. Kirzner thought of entrepreneurship as a process that led to the discovery of opportunities.

Fast-forward to today, entrepreneurs commonly face many obstacles when building their companies. The three that many of them cite as the most challenging include overcoming bureaucracy, hiring talent, and obtaining financing.

What Are Different Types of Entrepreneurs?

Not every entrepreneur is the same and not all have the same goals. Here are a few types of entrepreneurs:


Builders seek to create scalable businesses within a short time frame. Builders typically pass $5 million in revenue in the first two to four years and continue to build up until $100 million or beyond. These individuals seek to build out a strong infrastructure by hiring the best talent and seeking the best investors. Sometimes, they have temperamental personalities that are suited to the fast growth they desire but may make personal and business relationships difficult.2


Opportunistic entrepreneurs are optimistic individuals with the ability to pick out financial opportunities, get in at the right time, stay on board during the time of growth, and exit when a business hits its peak.

These types of entrepreneurs are concerned with profits and the wealth they will build, so they are attracted to ideas where they can create residual or renewal income. Because they are looking to find well-timed opportunities, opportunistic entrepreneurs can be impulsive.2


Innovators are those rare individuals that come up with a great idea or product that no one has thought of before. Think of Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg. These individuals worked on what they loved and found business opportunities through their vision and ideas.

Rather than focusing on money, innovators tend to care more about the impact that their products and services have on society. These individuals are not the best at running a business as they are idea-generating individuals, so they often leave the day-to-day operations to those more capable in that respect.2


These individuals are analytical and risk-averse. They have a strong skill set in a specific area obtained through education or apprenticeship. A specialist entrepreneur will build out their business through networking and referrals, sometimes resulting in slower growth than a builder entrepreneur.2

4 Types of Entrepreneurship

As there are different types of entrepreneurs, there are also different types of businesses they create. Below are the main different types of entrepreneurship.


Small business entrepreneurship refers to opening a business without turning it into a large conglomerate or opening many chains. A single-location restaurant, one grocery shop, or a retail shop to sell goods or services would all be examples of small business entrepreneurship.

These people usually invest their own money and succeed if their businesses turn a profit, which serves as their income. Sometimes, they don’t have outside investors and will only take a loan if it helps continue the business.

Scalable startup

These are companies that start with a unique idea that can be built to a large scale—think Silicon Valley. The hopes are to innovate with a unique product or service and continue growing the company, continuously scaling up over time. These types of companies often require investors and large amounts of capital to grow their idea and expand into multiple markets.


Large company entrepreneurship is a new business division created within an existing company. The existing company may be well placed to branch out into other sectors or it may be positioned well to become involved in new technology.

CEOs of these companies either foresee a new market for the company or individuals within the company generate ideas that they bring to senior management to start the process and development.

Social entrepreneurship

The goal of social entrepreneurship is to create a benefit to society and humankind. This form of business focuses on helping communities or the environment through their products and services. They are not driven by profits but rather by helping the world around them.

How to Become an Entrepreneur

After retiring her professional dancing shoes, Judi Sheppard Missett became an entrepreneur by teaching a dance class in order to earn some extra cash. But she soon learned that women who came to her studio were less interested in learning precise steps than they were in losing weight and toning up. Sheppard Missett then trained instructors to teach her routines to the masses, and Jazzercise was born. Soon, a franchise deal followed and today, the company has more than 8,300 locations worldwide.3

Following an ice cream–making correspondence course, two entrepreneurs, Jerry Greenfield and Ben Cohen, paired $8,000 in savings with a $4,000 loan, leased a Burlington, Vt., gas station, and purchased equipment to create uniquely flavored ice cream for the local market.4 Today, Ben & Jerry’s hauls in millions in annual revenue.

In the 21st century, the example of Internet giants like Alphabet, the parent company to Google (GOOG), and Meta (META; formerly Facebook), both of which have made their founders wildly wealthy, have been clear examples of the lasting impact of entrepreneurs on society.

Unlike traditional professions, where there is often a defined path to follow, the road to entrepreneurship is mystifying to most. What works for one entrepreneur might not work for the next and vice versa. That said, there are seven general steps that many successful entrepreneurs have followed:

Ensure financial stability

This first step is not a strict requirement but is definitely recommended. While entrepreneurs have built successful businesses while being less than financially flush, starting out with an adequate cash supply and stable ongoing funding is a great foundation.

This increases an entrepreneur’s personal financial runway and gives them more time to work on building a successful business, rather than worrying about having to keep raising money or paying back short-term loans.

Build a diverse skill set

Once a person has strong finances, it is important to build a diverse set of skills and then apply those skills in the real world. The beauty of step two is it can be done concurrently with step one.

Building a skill set can be achieved through learning and trying new tasks in real-world settings. For example, if an aspiring entrepreneur has a background in finance, they can move into a sales role at their existing company to learn the soft skills necessary to be successful. Once a diverse skill set is built, it gives an entrepreneur a toolkit that they can rely on when they are faced with the inevitability of tough situations.

Much has been discussed about whether going to college is necessary to become a successful entrepreneur. Many well-known entrepreneurs are famous for having dropped out of college: Steve Jobs, Mark Zuckerberg, and Larry Ellison, to name a few.

Though going to college isn’t necessary to build a successful business, it can teach young individuals a lot about the world in many other ways. And these famous college dropouts are the exception rather than the norm. College may not be for everyone and the choice is personal, but it is something to think about, especially with the high price tag of a college education in the U.S

Consume content across multiple channels

As important as developing a diverse skill set is, the need to consume a diverse array of information and knowledge-building materials is equally so. This content can be in the form of podcasts, books, articles, or lectures. The important thing is that the content, no matter the channel, should be varied in what it covers. Aspiring entrepreneurs should always familiarize themselves with the world around them so they can look at industries with a fresh perspective, giving them the ability to build a business around a specific sector.

Identify a problem to solve

Through the consumption of content across multiple channels, an aspiring entrepreneur is able to identify various problems in need of solutions. One business adage dictates that a company’s product or service needs to solve a specific pain point, either for another business or for a consumer group. Through the identification of a problem, an aspiring entrepreneur is able to build a business around solving that problem.

It is important to combine steps three and four so it is possible to identify a problem to solve by looking at various industries as an outsider. This often provides an aspiring entrepreneur with the ability to see a problem others might not.

Solve That Problem

Successful startups solve a specific pain point for other companies or for the public. This is known as “adding value within the problem.” Only through adding value to a specific problem or pain point does an entrepreneur become successful.

Say, for example, you identify that the process for making a dental appointment is complicated for patients, and dentists are losing customers as a result. The value could be to build an online appointment system that makes it easier to book appointments.

Network like crazy

Most entrepreneurs can’t do it alone. The business world is a cutthroat one and getting any help you can will likely help and reduce the time it takes to achieve a successful business. Networking is critical for any new entrepreneur. Meeting the right people who can introduce you to contacts in your industry, such as the right suppliers, financiers, and even mentors, can mean the difference between success and failure.

Attending conferences, emailing and calling people in the industry, speaking to your cousin’s friend’s brother who is in a similar business, will help you get out into the world and discover people who can guide you. Once you have your foot in the door with the right people, conducting a business becomes easier.

Lead by example

Every entrepreneur needs to be a leader within their company. Simply doing the day-to-day requirements will not lead to success. A leader needs to work hard, motivate, and inspire their employees to reach their best potential, which will lead to the success of the company.

Look at some of the greatest and most successful companies; all of them have had great leaders. Apple and Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Microsoft, Bob Iger and Disney, are just a few examples. Study these people and read their books to see how to be a great leader and become the leader that your employees can follow by the example you set.

Entrepreneurship Financing

Given the riskiness of a new venture, the acquisition of capital funding is particularly challenging, and many entrepreneurs deal with it via bootstrapping: financing a business using methods such as using their own money, providing sweat equity to reduce labor costs, minimizing inventory, and factoring receivables.

While some entrepreneurs are lone players struggling to get small businesses off the ground on a shoestring, others take on partners armed with greater access to capital and other resources. In these situations, new firms may acquire financing from venture capitalists, angel investors, hedge funds, crowdfunding, or through more traditional sources such as bank loans.

Resources for entrepreneurs

There are a variety of financing resources for entrepreneurs starting their own businesses. Obtaining a small business loan through the Small Business Administration (SBA) can help entrepreneurs get the business off the ground with affordable loans. Here, the SBA helps connect businesses to loan providers.

If entrepreneurs are willing to give up a piece of equity in their business, then they may find financing in the form of angel investors and venture capitalists. These types of investors also provide guidance, mentorship, and connections in addition to capital.

Crowdfunding has also become a popular way for entrepreneurs to raise capital, particularly through Kickstarter or Indiegogo. In this way, an entrepreneur creates a page for their product and a monetary goal to reach while promising certain givebacks to those who donate, such as products or experiences.

Bootstrapping for entrepreneurs

Bootstrapping refers to building a company solely from your savings as an entrepreneur as well as from the initial sales made from your business. This is a difficult process as all the financial risk is placed on the entrepreneur and there is little room for error. If the business fails, the entrepreneur also may lose all of their life savings.

The advantage of bootstrapping is that an entrepreneur can run the business with their own vision and no outside interference or investors demanding quick profits. That being said, sometimes having an outsider’s assistance can help a business rather than hurt it. Many companies have succeeded with a bootstrapping strategy, but it is a difficult path.

Small business vs. entrepreneurship

A small business and entrepreneurship have a lot in common but they are different. A small business is a company—usually, a sole-proprietorship or partnership—that is not a medium-sized or large-sized business, operates locally, and does not have access to a vast amount of resources or capital.

Entrepreneurship is when an individual who has an idea acts on that idea, usually to disrupt the current market with a new product or service. Entrepreneurship usually starts as a small business but the long-term vision is much greater, to seek high profits and capture market share with an innovative new idea.

How entrepreneurs make money

Entrepreneurs seek to generate revenues that are greater than costs. Increasing revenues is the goal and that can be achieved through marketing, word-of-mouth, and networking. Keeping costs low is also critical as it results in higher profit margins. This can be achieved through efficient operations and eventually economies of scale.

How do taxes work for entrepreneurs?

The taxes you will pay as an entrepreneur will depend on how you structure your business.

Sole proprietorship: A business set up this way is an extension of the individual. Business income and expenses are filed on Schedule C on your U.S. personal tax return and you are taxed at your individual tax rate.5

Partnership: For tax purposes, a partnership functions the same way as a sole proprietorship in the U.S., with the only difference being that income and expenses are split amongst the partners.

Entrepreneurs operating as sole proprietors can deduct any legitimate business expenses from their income to lower their tax bill. This includes expenses such as their home office and utilities, mileage for business travel, advertising, and travel expenses.6

C-corporation: A C-corporation is a separate legal entity and has separate taxes filed with the IRS from the entrepreneur. The business income will be taxed at the corporate tax rate rather than the personal income tax rate.7

Limited liability company (LLC) or S-corporation: These two options are taxed in the same manner as a C-corporation but usually at lower amounts.8

7 Characteristics of Entrepreneurs

What else do entrepreneurial success stories have in common? They invariably involve industrious people diving into things they’re naturally passionate about.

Giving credence to the adage, “find a way to get paid for the job you’d do for free,” passion is arguably the most important attribute entrepreneurs must have, and every edge helps.

While the prospect of becoming your own boss and raking in a fortune is alluring to entrepreneurial dreamers, the possible downside to hanging out one’s own shingle is vast. Income isn’t guaranteed, employer-sponsored benefits go by the wayside, and when your business loses money, your personal assets can take a hit; it’s not a corporation’s bottom line. But adhering to a few tried and true principles can go a long way in diffusing risk. The following are a few characteristics required to be a successful entrepreneur.

1. Versatility

When starting out, it’s essential to personally handle sales and other customer interactions whenever possible. Direct client contact is the clearest path to obtaining honest feedback about what the target market likes and what you could be doing better. If it’s not always practical to be the sole customer interface, entrepreneurs should train employees to invite customer comments as a matter of course. Not only does this make customers feel empowered, but happier clients are more likely to recommend businesses to others.

Personally answering phones is one of the most significant competitive edges home-based entrepreneurs hold over their larger competitors. In a time of high-tech backlash, where customers are frustrated with automated responses and touch-tone menus, hearing a human voice is one surefire way to entice new customers and make existing ones feel appreciated—an important fact, given that a significant percentage of business is generated from repeat customers.

Paradoxically, while customers value high-touch telephone access, they also expect a highly polished website. Even if your business isn’t in a high-tech industry, entrepreneurs still must exploit internet technology to get their message across. A startup garage-based business can have a superior website to an established company valued at $100 million. Just make sure a live human being is on the other end of the phone number listed.

2. Flexibility

Few successful business owners find perfect formulas straight out of the gate. On the contrary: ideas must morph over time. Whether tweaking product design or altering food items on a menu, finding the perfect sweet spot takes trial and error.

Former Starbucks Chair and CEO Howard Schultz initially thought playing Italian opera music over store speakers would accentuate the Italian coffeehouse experience he was attempting to replicate. But customers saw things differently and didn’t seem to like arias with their espressos. As a result, Schultz jettisoned the opera and introduced comfortable chairs instead.

3. Money savviness

At the heart of any successful new business, is steady cash flow, which is essential for purchasing inventory, paying rent, maintaining equipment, and promoting the business. The key to staying in the black is rigorous, regular cash flow management. And since most new businesses don’t make a profit within the first year, by setting money aside for this contingency, entrepreneurs can help mitigate the risk of falling short of funds. Related to this, it’s essential to keep personal and business costs separate, and never dip into business funds to cover the costs of daily living.

Of course, it’s important to pay yourself a realistic salary that allows you to cover essentials, but not much more—especially where investors are involved. Of course, such sacrifices can strain relationships with loved ones who may need to adjust to lower standards of living and endure worry over risking family assets. For this reason, entrepreneurs should communicate these issues well ahead of time, and make sure significant loved ones are on board.

4. Resiliency

Running your own business is extremely difficult, especially getting one started from scratch. It requires a lot of time, dedication, and often failure. A successful entrepreneur must show resilience to all the difficulties on the road ahead. Whenever they meet with failure or rejection they must keep pushing forward.

Starting your business is a learning process and any learning process comes with a learning curve, which can be frustrating, especially when money is on the line. It’s important never to give up through the difficult times if you want to succeed.

5. Focus

Similar to resilience, a successful entrepreneur must stay focused and eliminate the noise and doubts that come with running a business. Becoming sidetracked, not believing in your instincts and ideas, and losing sight of the end goal is a recipe for failure. A successful entrepreneur must always remember why they started the business and remain on course to see it through.

6. Business smarts

Knowing how to manage money and understanding financial statements are critical for anyone running their own business. Knowing your revenues, your costs, and how to increase or decrease them, respectively, is important. Making sure you don’t burn through cash will allow you to keep the business alive.

Implementing a sound business strategy, knowing your target market, your competitors, and your strengths and weaknesses will allow you to maneuver the difficult landscape of running your business.

7. Communication skills

Successful communication is important in almost every facet of life, regardless of what you do. It is also of the utmost importance in running a business. From conveying your ideas and strategies to potential investors to sharing your business plan with your employees and negotiating contracts with suppliers—all require successful communication.

Entrepreneurship in Economics

In economist-speak, an entrepreneur acts as a coordinating agent in a capitalist economy. This coordination takes the form of resources being diverted toward new potential profit opportunities. The entrepreneur moves various resources, both tangible and intangible, promoting capital formation.

In a market full of uncertainty, it is the entrepreneur who can actually help clear up uncertainty, as they make judgments or assume risk. To the extent that capitalism is a dynamic profit-and-loss system, entrepreneurs drive efficient discovery and consistently reveal knowledge.

Established firms face increased competition and challenges from entrepreneurs, which often spurs them toward research and development efforts as well. In technical economic terms, the entrepreneur disrupts the course toward steady-state equilibrium.

How entrepreneurship helps economies

Nurturing entrepreneurship can have a positive impact on an economy and society in several ways. For starters, entrepreneurs create new businesses. They invent goods and services, resulting in employment, and often create a ripple effect, resulting in more and more development. For example, after a few information technology companies began in India in the 1990s, businesses in associated industries, like call center operations and hardware providers, began to develop too, offering support services and products.

Entrepreneurs add to the gross national income. Existing businesses may remain confined to their markets and eventually hit an income ceiling. But new products or technologies create new markets and new wealth. Additionally, increased employment and higher earnings contribute to a nation’s tax base, enabling greater government spending on public projects.

Entrepreneurs create social change. They break tradition with unique inventions that reduce dependence on existing methods and systems, sometimes rendering them obsolete. Smartphones and their apps, for example, have revolutionized work and play across the globe.

Entrepreneurs invest in community projects and help charities and other non-profit organizations, supporting causes beyond their own. Bill Gates, for example, has used his considerable wealth for education and public health initiatives.

Entrepreneurial ecosystems

Research shows that high levels of self-employment can stall economic development: Entrepreneurship, if not properly regulated, can lead to unfair market practices and corruption, and too many entrepreneurs can create income inequalities in society. Overall, though, entrepreneurship is a critical driver of innovation and economic growth. Therefore, fostering entrepreneurship is an important part of the economic growth strategies of many local and national governments around the world.

To this end, governments commonly assist in the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems, which may include entrepreneurs themselves, government-sponsored assistance programs, and venture capitalists. They may also include non-government organizations, such as entrepreneurs’ associations, business incubators, and education programs.

California’s Silicon Valley is often cited as an example of a well-functioning entrepreneurial ecosystem. The region has a well-developed venture capital base, a large pool of well-educated talent, especially in technical fields, and a wide range of government and non-government programs fostering new ventures and providing information and support to entrepreneurs.

Questions for Entrepreneurs

Embarking on the entrepreneurial career path to “being your own boss” is exciting. But along with all your research, make sure to do your homework about yourself and your situation.

A few questions to ask yourself:

  • Do I have the personality, temperament, and mindset of taking on the world on my own terms?
  • Do I have the required resources to devote all my time to my venture?
  • Do I have an exit plan ready with a clearly defined timeline in case my venture does not work?
  • Do I have a concrete plan for the next “x” number of months or will I face challenges midway due to family, financial, or other commitments? Do I have a mitigation plan for those challenges?
  • Do I have the required network to seek help and advice as needed?
  • Have I identified and built bridges with experienced mentors to learn from their expertise?
  • Have I prepared the rough draft of a complete risk assessment, including dependencies on external factors?
  • Have I realistically assessed the potential of my offering and how it will figure in the existing market?
  • If my offering is going to replace an existing product in the market, how will my competitors react?
  • To keep my offering secure, will it make sense to get a patent? Do I have the capacity to wait until I receive it?
  • Have I identified my target customer base for the initial phase? Do I have scalability plans ready for larger markets?
  • Have I identified sales and distribution channels?

Questions that delve into external factors:

  • Does my entrepreneurial venture meet local regulations and laws? If not feasible locally, can I and should I relocate to another region?
  • How long does it take to get the necessary license or permissions from concerned authorities? Can I survive that long?
  • Do I have a plan for getting the necessary resources and skilled employees, and have I made cost considerations for the same?
  • What are the tentative timelines for bringing the first prototype to market or for services to be operational?
  • Who are my primary customers?
  • Who are the funding sources I may need to approach to make this big? Is my venture good enough to convince potential stakeholders?
  • What technical infrastructure do I need?
  • Once the business is established, will I have sufficient funds to get resources and take it to the next level? Will other big firms copy my model and kill my operation?


What Does It Mean to Be an Entrepreneur?

An entrepreneur is an individual who starts their own business based on an idea they have or a product they have created while assuming most of the risks and reaping most of the rewards of the business.


What Is the Best Definition of Entrepreneurship?

Entrepreneurship is the process of setting up a business, taking it from an idea to realization.


What Are the Four Types of Entrepreneurs?

Four types of entrepreneurs include builders, opportunists, innovators, and specialists.


What Are the Seven Characteristics of Entrepreneurs?

Seven primary characteristics among entrepreneurs include versatility, resilience, flexibility, money-savviness, business smarts, focus, and having strong communication skills.

The Bottom Line

An entrepreneur is an individual who takes an idea or product and creates a business, a process known as entrepreneurship. Creating a business requires a lot of work and dedication, which not everyone is cut out for. Entrepreneurs are often young, highly motivated risk-takers who have a vision and often sacrifice a lot to achieve that vision.

Entrepreneurs enter the market because they love what they do, believe their product will have a positive impact, and hope to make profits from their efforts. The steps entrepreneurs take fuel the economy; they create businesses that employ people and make products and services that consumers buy today.

7 Steps to Become an Entrepreneur

7 Steps to Become an Entrepreneur – If you’re thinking of how to become an entrepreneur then, congratulations, because you’ve already taken the first step. That’s because “being” an entrepreneur is less about specific accomplishments or accolades, and more about the mindset.

In fact, if you were to search for “entrepreneurial mindset” you’re likely to find dozens of blogs, videos and webinars discussing secrets and characteristics of how entrepreneurs work to develop a mindset that focuses on achieving success. So if you’re thinking about it, you’re probably motivated to explore it more deeply and perhaps, ultimately, pursue it.

The reason developing a mindset is so important is because, to really be an entrepreneur, to truly embody that creative drive and determination, you need to develop a fundamental nature in how you think of a problem or approach an issue.  Just following a checklist of “have an idea, get a loan and then start a business” isn’t going to do you any good when you come across a problem that you don’t already have an answer for, and no list – not matter how thorough – is going to light that fire of inspiration to help see you through difficult times.

Not everyone is going to have an intrinsic mindset of an entrepreneur, but the principles and process can be learned – after all, you were born unable to walk or talk, but that didn’t prevent you from learning how. Becoming an entrepreneur is about learning to recognize the knowledge you need to acquire and the moves you’ll need to make.

So don’t think of this list as “set-in-stone” directions, it’s more like touchpoints for your journey – you might not even follow it in order! Maybe you’re starting with a great idea instead of building towards one, or maybe you are already part of a motivated team looking for a new opportunity. Whatever your circumstance, consider these steps when thinking of how to start out as an entrepreneur.

7 Steps to Becoming an Entrepreneur

1. Build Your Skill Set and Knowledge Base

No matter what, you want to start and stay curious. There’s a lot out there to learn, more than you’ll ever have time to master and any entrepreneur needs to be adaptable and open to new information. That can seem daunting, but there are a few things you can do to simplify the process of continual learning.

  • Take a “first principles” approach to problems – as Elon Musk has said, first principles is a “good framework for thinking… boil things down to their fundamental truths and reason up from there, as opposed to reasoning by analogy.”
  • Get comfortable with research – subscribe to trade publications to see what’s trending within an industry. Research the market you’re interested in exploring. Get out and meet people who are doing the things you want to do; not only can they provide good advice, they’ll be an invaluable part of your network.
  • Focus your attention on what matters – while some serial entrepreneurs have a reputation of being jacks-of-all-trades as they jump around from industry to industry, you can likely find more success by focusing on an area of interest and specialization. Pursue a degree or program that teaches entrepreneurial skills and knowledge specific to the industry that you want to get into.

2. Build Your Network

No one ever succeeded alone. Every successful entrepreneur has benefited from their own network of mentors, partners, employees and investors. Once you’ve found a mentor or advisor who can assist you, it’s important to reach out and find other systems of support.

  • Unsure of how to go it alone? Partner with a cofounder or small team that will offer complementary skills to your own. Being part of a larger whole provides additional skills and expertise, plus it can make it easier to secure funding.
  • Talk to friends and family about your venture. Not only are they the surest way to  secure additional support, some might be sources of possible “seed” funds or low/no interest loans.
  • Get professional help! Research and vet professionals like financial advisors and lawyers that you feel comfortable trusting and relying on – you’re going to need them.

3. State Your Idea, Claim Your Niche

If you don’t already have a solid idea, then it’s time to consider what type of product or service you’re able to offer and – more importantly – what’s going to set you apart from everyone else.

  • Start exploring solutions for every-day problems or frustrations experienced by friends and family and your target markets. As Entrepreneur magazine explains, the most innovative startups are often simple solutions to common problems.
  • Determine if you’re going to meet an underserved demand or improve on an existing service. The former is a way to claim a space within a market and differentiate yourself from competitors. The latter is more disruptive, where you can position your business as a new way of doing things.
  • As always, you’ll want to do your research on the categories and fields you’re thinking of entering and start asking questions about how a new product/service can exist within that space. If you’re unsure of how to do the legwork, or need to dedicate time to other aspects of your startup, consider hiring a marketing researcher for assistance.

4. Find and Understand a Market

The best product in the world isn’t going to succeed if there isn’t a market interested in buying it. Starting broad may seem like a good idea, after all that’s the highest possible number of buyers, but trying to sell to everyone means that you’re really selling to no one. To get a better idea of what your market is going to be, you’ll need to develop an understanding of what people are looking for.

  • Who are the people most likely to buy from you or would be most interested in your service?
  • Develop profiles of your potential buyers – what jobs do they have? What lifestyles do they lead? What needs do they have? What pain points do they experience?
  • Narrow your list down to the best opportunities and select the one that you want to start with first.
  • Set up interviews or surveys with people who fit that profile to continue refining that initial understanding. Which pain points are most urgent for them? Would they prioritize convenience over price? What benefits of your product/service might excite them the most?

5. Design Your Business and Idea

Once you’ve settled on what you want to do, then you’re going to have to outline your  business structure and develop your product to show that it’s viable. That’s the only way you’re going to be able to win over investors.

  • It’s time to start laying out exactly how your business will be moving forward. You’ll want to create a business model, aka a business plan, that details how your business will be organized, a prospective budget for the future, details on how your business will make money. If you’re looking for models to follow, consider these business plan templates from Score and from Hubspot.
  • Plan out the sales process that you’ll use to acquire new customers. What’s your marketing strategy – are you using certain social media accounts? Are you attempting a viral marketing campaign? What sales materials will you need? Most importantly, what’s the process by which you’ll convert those who express interest into actual sales?
  • It’s time to truly show what your business is about and build out a proof of concept, or what’s also known as a minimum viable product (MVP). The MVP, whether it’s software, a service or a physical product, should be capable of executing the basic and most important functions of your idea.

6. Secure Finding

You have a plan and you have a product, now it’s time to secure the funding that you’ll actually need to start up your business and get it running. Depending on your product and market, you have several options available.

  • You can attempt to start with securing initial funding or loans from friends and family. Trust levels are high and you might even be able to receive the funds without having to pay interest or offer too much of a share in your company. Of course, this entirely depends on the level of wealth and assets of the people you know.
  • A far more likely scenario is that you’ll have to make a pitch to secure funding from venture capital (VC) firms or angel investors. Both are able to provide large amounts of initial funding for startups with the promise of even larger returns through owning stakes in the company. Start by looking at organizations that connect entrepreneurs with funders, such as the National Venture Capital Association and Angel Investment Network.
  • There’s also the opportunity to secure small business grants and loans. These investments differ from VCs and angel investors by offering (generally) smaller amounts of initial capital and having specific requirements: loans will need to be repaid with interest over time, while grants are reserved for meeting certain conditions – such as assisting minority or underprivileged communities. Read more about business grants and business loans at the SBA
  • Rather than trying to secure a few large amounts of funding, you could attempt to crowdfund your business through hundreds, or thousands, of smaller donations. With modern digital technology, there are several options for running a crowdfunding campaign, through platforms like Fundable or WeFunder.

7. Build Your Business

Once you’ve gotten this far, now the real work begins. Time to put that funding into place, build out your first real product, and get it out to your target market.

  • You will need to establish a location for your business, whether you’re renting out an office space for your team to work in or you’re leasing a building in a downtown location. Or, perhaps your business is entirely online and all your employees are expected to work from home. At the very least you’ll need to claim a website to both promote your business and allow customers to learn about your product and contact your business.
  • You’ll need to consider the actual structure of your organization and what your plans are for incorporating your business. At the very least you should consider the option of registering as a limited liability company (LLC) to both build the  credibility of your business and protect your personal finances.
  • Keep working on promoting and marketing your business! After the initial buzz dies off you’ll still need to find ways to reach out to new, prospective customers and announce the latest updates and developments of your product. Review the metrics of your campaigns and social media channels to determine what’s working, and what’s not, and what you should be doing to effectively advertise.

What Are Some Common Entrepreneurship Pitfalls?

Not every business succeeds, in fact roughly 50% of businesses fail within the first few years. Around just 15% of startups actually manage to achieve large venture returns for their investors. The others, if they don’t go out of business, just manage to sustain themselves without generating any real returns for their owners or investors. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of specific reasons why a business won’t succeed. In general terms, here’s what aspiring entrepreneurs need to be most mindful of:

  • Running out of money – This is THE #1 killer of startups – all businesses really – and is almost impossible to plan around, as there are no guarantees that a product or service will take off. The best you can do is to get a solid plan into place and then be open to shifting your direction or focus as needed. Changing markets and environments require businesses to be agile and no amount of initial success will guarantee continued growth or sustainability.
  • Too much debt – This is related to running out of money, as high levels of debt can cripple businesses, choking off additional sources of income as lenders or investors are scared off. The challenge of securing initial funding means that some businesses will settle for high-interest loans in order to get started, but that sort of devil’s bargain can hinder a company before it ever gets to establish itself.
  • Not keeping the personal and business separate – As an entrepreneur, it can be all too easy to overleverage yourself in a new startup. However, using your own credit as a means for funding could ruin you financially. Not incorporating or registering as an LLC can make you personally liable for actions your company takes. That restriction goes both ways, as entrepreneurs who treat their business’ assets as their personal piggy bank are undercutting their own success.
  • Internal conflict – Disagreements with a co-founder or disgruntled employees can hold up production, disrupt communication, or even dissolve the business. Try to resolve conflicts as amicably as possible, and don’t let hurt egos sabotage your working relationships. As the owner or CEO of your business, you will need to absorb a lot of the uncertainty, even when things aren’t looking great, as too much uncertainty will disrupt productivity.
  • Incompatible culture – Everyone brings their own backgrounds with them, employing different workstyles, possessing different value systems and having different expectations. When people are committed to “what has worked before,” it can make it difficult to pivot when change is needed. Entrepreneurs will need to effectively manage the culture of their business, keeping everything moving forward in a disciplined manner while being as flexible as possible.

What Are the Typical Entrepreneurship Salary Ranges?

An entrepreneur’s salary range is about as wide as they come. The problem lies with how “entrepreneur” is categorized by organizations like the Bureau of Labor Statistics and how challenging it is to estimate average salaries considering the vast differences in the scale between Bill Gates or Jeff Bezos vs. the owners of a local mom and pop store. Depending on a whole range of factors, entrepreneurs can risk losing money or stand to make millions, with the most successful of startup entrepreneurs entirely within a league of their own.

You can also consider leveraging your entrepreneurial experience as a part of an established company. “Intrapreneurs” who utilize their drive and knowledge as an advisor, consultant or within a C-suite position can make on average over $110,000 a year. Whether you establish yourself as the CEO of your own company or work your way up to the top, the highest level executives can make upwards of $142,000 a year, with the most successful positions making more than $200,000.

Looking to maximize your potential for success? One particularly interesting pattern we’re seeing is that out of the top 40 entrepreneurs under the age of 40, the majority of them are in tech or tech-related industries.

How Can I Find the Best Entrepreneurship Degree Program?

If you’re really looking for an advantage in how to become an entrepreneur, consider investing in a degree that walks you through the theory and practice of successful  entrepreneurship. A graduate degree will also prepare you for higher level corporate careers.

Find a program that highlights the study of business principles, including finance, marketing, management and accounting. See if they offer specialized entrepreneurship classes on concepts like Social Branding, Launching and Leading Startups, or Venture Capital and Private Equity.

You’ll also want to investigate whether they promote hands-on experience through collaborative research opportunities, business competitions, study abroad and real-world networking events.

Finally, determine if a program is flexible enough to work with your schedule. Online degree programs not only enable distance learning, they can be one of the most affordable ways to advance your education and career.

We suggest you start your search for entrepreneurial degrees with the University of San Diego’s Master of Science in Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship. It’s perhaps the only degree jointly developed and awarded by a university’s schools of business and engineering to assist tech innovators, business professionals and startup entrepreneurs in bringing their ideas to the fullest potential.

Entrepreneur FAQs

Why are there seven rules?

We liked the number. Seriously, any list of “how to become an entrepreneur” is somewhat arbitrary. It could be a macro list of three things or a micro list of 50. What they all have in common is they try to impart fundamental concepts and habits that you can take forward in your future endeavors.

What are my resources for securing funding?

Arguably THE most important question, as even the world’s greatest idea isn’t getting anywhere without the capital to get it started. You do have access to multiple resources, though some can be quite competitive, so be sure to do your research. Options include:

  • Find programs your company qualifies for at
  • Use crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter, Indiegogo, GoFundMe
  • Pitch your business plan to Angel Investors and Venture Capital firms
  • Get an SBA microloan or find a nonprofit lender
  • Use your credit IF you can confidently pay the balance

Is it better to go it alone or find a cofounder?

Do you like working with others? If it’s important that you’re the undisputed head of a startup, then it may be better to ensure that the people you hire understand that they work for you, and that while your investors may own stakes in the company, they don’t have a hand in day-to-day operations.

However, don’t overlook the positive values of having cofounders. Partnering with someone who shares your drive and passion can go a long way toward getting through the initial startup phase and can bring more support and energy into the development process.

How can I market my business?

This could be a whole post unto itself, and there are certainly a lot of options out there, from promoting on social media, to partnering with influencers to just straight up paying people to use and review your product. The best advice would be, whatever medium or method you plan on using, to start the process early. Even during the funding phase, especially when using crowdfunding sources, you’ll want to think about how you’ll advertise your product and what your target market is looking for. If you’re able to generate that initial excitement and interest, then there’s a good chance you’ll turn your early adopters into advocates and evangelists who will continue to spread the word about your business.

What’s the difference between an Entrepreneur and a Freelancer?

“Entrepreneur” as a concept can get used for a lot of different cases. For this blog post we’ve approached it mostly through the lens of a startup, not necessarily a small business owner or freelancer. While both small business owners and freelancers share some traits with entrepreneurs – they are independent, self-reliant risk takers – they do have some important differences.

Freelancers earn money through their direct work, often turning a passion or hobby into their job. An entrepreneur is more interested in creating the business itself, and generally hopes that they’ll earn a large return down the line when they sell their business or go public. This is also in contrast to small business owners, who often start up their businesses with the intent to be in operation for decades and have gradual growth, whereas an entrepreneur is more interested in exponential growth in a shorter time frame.

What’s the difference between an Entrepreneur and an Intrapreneur?

An “intrapreneur” has the same innovative drive as an entrepreneur does, but rather than starting a new business, is more comfortable working within an established company. Intrapreneurs are likely to lead new initiatives within a company, or push for new product development or establish new departments. Working within a system of support, they are exposed to less risk, but don’t have the same level of freedom or independence as an entrepreneur. For some, intrapreneurship could be a first step on the way to entrepreneurship.

10 Evidence-Backed Ways to Become Smarter

10 Evidence-Backed Ways to Become Smarter

10 Evidence-Backed Ways to Become Smarter – It’s common to think of intelligence as something that you’re simply born with. Some people, after all, make being smart look effortless.

Intelligence isn’t a set trait, though. It’s a changeable, flexible ability to learn and stimulate your brain that can improve over time. The key is to practice lifestyle habits that support and protect your brain.

Practicing certain lifestyle habits may help improve your overall intelligence, which includes two types:

  • Crystallized intelligence. This refers to your vocabulary, knowledge, and skills. Crystallized intelligence typically increases as you get older.
  • Fluid intelligence. Also known as fluid reasoning, fluid intelligence is your ability to reason and think abstractly.

Read on to learn what science has to say about the different ways you may be able to boost both your crystallized and fluid intelligence.

1. Exercise regularly

Staying physically active is one of the best ways to improve brain functioning.

According to a 2018 studyTrusted Source, light exercise promotes activity in the hippocampus, which is involved in memory. It also enhances the connection between the hippocampus and other brain regions that regulate memory.

A 2014 studyTrusted Source also found that exercise increases the volume of the hippocampus. The authors of the study speculated that aerobic activity promotes the growth of neurons, which boosts brain structure and function.

To enjoy the cognitive benefits of exercise, it’s important to do it regularly. The good news is that you don’t have to exercise vigorously to reap the benefits.

Beginner-friendly exercise ideas include:

  • walking
  • yoga
  • hiking
  • bodyweight workouts

2. Get enough sleep

Sleep is also essential for supporting optimal cognitive function. When you sleep, your brain consolidates memories you created throughout the day. It also enhances your brain’s ability to learn new information when you wake up.

In fact, adequate sleep is so important that a 2019 studyTrusted Source
found that even mild sleep deprivation negatively influences working memory.

3. Meditate

Another way to become smarter is to practice meditation.

In an older 2010 study, meditation was associated with better executive functioning and working memory. These effects were observed after just four days of meditation.

A 2019 studyTrusted Source found similar results. After participants completed 8 weeks of 13-minute guided meditation sessions, their attention, recognition ability, and working memory increased. The participants’ anxiety and mood also improved.

The researchers speculated that these cognitive effects were due to the emotional benefits of meditation.

There are many ways to meditate. You can:

  • use meditation apps
  • listen to guided meditation videos
  • attend a meditation class

4. Drink coffee

Adenosine is a brain chemical that stops the release of stimulatory substances in your brain. However, the caffeine in coffee blocks adenosine, which allows these substances to give you a boost of energy. This could help promote learning and mental performance.

A 2014 studyTrusted Source also determined that caffeine intake can enhance attention, which may help you stay focused, and better able to take in new information.

It’s best to consume coffee in moderation, though. Drinking too much caffeine can increase anxiety and make you jittery.

5. Drink green tea

Sipping on green tea can also support your brain function. Some of these effects are due to the caffeine in green tea, which is present in small amounts. Green tea is also rich in a chemical called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).

According to a 2019 reviewTrusted Source, EGCG may facilitate the growth of the axons and dendrites in neurons. Axons and dendrites make it possible for neurons to communicate and complete cognitive tasks.

Additionally, a 2017 reviewTrusted Source concluded that green tea increases attention and working memory. This is likely due to the combination of beneficial components in green tea, rather than a single substance.

6. Eat nutrient-rich foods

Another way to boost your brain health is to eat foods with nutrients that support brain function. This includes foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, and vitamin K.
Omega-3 fatty acids

According to a 2017 reviewTrusted Source, omega-3 fats are major components of the brain’s structure. Rich sources include:

  • fatty fish
  • shellfish
  • seaweed
  • flax
  • avocados
  • nuts


Flavonoids are beneficial plant compounds with neuroprotective benefits.

According to a 2015 reviewTrusted Source, flavonoids are associated with positive cognitive outcomes, including increased executive functioning and working memory.

Rich sources of flavonoids include:

  • berries
  • tea
  • cocoa
  • soybeans
  • grains

Vitamin K

According to a 2019 reviewTrusted Source, vitamin K plays a role in brain cell survival and cognitive performance. It’s primarily found in leafy greens, such as:

  • kale
  • spinach
  • collards

7. Play an instrument

Playing an instrument is a fun and creative way to boost your intelligence. It involves skills like:

  • auditory perception
  • physical coordination
  • memory
  • pattern recognition

This challenges your sensory and cognitive abilities, according to a 2013 reviewTrusted Source. As a result, playing a musical instrument may help increase your cognitive and neural functioning.

If you’re an experienced musician, challenge yourself by learning new songs or genres. If you don’t know how to play an instrument, remember that it’s never too late to start. You can find plenty of free how-to videos online to get you started.

8. Read

Research shows that reading may also help boost your intelligence.

According to a 2015 review, reading stimulates every part of your brain, along with the neural connections between them.

That’s because it requires multiple cognitive functions, including:

  • attention
  • predicting
  • working memory
  • long-term storage memory
  • abstract reasoning
  • comprehension
  • visual processing of letters

A 2013 studyTrusted Source also determined that reading enhances connectivity between brain regions involved with comprehension. This effect can last a couple of days after reading, suggesting long-term benefits.

9. Continue learning

If you’d like to increase intelligence, aim to be a student for life. A longer duration of education is linked to higher intelligence, according to a 2018 reviewTrusted Source.

Another 2019 reviewTrusted Source found that continuing education also increases cognitive function and protects your brain.

Continuing your education doesn’t mean you need to get a degree. You can:

  • listen to podcasts
  • watch TED talks
  • attend lectures or workshops
  • pick up a new hobby
  • learn a new language
  • read books on a new subject

10. Socialize

Since humans are social creatures, staying social may also enhance your mental fitness. That’s because socialization stimulates the mind and cognitive ability, according to a 2018 studyTrusted Source.

If you find it difficult to meet new people or create relationships, you may want to consider the following:

  • volunteer in your community
  • join a club, gym, or sports team
  • take a class
  • join a book club
  • reconnect with old friends

The bottom line

Remember, intelligence isn’t about knowing more than other people. It’s about stimulating your brain, being able to solve problems, and learning new things.

By staying curious and following the tips outlined above, you may be able to boost your brain health and enhance your intelligence over time.

Six Steps to Smarter Studying

Six Steps to Smarter Studying

Six Steps to Smarter Studying – How did you learn how to ride your bike? Someone probably gave you a few lessons and then you practiced a lot. You can learn how to study in much the same way. No one is born knowing how to study. You need to learn a few study skills and then practice them.

Why work on your study skills? It will make it easier for you to learn and do well in class, especially as you move up to middle school and high school.

Here are six steps to smarter studying:

  • Pay attention in class.
  • Take good notes.
  • Plan ahead for tests and projects.
  • Break it down. (If you have a bunch of stuff to learn, break it into smaller chunks.)
  • Ask for help if you get stuck.
  • Get a good night’s sleep!

1. Pay Attention: Good Studying Starts in Class

Here’s a riddle for you: Did you know that before you even begin studying, you’ve already started? Huh? Here’s what we mean. When you pay attention in class and take good notes, you are starting the process of learning and studying.

Do you have trouble paying attention in class? Are you sitting next to a loud person? Is it hard to see the board? Make sure you’re sitting in a good seat that lets you pay attention. Tell your teacher or parents about any problems that are preventing you from paying attention and taking good notes.

2. Good Notes = Easier Studying

Not sure how to take notes? Start by writing down facts that your teacher mentions or writes on the board during class. Try your best to use good handwriting so you can read your notes later. It’s also a good idea to keep your notes, quizzes, and papers organized by subject.

3. Plan Ahead and You’ll Be Glad You Did

Waiting until Thursday night to study for Friday’s test will make for a homework night that’s no fun! It also makes it hard to do your best. We’re all guilty of putting things off sometimes. One of the best ways to make sure that doesn’t happen is to plan ahead.

Ask for a cool calendar (something you like and can keep by your desk or study area) and write down your test and assignment due dates. You can then plan how much to do after school each day, and how much time to spend on each topic. Are lessons or extracurricular activities making it hard to find time to study? Ask your mom or dad how to make a schedule of what to do when.

4. Break It Up!

When there’s a lot to study, it can help to break things into chunks. Let’s say you have a test on 20 spelling words. Instead of thinking about all of the words at once, try breaking them down into five-word chunks and working on one or two different chunks each night.

Don’t worry if you can’t remember something on the first try. That’s where practice comes in. The more days you spend reviewing something, the more likely it is to stick in your brain. There are also tricks called mnemonic (say: new-MON-ik) devices that can help you remember stuff. When you’re trying to memorize a list of things, make up a phrase that uses the first letter of each. For example, are you trying to learn the eight planets and their order from the sun? Think: My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nachos to remember Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Your teacher can give you ideas, too.

Another way to break it up is to study regularly instead of just the night before. You can always review your notes and read over the chapters you’re working on. Or, if you’re studying math or science, do some practice problems.

How much studying should you do each night? Your teacher can help you figure it out. Most brains can only pay attention for about 45 minutes. So if you’ve been working for a while and find it hard to pay attention, try taking a break for some water or a walk around the house. Just fight the temptation to turn on the TV or stop working!

5. Lose the Confusion — Ask for Help

You can’t study effectively if you don’t understand the material. Be sure to ask your teacher for help if you’re confused about something. You can check yourself by reading through your notes. Does it all make sense? If not, ask your teacher to go over it with you. If you’re at home when the confusion occurs, your mom or dad might be able to help.

6. Sleep Tight!

So the test is tomorrow and you’ve followed your study plan — but suddenly you can’t remember anything, not even 2+2! Don’t panic. Your brain needs time to digest all the information you’ve given it. Try to get a good night’s sleep and you’ll be surprised by what comes back to you in the morning.

Understanding the American Education System

Understanding the American Education System

Understanding the American Education System – The American education system offers a rich field of choices for international students. There is such an array of schools, programs and locations that the choices may overwhelm students, even those from the U.S. As you begin your school search, it’s important to familiarize yourself with the American education system. Understanding the system will help you narrow your choices and develop your education plan.

The Educational Structure

Primary and Secondary School

Prior to higher education, American students attend primary and secondary school for a combined total of 12 years. These years are referred to as the first through twelfth grades.

Around age six, U.S. children begin primary school, which is most commonly called “elementary school.” They attend five or six years and then go onto secondary school.

Secondary school consists of two programs: the first is “middle school” or “junior high school” and the second program is “high school.” A diploma or certificate is awarded upon graduation from high school. After graduating high school (12th grade), U.S. students may go on to college or university. College or university study is known as “higher education.”

Grading System

Just like American students, you will have to submit your academic transcripts as part of your application for admission to university or college. Academic transcripts are official copies of your academic work. In the U.S. this includes your “grades” and “grade point average” (GPA), which are measurements of your academic achievement. Courses are commonly graded using percentages, which are converted into letter grades.

The grading system and GPA in the U.S. can be confusing, especially for international students. The interpretation of grades has a lot of variation. For example, two students who attended different schools both submit their transcripts to the same university. They both have 3.5 GPAs, but one student attended an average high school, while the other attended a prestigious school that was academically challenging. The university might interpret their GPAs differently because the two schools have dramatically different standards.

Therefore, there are some crucial things to keep in mind:

  • You should find out the U.S. equivalent of the last level of education you completed in your home country.
  • Pay close attention to the admission requirements of each university and college, as well as individual degree programs, which may have different requirements than the university.
  • Regularly meet with an educational advisor or guidance counselor to make sure you are meeting the requirements.

Your educational advisor or guidance counselor will be able to advise you on whether or not you must spend an extra year or two preparing for U.S. university admission. If an international student entered a U.S. university or college prior to being eligible to attend university in their own country, some countries’ governments and employers may not recognize the students’ U.S. education.

Academic Year

The school calendar usually begins in August or September and continues through May or June. The majority of new students begin in autumn, so it is a good idea for international students to also begin their U.S. university studies at this time. There is a lot of excitement at the beginning of the school year and students form many great friendships during this time, as they are all adjusting to a new phase of academic life. Additionally, many courses are designed for students to take them in sequence, starting in autumn and continuing through the year.

The academic year at many schools is composed of two terms called “semesters.” (Some schools use a three-term calendar known as the “trimester” system.) Still, others further divide the year into the quarter system of four terms, including an optional summer session. Basically, if you exclude the summer session, the academic year is either comprised of two semesters or three quarter terms.

The U.S. Higher Education System: Levels of Study

  • First Level: Undergraduate

“The American system is much more open. In Hong Kong you just learn what the teacher writes on the board. In America, you discuss the issues and focus more on ideas.”

A student who is attending a college or university and has not earned a bachelor’s degree, is studying at the undergraduate level. It typically takes about four years to earn a bachelor’s degree. You can either begin your studies in pursuit of a bachelor’s degree at a community college or a four-year university or college.

Your first two years of study you will generally be required to take a wide variety of classes in different subjects, commonly known as prerequisite courses: literature, science, the social sciences, the arts, history, and so forth. This is so you achieve a general knowledge, a foundation, of a variety of subjects prior to focusing on a specific field of study.

Many students choose to study at a community college in order to complete the first two years of prerequisite courses. They will earn an Associate of Arts (AA) transfer degree and then transfer to a four-year university or college.

A “major” is the specific field of study in which your degree is focused. For example, if someone’s major is journalism, they will earn a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism. You will be required to take a certain number of courses in this field in order to meet the degree requirements of your major. You must choose your major at the beginning of your third year of school.

A very unique characteristic of the American higher education system is that you can change your major multiple times if you choose. It is extremely common for American students to switch majors at some point in their undergraduate studies. Often, students discover a different field that they excel in or enjoy. The American education system is very flexible. Keep in mind though that switching majors may result in more courses, which means more time and money.

  • Second Level: Graduate in Pursuit of a Master’s Degree

Presently, a college or university graduate with a bachelor’s degree may want to seriously think about graduate study in order to enter certain professions or advance their career. This degree is usually mandatory for higher-level positions in library science, engineering, behavioral health and education.

Furthermore, international students from some countries are only permitted to study abroad at a graduate level. You should inquire about the credentials needed to get a job in your country before you apply to a postgraduate university in the USA.

A graduate program is usually a division of a university or college. To gain admission, you will need to take the GRE (graduate record examination). Certain master’s programs require specific tests, such as the LSAT for law school, the GRE or GMAT for business school, and the MCAT for medical school.

Graduate programs in pursuit of a master’s degree typically take one to two years to complete. For example, the MBA (master of business administration) is an extremely popular degree program that takes about two years. Other master’s programs, such as journalism, only take one year.

The majority of a master’s program is spent in classroom study and a graduate student must prepare a long research paper called a “master’s thesis” or complete a “master’s project.”

  • Third Level: Graduate in Pursuit of a Doctorate Degree

Many graduate schools consider the attainment of a master’s degree the first step towards earning a PhD (doctorate). But at other schools, students may prepare directly for a doctorate without also earning a master’s degree. It may take three years or more to earn a PhD degree. For international students, it may take as long as five or six years.

For the first two years of the program most doctoral candidates enroll in classes and seminars. At least another year is spent conducting firsthand research and writing a thesis or dissertation. This paper must contain views, designs, or research that have not been previously published.

A doctoral dissertation is a discussion and summary of the current scholarship on a given topic. Most U.S. universities awarding doctorates also require their candidates to have a reading knowledge of two foreign languages, to spend a required length of time “in residence,” to pass a qualifying examination that officially admits candidates to the PhD program, and to pass an oral examination on the same topic as the dissertation.

Characteristics of the U.S. Higher Education System

Classroom Environment

Classes range from large lectures with several hundred students to smaller classes and seminars (discussion classes) with only a few students. The American university classroom atmosphere is very dynamic. You will be expected to share your opinion, argue your point, participate in class discussions and give presentations. International students find this one of the most surprising aspects of the American education system.

Each week professors usually assign textbook and other readings. You will be expected to keep up-to-date with the required readings and homework so you can participate in class discussions and understand the lectures. Certain degree programs also require students to spend time in the laboratory.

Professors issue grades for each student enrolled in the course. Grades are usually based upon:

  • Each professor will have a unique set of class participation requirements, but students are expected to participate in class discussions, especially in seminar classes. This is often a very important factor in determining a student’s grade.
  • A midterm examination is usually given during class time.
  • One or more research or term papers, or laboratory reports must be submitted for evaluation.
  • Possible short exams or quizzes are given. Sometimes professors will give an unannounced “pop quiz.” This doesn’t count heavily toward the grade, but is intended to inspire students to keep up with their assignments and attendance.
  • A final examination will be held after the final class meeting.


Each course is worth a certain number of credits or credit hours. This number is roughly the same as the number of hours a student spends in class for that course each week. A course is typically worth three to five credits.

A full-time program at most schools is 12 or 15 credit hours (four or five courses per term) and a certain number of credits must be fulfilled in order to graduate. International students are expected to enroll in a full-time program during each term.


If a student enrolls at a new university before finishing a degree, generally most credits earned at the first school can be used to complete a degree at the new university. This means a student can transfer to another university and still graduate within a reasonable time.

Types of U.S. higher education

“I like that schedules are flexible, classes are fun, and the variety of activities I can participate in.”

1. State College or University

A state school is supported and run by a state or local government. Each of the 50 U.S. states operates at least one state university and possibly several state colleges. Many of these public universities schools have the name of the state, or the actual word “State” in their names: for example, Washington State University and the University of Michigan.

2. Private College or University

These schools are privately run as opposed to being run by a branch of the government. Tuition will usually be higher than state schools. Often, private U.S. universities and colleges are smaller in size than state schools.

Religiously affiliated universities and colleges are private schools. Nearly all these schools welcome students of all religions and beliefs. Yet, there are a percentage of schools that prefer to admit students who hold similar religious beliefs as those in which the school was founded.

3. Community College

Community colleges are two-year colleges that award an associate’s degrees (transferable), as well as certifications. There are many types of associate degrees, but the most important distinguishing factor is whether or not the degree is transferable. Usually, there will be two primary degree tracks: one for academic transfer and the other prepares students to enter the workforce straightaway. University transfer degrees are generally associate of arts or associate of science. Not likely to be transferrable are the associate of applied science degrees and certificates of completion.

Community college graduates most commonly transfer to four-year colleges or universities to complete their degree. Because they can transfer the credits they earned while attending community college, they can complete their bachelor’s degree program in two or more additional years. Many also offer ESL or intensive English language programs, which will prepare students for university-level courses.

If you do not plan to earn a higher degree than the associate’s, you should find out if an associate’s degree will qualify you for a job in your home country.

4. Institute of Technology

An institute of technology is a school that provides at least four years of study in science and technology. Some have graduate programs, while others offer short-term courses.

10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them)

10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them)

10 Educational Goal Examples (With Tips To Accomplish Them) – The purpose of education is to help you to reach your potential. To make sure this occurs, it’s important to set educational goals. Determining what you should learn and how to accomplish your objectives helps create the foundation for reaching your educational goals.

In this article, we take a look at examples of educational goals, along with ways you can achieve them.

Examples of 10 educational goals

Education goals

put into words what you’d like to achieve after a certain amount of time, such as after completing a course or a program. It explains the skills, competencies and qualities you hope to possess by that time.

This process usually involves identifying objectives, choosing attainable short-term goals and then creating a plan for achieving those goals. Here are 10 examples:

1. Think positive to stay focused

Positive thinking

can make it easier for you to focus on tasks that need to be done and learn new information. For instance, if you approach learning better writing skills with a positive mindset, you may be more likely to stay focused since you’re open to the experience.

To maintain a positive mindset toward learning, here are a few things you can do:

  • Set and track your own learning goals

  • Manage your stress

  • Be open to new ideas and approaches

  • Visualize a positive outcome

  • Learn from your mistakes

Related: SMART Goals: Definition and Examples

2. Stay resilient

Resiliency refers to the ability to adapt after encountering a challenge. It’s important to acknowledge the challenge or difficulty in order to find a way to overcome it. Resiliency helps you accept the issue and find steps to move past it while staying positive.

Here are a few ways to improve your resiliency:

  • Find a sense of purpose in your life

  • Establish positive beliefs in your abilities

  • Build a strong network

  • Embrace change

  • Develop your problem-solving skills

Related: Interview Question: “What Are Your Future Goals?”

3. Make time to read

Reading can help you to develop critical thinking skills, which are important to make well-reasoned decisions. Reading requires you to think and process information in ways you may not experience in other forms of entertainment. You can read fiction, autobiographies or journals on any topic that interests you. While you read, take notes to keep your mind focused on the text.

Here are a few tips that can help you make time to read every single day:

  • Read first thing in the morning or before bed

  • Always keep a magazine, newspaper or book in your bag in your bag

  • Use bus or subway time to catch up on reading

  • Find material that you find interesting

  • Set reminders for reading

Related: 7 Simple Strategies To Improve Reading Comprehension

4. Manage your time

Good time-management skills help you to prioritize tasks so you’re able to complete work and assignments on time. You should also plan ahead, set aside the time you need for assignments and projects and stay focused to better use that time.

Here are some tips to effectively manage your time and improve your study:

  • Create a daily, weekly and monthly schedule

  • Avoid distractions while you’re studying

  • Set goals for every study session

  • Start working on projects or tasks early

  • Make a project plan

  • Work on one task at a time

  • Start early in the day

Related: Time-Management Skills: Definition and Examples

5. Find time to relax

Finding time to relax can help you to stay focused and motivated. Giving yourself time to do something you enjoy or practice self-care can help instill balance in your life. When you take a break, you can usually return to your task with a renewed focus and a fresh perspective.

Here are a few ways you can relax:

  • Get quality rest

  • Practice the 50/10 rule (50 minutes of work followed by a 10-minute break)

  • Plan your meals a week in advance

  • Schedule time for your hobbies and interests

  • Take breaks during difficult projects

Related: 8 Steps for How To Stop Overthinking at Work

6. Strive for excellence

You should strive for excellence in your work by setting and then exceeding goals. Excellence is about striving to be better, with the end goal of providing consistent quality work. To achieve excellence in your day to day, you need to spend time practicing and developing new skills.

Here are a few tips to develop the habit of excellence:

  • Explore new ideas

  • Do more than what’s expected of you

  • Take risks

  • Surround yourself with positive people

  • Build a trusted connection with a mentor

Related: How To Take Pride in Your Work in 7 Steps

7. Build a strong network

Networking is about building and nurturing long-term relationships with the people you meet. When you invest time in building meaningful relationships (personal and professional) you create a network of people you can rely on throughout your career.

Networking allows you to develop and improve your skill set, while staying up-to-date about the job market, meeting prospective mentors and gaining access to resources that can promote your development.

Here are a few tips to build a strong network:

  • Take the first step by reaching out

  • Listen to advice and tips

  • Treat people with dignity and respect

  • Learn to trust more

  • Give and take constructive feedback

  • Have empathy

Related: Building Rapport: Tips and Examples

8. Build good study habits

One of the most important parts of academic success is practicing good study habits. Developing and maintaining good study habits can help you to increase your competence, confidence and self-esteem.

Good study habits can also help to reduce your anxiety about deadlines and/or tests. You may also be able to reduce the number of hours that you spend studying, leaving more time for other important things in your life.

Here are a few steps you can take to build good study habits:

  • Plan when you are going to study

  • Create a consistent, daily study routine

  • Set a study session goal to help achieve your overall academic goal

  • Avoid procrastination

  • Create an environment conducive to studying

  • Spread material throughout several study sessions

Related: Top 10 Study Skills and Techniques

9. Attend seminars or training

A seminar is an expert-led educational meeting that focuses on a specific topic or discipline. Seminars are an ideal opportunity for you to study a topic in-depth. By asking questions, paying attention to the speaker and writing notes, you can leave a seminar with a wide range of knowledge in a specific field.

Along with having access to experts, seminars also allow you to meet other people who share your interests and build connections. Seminar discussions give you an opportunity to debate issues related to the field, exchange ideas and share experiences. Meeting new people can offer solutions to common problems, encouragement and advice for how to handle challenges.

Related: What Is On-the-Job Training?

10. Develop patience to achieve your goals

Being patient can help you realize that consistent reflection and hard work can produce successful outcomes. Many goals you need to reach often take time and patience can help you continually produce excellent work.

Here are a few tips to overcome impatience:

  • Be more mindful of your thoughts and reactions to what is going on around you

  • Calm your mind so that you can think more clearly about your situation

  • Practice deep breathing and mindfulness techniques

  • Set milestones and reward yourself when you reach them

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

How to Teach Good Behavior: Tips for Parents

Children must be taught good behavior so they can live and work well in society when they grow up. Good teaching includes rewards for good behavior. Your child’s age should guide your choice of ways to teach. Some tips to help you teach your child are listed below.


  • Encourage your child and give lots of affection.
  • Reward good behavior. Praise your child and give extra attention when he or she does something right. Give a reward for good behavior.
  • Your child will copy your actions and words. Act and speak the way you want your child to act and speak.
  • Be kind, but firm.
  • Remove temptations (like breakable items) before children get into trouble. Preventing bad behavior is always easier than correcting a problem.
  • Ignore some small problems or annoying behaviors. Bigger problems need to be corrected, especially if the child’s bad behavior might be harmful or dangerous.
  • Be consistent. Always treat a bad behavior the same way, or your child will learn that he or she can sometimes “get away with it.”
  • Correct your child soon after the bad behavior occurs, but wait until your anger has passed. Counting to 10 before you say something or do something may help reduce your anger so you are in control of yourself.
  • Make rules that are right for your child’s age. Rules work best for children who are school-aged. Younger children (infants and toddlers) don’t understand rules yet. They are still learning what a rule is.
  • Use “time-out” for children between 18 months and five years of age. Time-out may help correct bad behaviors like tantrums, whining, fighting, and arguing. To use time-out, put your child in a chair with no toys or TV. Don’t speak to your child during time-out. Time-out should last one minute for each year of the child’s age. For example, a four-year-old should be in time-out for four minutes. Your child should be quiet for at least 15 seconds before timeout ends.
  • Correct older children by taking away things they like (TV or video games, or time with friends).
  • Remember to tell your child that the behavior was bad, but the child isn’t “bad.”



  • Don’t nag or talk about bad behavior too much. Children ignore nagging.
  • Don’t try reasoning to get your point across to children younger than three or four years. They won’t understand.
  • Don’t criticize your child.
  • Don’t call your child names.
  • Don’t call your child “bad.” Only the behavior is bad.
  • Don’t scold too often. Scolding makes children anxious and may make them ignore you. It may also worsen the behavior. Never scold your child during time-out.
  • Don’t spank. Spanking teaches your child that it’s okay to hit someone in order to solve a problem. Never spank a child who is younger than 18 months. It doesn’t help, and you may hurt the child. Never spank a child when you’re angry. Never hit your child with an object.
  • Don’t pull your child’s hair, jerk an arm, or shake your child.


Where can I find more information about teaching good behavior to my children?


Here are two books you might find at your public library or local bookstore:

Touchpoints: Your Child’s Emotional and Behavioral Development, a book written by T. Berry Brazelton. Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company in 1992. The chapter on discipline is very helpful (see pages 252 to 260).

Parenting: Guide to Positive Discipline, a book written by Paula Spencer. Published by Ballantine Books in 2001.

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics

Behavioristic Theory – Definition, Principles, Characteristics


Behaviorism is the theory that all behaviors are learned by interacting with the environment. This differs from other theories, which state that behaviors are an innate part of biology. As a branch of psychology, it seeks to predict and control behavior. It assumes that there is no difference between humans and other biological organisms and their ability to learn in response to the environment. It wants to find the simplest explanation possible rather than get conflated with many variables and complexities.


Despite its contributions to psychology, behaviorism has many criticisms. Because it assumes that nearly everything an organism learns comes from how it interacts with its environment, many holes can arise due to the complex nature of human psychology. Many other fields point out these conflicts. For example, in humanism, humanity’s ability to make decisions with free will plays a key role in understanding psychology, and behaviorism ignores the idea entirely because of its core principles. Biological psychology theorizes that every behavior comes from an organic source, which lies on the other end of the spectrum from behaviorism that states that everything comes from external stimuli. Behaviorism also does not take into account memory, problem-solving, critical thinking, etc., all of which play a key role in how humans make decisions and interact with the environment.

Pros and Cons of Behaviorism

While it might not paint a complete picture of psychology, it is still possible to learn more about an individual’s mind based on their principles. For example, if someone lives next to a railroad and always eats exactly when the train is roaring by, they will find that if the train goes by and they don’t eat, they will get hungry. People can learn how they respond to particular stimuli and how it affects them, rather than living by them and never knowing why they’re always suddenly hungry right when the train goes by. The main advantages of this theory are that it can generate predictable outcomes, which can be measured and tested. It can be used in therapy to help shift behaviors away from negative ones to positive ones. One of the biggest shortcomings of this theory, though, is that it doesn’t take into account critical thinking and decision-making skills. Once the person notices they get hungry when the train goes by, they aren’t stuck living that way forever. They can make a change if they desire, eating at a different time of the day instead. This is the concept of free will, which happens when a person does whatever they wish. Rather, behaviorism seeks to explain every choice that is made through responses to external stimuli.

B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner began his career as a writer, though returned to college to receive a Ph. D. in psychology, and then went on to become a professor at several institutions, but became the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology in 1958 and held the position until his retirement in 1974. He founded the theory of Radical Behaviorism following the establishment of behaviorism by John Watson in 1913. Because things within the mind like beliefs and memories could not be empirically defined, he dismissed them entirely. Thus, adopting the theory that every observable response comes from an external stimulus, completely outside of what is felt within the mind. In his novels Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity, he argued that humanity should seek to craft their environment to optimize behaviors and forget concepts of free will. Additionally, he continued to refine the theory of operant conditioning, based on Thorndike’s Law of Effect, furthering his theory of behaviorism by developing explanations for more intricate things like superstitions and complex chains of behavior.


Behaviorism in the Classroom


How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide

How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide

How to Become a Pilot: A Step-By-Step Guide – Fly high above the clouds and see the world from a unique perspective as you launch an exciting, rewarding, and challenging career as a pilot. Find out how you can become a pilot.

Key career takeaways

  • Salary of A$2,558* (median rate per week)
  • Moderate expected job growth. Retention is high among pilots meaning those in the role tend to stay for longer periods of time.
  • This is a very highly skilled profession with a small employment force
  • By 2035, the International Air Transport Association estimates there will be twice the number of passengers as 2016 (from 3.8 billion to 7.2 billion)

*Data sourced from

Few careers spark as much intrigue, excitement, romance and adventure as a pilot. Since the early days of aviation, becoming a pilot and experiencing life within the cockpit of some of the most technologically advanced machines on the planet, has been the dream of many. But what do you need to do to become a private or commercial pilot?

What it takes to become a pilot

If you’re the type of person that can handle high-pressure situations calmly, can process mathematical and physics-based problems, possess great English reading, writing and comprehension skills, make good decisions under pressure and have the ability to understand technical details, a career as a pilot could be your calling.

And, through Swinburne’s industry-linked flight school, becoming a pilot can be more than just a dream — it can be your reality.

3 steps to becoming a pilot

Step 1 – Complete a skills assessment test and medical test

Yep, the rumours are true. You need to have pretty good eyesight to become a pilot. The good news is, it doesn’t have to be perfect — as long as your eyes can be corrected to 20/20 with glasses or contacts. So how do you find out if you’re eligible?

In Victoria, Swinburne is the only university that offers you the opportunity to study a Bachelor of Aviation to become a commercial pilot. Prior to selection into the course, shortlisted students are required to complete a skills assessment test with CAE Melbourne Flight Training in late November. This is a computer-based assessment that covers pilot aptitude, hand-eye coordination, motor skills and spatial awareness.

Students must also gain their Class 1 medical certificate from the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) to be able to undertake practical flying lessons.

Step 2 – Study a Bachelor of Aviation degree

Before you can jump inside the cockpit, you’ll also need a thorough understanding of what it takes to fly an aircraft. This includes knowledge of the aviation industry, basic flight operations and attaining key analytical skills.

Delivered in accordance with CASA requirements, our Bachelor of Aviation degree, alongside our Graduate Certificate of Aviation (Piloting) (which you’ll study concurrently), will set you on the path to becoming a commercial or professional pilot.

We also offer the option to combine your aviation degree with a Bachelor of Business. This four year double degree will open doors in the aviation industry outside of becoming a pilot.

With our Bachelor of Aviation degree, you will gain flight experience. You’ll undertake commercial flying training with CAE Melbourne Flight Training at Moorabbin Airport, with access to over 45 aircraft as well as state-of-the-art simulators. Moorabbin Airport has over 295,000 aircraft movements each year, making it one of Australia’s busiest airports. What this means for you – train here, be ready to work anywhere.

While in this course, you’ll start clocking up the 35 required hours to gain your private pilot licence (PPL) and the 150 hours you need for your commercial pilot licence (CPL). As you will be under the supervision of a flight instructor at all times (including while flying solo) you won’t need a licence to fly as a student pilot.

At Swinburne, we proudly provide cadet pilot training for Jetstar. The cadetship program trains future First and Second Officers to fly Jetstar Airbus A320 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft.

Gain your licences

Once you’ve completed your Bachelor of Aviation you’ll have earned all the relevant licences to get you flying. In fact, the course is designed to take graduates beyond the requirements for the CASA Air Transport Pilot Licence theory examination, and CPL and Multi-engine Aeroplane Instrument Endorsement practical tests.

This does not mean you’ll be flying with big commercial airlines… yet! See step three.

Step 3 – Commercial pilot 1.500 flight hours

If you wish to become a commercial pilot and fly aircraft such as the Airbus A380s, Boeing 747s and 777s, you will need to complete 1,500 hours of flight time after you complete your Bachelor of Aviation. It’s a standard set by the airlines to ensure the safety of their millions of customers.

Becoming a commercial pilot for a major airline involves a lot of very important flight hours, which is why we are partnered with Qantas so that our students who are selected into the Qantas Future Pilot Program work towards their 1,500 hours through QantasLink — the airline’s regional brand.

To get your flight time up, you may also find opportunities with small charter companies who look for pilots to run scenic routes for tourists and even skydive runs.

With your 1,500 hours secured, you’ll be ready for your first big commercial gig.

Are you eligible for a scholarship?

Swinburne scholarships are about providing opportunity, promoting equity, and recognising excellence and achievement.

We offer the following aviation scholarships:

  • Australian Federation of Air Pilots and Australian Air Pilots Mutual Benefit Fund Scholarship
  • International Aviation Women’s Association Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Aviation Tour Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Flight Instructor Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Professional Development Initiative Scholarship
  • Piers Fowler Professional Undergraduate Research Grant
  • Sir Reginald Ansett Scholarship – Aviation

We also offer the Vice Chancellor’s Excellence Scholarship for students leaving Yr 12 so make sure you check to see if you’re eligible.

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have

Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have – If there is one thing that is guaranteed to get your students excited, it’s a good science experiment! While some experiments require expensive lab equipment or dangerous chemicals, there are plenty of cool projects you can do with regular household items.

Regardless of how empty your cabinets may be, we think you are likely to have at least some of these things lying around at home. Watch as your students engineer a bridge, solve environmental issues, explore polymers, or work with static electricity. We’ve rounded up a big collection of easy science experiments that anybody can try, and kids are going to love them!

1. Amplify a smartphone

DIY smartphone amplifier made from paper cups

No Bluetooth speaker? No problem! Put together your own from paper cups and toilet paper tubes.

2. Send a teabag flying

Empty tea bags burning into ashes

Hot air rises, and this experiment can prove it! You’ll want to supervise kids with fire, of course. For more safety, try this one outside!

3. Taste the rainbow

Skittles form a circle around a plate. The colors are bleeding toward the center of the plate. (easy science experiments)

Teach your students about diffusion while creating a beautiful and tasty rainbow! You’ll definitely want to have extra Skittles on hand so your class can enjoy a few as well!

4. Watch the water rise

Two side-by-side shots of an upside-down glass over a candle in a bowl of water, with water pulled up into the glass in the second picture

Learn about Charles’s Law with this simple experiment. As the candle burns, using up oxygen and heating the air in the glass, the water rises as if by magic.

5. Set raisins dancing

Raisins floating in a glass of fizzy water

This is a fun version of the classic baking soda and vinegar experiment, perfect for the younger crowd. The bubbly mixture causes raisins to dance around in the water.

6. Race a balloon-powered car

Car made from cardboard with bottlecap wheels and powered by a blue balloon

Kids will be amazed when they learn they can put together this awesome racer using cardboard and bottle-cap wheels. The balloon-powered “engine” is so much fun too.

7. Crystallize your own rock candy

Colorful rock candy on wood sticks

Crystal science experiments teach kids about supersaturated solutions. This one is easy to do at home, and the results are absolutely delicious!

8. Make elephant-sized toothpaste

children are seen from the shoulders down standing behind three bottles that are overflowing with red, yellow, and green fluid. (easy science experiments)

This fun project uses yeast and a hydrogen peroxide solution to create overflowing “elephant toothpaste.” You can also add an extra fun layer by having the kids create toothpaste wrappers for their plastic bottles.

9. Repel glitter with dish soap

Square dish filled with water and glitter, showing how a drop of dish soap repels the glitter

Everyone knows that glitter is just like germs—it gets everywhere and is so hard to get rid of! Use that to your advantage and show kids how soap fights glitter and germs.

10. Blow the biggest bubbles you can

Girl making an enormous bubble with string and wire (Easy Science Experiments)

Add a few simple ingredients to dish soap solution to create the largest bubbles you’ve ever seen! Kids learn about surface tension as they engineer these bubble-blowing wands.

11. Make neon flowers

Eight daisies are shown in different neon colors. The water in the vases they are in are the same color as the daisies. (easy science experiments)

We love how simple this project is to re-create since all you’ll need are some gerbera daisies, food coloring, glasses, and water. The end result is just so beautiful!

12. Build a Ferris wheel

Miniature Ferris Wheel built out of colorful wood craft sticks

You’ve probably ridden on a Ferris wheel, but can you build one? Stock up on wood craft sticks and find out! Play around with different designs to see which one works best.

13. Learn about capillary action

Glasses of colored water with paper towel strips leading from one to the next

Kids will be amazed as they watch the colored water move from glass to glass, and you’ll love the easy and inexpensive setup. Gather some water, paper towels, and food coloring to teach the scientific magic of capillary action.

14. Demonstrate the “magic” leakproof bag

Plastic bag full of water with pencils stuck through it (Easy Science Experiments)

So simple and so amazing! All you need is a zip-top plastic bag, sharp pencils, and some water to blow your kids’ minds. Once they’re suitably impressed, teach them how the “trick” works by explaining the chemistry of polymers.

15. Design a cell phone stand

Basic cell phone stand made from wood craft sticks, paper clips, and rubber bands (Sixth Grade Science)

Use your engineering skills and items from around the house to design and build a cell phone stand.

16. Give a balloon face a beard

A pink balloon has a face drawn on it. It is hovering over a plate with salt and pepper on it (easy science experiments)

Equally educational and fun, this experiment will teach kids about static electricity using everyday materials. Kids will undoubtedly get a kick out of creating beards on their balloon person!

17. Re-create the water cycle in a bag

Plastic bag of blue water with a sun and clouds drawn on it (Easy Science Experiments)

You can do so many easy science experiments with a simple zip-top bag! Fill one partway with water and set it on a sunny windowsill to see how the water evaporates up and eventually “rains” down.

18. Conduct an egg drop

Egg surrounded by paper straws taped into place

Put all their engineering skills to the test with an egg drop! Challenge kids to build a container from stuff they find around the house that will protect an egg from a long fall (this is especially fun to do from upper-story windows).

19. Engineer a drinking straw roller coaster

Student building a roller coaster of drinking straws for a ping pong ball (Fourth Grade Science)

STEM challenges are always a hit with kids. We love this one, which only requires basic supplies like drinking straws.

20. Use apple slices to learn about oxidation

Several apple slices are shown on a clear plate. There are cards that label what they have been immersed in (including salt water, sugar water, etc.) (easy science experiments)

Have students make predictions about what will happen to apple slices when immersed in different liquids, then put those predictions to the test! Finally, have them record their observations.

21. Build a solar oven

Solar oven built from a pizza box with s’mores inside

Explore the power of the sun when you build your own solar ovens and use them to cook some yummy treats. This experiment takes a little more time and effort, but the results are always impressive. The link below has complete instructions.

Law of Supply Defined

Law of Supply Defined

Law of Supply Defined

The law of supply is an economic theory that predicts how the price of goods and services affects their supply. It says that as prices rise, businesses will increase the amount of goods and services that they make available. Though the law of supply can be useful when making business decisions, it doesn’t take into account other factors that can affect supply, such as changes in production costs and the competitive environment. Still, understanding the law of supply, as well the exceptions to the law and other relevant factors, can help companies determine how to price their products and services and adjust their supply to maximize profits.

What Is the Law of Supply?

The law of supply is a basic economic concept. It states that an increase in the price of goods or services results in an increase in their supply. Supply is defined as the quantity of goods or services that suppliers are willing and able to provide to customers. The law works like this: Rising prices mean that products become more profitable, assuming other factors such as production costs remain constant. The prospect of higher profits therefore motivates businesses to supply more of these products. Existing suppliers may increase the supply of more profitable products at the expense of less profitable ones. In addition, new suppliers may enter the market, further increasing the overall supply.

Key Takeaways

The law of supply states that an increase in the price of goods or services results in an increase in the quantity that suppliers make available to the market.
Existing suppliers increase production of higher-priced goods to maximize profits, while new suppliers may also enter the market.
The law of supply assumes that all other factors remain constant. In practice, many other factors can play into supply decisions, including rising production costs and market competition.

Law of Supply Explained

Consider the example of a pizzeria that sells pasta dishes as well as pizzas. If the price of pizza rises, and with it the profit per pie, the business may focus its resources on increasing the production of pizza — while decreasing the production of pasta offerings. As the price keeps rising, the pizzeria continues to increase the pizza supply because it can increase its profits by doing so. This relationship can be represented graphically as a supply curve, which shows the number of pizzas produced at different prices.

Law of Supply Defined

As prices and output continue to increase, the supplier eventually reaches the maximum quantity that it can provide with its existing equipment — it can’t make any more pizzas because its ovens are already full at all times. The pizzeria may then decide to invest in an additional pizza oven to increase its supply. Meanwhile, other entrepreneurs establish new pizzerias because the higher prices justify the startup costs. This further increases the market supply.

How Does the Law of Supply Work?

The law of supply applies to services and labor as well as goods — a higher price can increase the supply. For example, employees may be more likely to work overtime if they’re paid at a higher hourly rate. Professions that offer relatively high salaries, such as software engineering, may attract more people to educational programs that ultimately increase the supply of qualified job applicants.

In practice, prices are often determined by the relationship between supply and demand. A related economic theory, the law of supply and demand, describes how this works. Rising demand for products and services tends to drive up prices. This provides an incentive for providers to increase the supply. However, as the price of those products and services continues to rise, fewer customers will buy them. The law of supply and demand predicts that as a result, free markets move toward an equilibrium point where the price and quantity of the supply exactly matches customer demand.

Factors That Affect Supply

The law of supply predicts that rising prices result in increases in the supply of goods or services — but that’s assuming all other factors remain constant. In reality, many other factors can affect supply, and those factors can change frequently. Here are 10 of the most common.

  • Price and demand forecasts.
    Many businesses base their production plans on forecasts of future demand and pricing, not just on what customers are currently buying. Enterprise resource planning software can help businesses improve demand forecasts by considering factors such as economic growth and seasonality. Furthermore, if a product’s price is expected to increase, businesses may hold back stock so they can make a larger profit in the future.
  • Production costs.
    The law of supply assumes that companies can increase profits by selling more goods or services when prices rise, which provides them with an incentive to increase the supply. But if the price rises reflect increased production costs, that may not be true. If a pizzeria raises the price of a slice by 50 cents because the cost of the tomatoes used in the sauce went up by 50 cents, its profit is unchanged — so the price increase doesn’t represent an incentive to make more pizzas. On the other hand, if production costs fall and prices remain stable, profits increase and so does the incentive to supply more pizzas.
  • Competition.
    New suppliers may enter the market even if prices are not increasing and demand is stable. Often, these new suppliers aim to offer products at lower prices than existing providers.
  • Technology.
    Technology can enable companies to make and sell more products at a lower cost, thus increasing the available supply.
  • Transportation.
    Transportation delays or rising shipping costs can affect a company’s ability to increase its supply of goods. If goods can’t move from warehouses to retail shelves, they can’t be purchased by customers and don’t count toward the market supply.
  • Availability of raw materials and labor.
    A business may want to increase the supply of a product but unable to do so because it can’t purchase the raw materials or hire the people required to produce it.
  • Government regulations and subsidies influence supply in some industries.
    Companies must meet strict regulatory requirements when introducing certain healthcare products, for example, which can limit the supply of these products regardless of the demand. On the other hand, government subsidies support the supply of some local transportation services.
  • Weather and natural disasters.
    For many agricultural goods, the weather has a major impact on supply. A dry season or flooding can greatly reduce crop yields.
  • Comparable goods.
    A change in the supply of one good can affect the supply of other goods. For example, if the market price of corn increases, farmers may dedicate more land to growing corn. As a result, they use less land for growing squash, so the supply of squash decreases.
  • Business objectives.
    Companies may adjust the supply of products to achieve specific objectives. For example, some businesses introduce limited-edition collectibles in small quantities to increase their desirability and value. At the other extreme, companies sometimes supply products in large quantities to build market presence and brand awareness, even if increasing the supply doesn’t generate higher profits.

Types of Law of Supply

There are five types of supply — market supply, joint supply, composite supply, short-run supply and long-run supply. Here’s how to distinguish them.

  • Market supply.
    The market supply is the total supply from all producers. If a town has three pizzerias that produce 30, 40, and 25 pies a day, respectively, at $20 apiece, the market supply at the $20 price level is 95 pies a day.
  • Joint supply.
    Joint supply occurs when multiple goods are produced from a single source. For example, cows can be used to produce milk as well as leather.
  • Composite supply.
    Composite supply occurs when goods are intrinsically linked and sold only as a bundle. For example, a car manufacturer typically offers air conditioning and audio systems only as part of a bundled package with the purchase of a new vehicle.
  • Short-run supply.
    Short-run supply is the total supply that companies can provide without additional investment in business expansion. It’s also known as short-term supply.
  • Long-run supply.
    Long-run supply, also known as long-term supply, includes factors such as suppliers’ investment in new production capacity. It also considers that new suppliers may enter the market while older firms exit.

Exceptions to Law of Supply

Not every business scenario is determined by the law of supply. There are many exceptions — situations where the supply of goods and services isn’t determined by the pricing. Here are some of the most common.

  • Economies of scale.
    When a producer becomes large enough, it may be able to apply economies of scale to reduce the cost of producing goods and services. As a result, it may be able to increase its supply while keeping prices stable or even reducing them.
  • Shift in business plan.
    If a business is shifting its market focus and plans to cease production of some products, it may temporarily increase the supply of those products at a low price to eliminate any remaining stock and raw materials. A business may also use this approach as an emergency measure if it needs cash in a hurry.
  • Monopoly.
    When there’s only a single supplier of a good or service, the company may be able to increase or decrease its supply or pricing irrespective of external factors.
  • Competitive pricing.
    In a highly competitive market, businesses may increase the supply of their products while reducing the price to capture market share.
  • Expiring or dated goods.
    If perishable goods near their expiration date, a business may increase their supply early to try to recoup some of the production costs before the goods become unsellable.
  • One-of-a-kind goods.
    Handmade art or other rare goods cannot be easily reproduced, so the supply cannot expand even if the price rises.
  • Inelastic supply.
    For many goods, including agricultural products, it is difficult to quickly adjust the supply even if the price rises. It can take months or even years for crops to reach maturity and become available to customers. For example, an apple farmer who adds trees to their orchard won’t be able to harvest the fruit for several years.

Law of Supply Examples

The law of supply operates across almost every industry. Here are some common examples.

  • The owner of a coffee shop notices that sandwich prices are rising. To boost profits, the owner starts making more sandwiches for sale.
  • A movie studio sees that major theaters are charging higher prices for blockbuster films, so it begins greenlighting more projects to develop star-studded action movies.
  • Noticing that the price of organic vegetables is increasing faster than the price of conventionally produced crops, a farmer starts the process of gaining organic certification.


The law of supply describes a simple relationship between pricing and supply — the higher the price of an item, the more suppliers will make. In practice, many other factors can affect both supply and pricing, including production costs, the availability of raw materials and the competitive environment. So while it’s useful to consider the law of supply when making business decisions, it’s equally important to take into account other factors that may apply to your situation.

Educational Institution - Meaning and Definition

Educational Institution – Meaning and Definition

Educational Institution - Meaning and Definition

An educational institution is a place where people of different age groups get an education.

The educational institution includes childcare, preschool, elementary school, high secondary schools, and universities. These educational institutions provide the learning space and the learning environment.

Understand and digitize school operations with Teachmint and its features like user management for efficient school management.

Activities related to education are there in the educational institution. The organization can get a building and use that building to provide training and education in organized courses.

These educational institutions have one education head; it can be the principal or any other person. The institution has other personnel, teaching, and nonteaching, that are there to help and give service to the organization. There are different works which the personnel have to do like keeping books, arranging and maintaining documents, etc.

The educational institutions have a curriculum that all the educational institutions of the country follow. Public authority takes care of the control and finance of these institutions. The medium of instruction can be virtual classrooms.

There can be a merger or demolition of the educational institution depending on the decision of the education organizer or public authority. The institutions’ ultimate aim is to impart quality education and to ensure that the future generation is knowledgeable.

There is an educational ID for all the institutions. The difference between these educational institutions is on the basis of the education they are imparting to the students.

The different types of educational institutions

What is the difference between a college and a university? Public and private institutions? Is community college a good way to start a career? With over 6,000 higher education institutions nationwide, students often wonder which path to choose.

Whether you have already chosen a career or are still exploring your options, there is a school for you. Incoming students can choose their college by size, cost, location, and degree choices. For those looking for a specific experience, gender, race, and religious affiliation can help make the decision easier.

Higher educational institutions

The basic types of post-secondary institutions include:

  • community colleges
  • technical or vocational schools
  • public colleges and universities
  • private colleges and universities

Students can choose to further customize their college experience by choosing an institution specializing in a particular type of learning or student body. Liberal arts colleges, historically black colleges and universities, and Ivy League schools offer these unique experiences.

Community colleges

With a relatively simple admissions process, lower tuition costs, and programs that allow students to begin a career immediately upon graduation, community colleges appeal to a variety of students. Working professionals may complete a certification course at a community college to get ahead in their career or change professions. These schools also appeal to high school graduates who are not able or ready for the commitment of a 4-year program.

There are 942 community colleges nationwide. These schools provide certificate programs leading to credentials designed for specific skills and trades, in addition to 2-year associate degrees. Many students spend 2 years studying in community college before transferring their credits to a bachelor’s program at a college or university.

Applicants to community colleges do not always require a high school diploma or general education development (GED) certificate. Most have open admissions policies with a minimum requirement that applicants are at least 18 years old. California Community Colleges, for example, are required to accept all state residents meeting this requirement.

Community colleges may have technical and vocational programs, but typically offer a wider variety of subject areas than technical or vocational schools. The associate degree programs at these colleges are often trade-based, requiring hands-on instruction. As a result of the COVID19 pandemic, enrollment in community colleges dropped precipitously as students were unable to attend class in disciplines where in-person training is required, such as nursing or mechanical engineering.

Students attending community college programs may be working professionals earning a credential to further their career. For this reason, community colleges often offer flexible course structures including online asynchronous lessons and evening classes. Most community college campuses do not provide on-campus accommodation.

  • Average cost – $10,300 per year
  • Example careers include paralegal, physical therapy assistant

Technical and vocational schools

Focused on careers, technical and vocational schools list their programs as career training tracks rather than degrees or certificates. These tracks are designed to give students specific skills needed for their target profession. For example, medical assisting programs may include an internship in a local clinic alongside laboratory sessions to practice skills like blood draws.

The main difference between technical and vocational schools is that vocational schools are more hands on while technical schools may have a stronger classroom component. Graduates from both schools typically can begin working immediately upon graduation.

Most vocational and technical schools require a high school diploma or GED. These schools do not usually request SAT or ACT scores, but may require a placement test. Some schools waive the requirement for a high school diploma for students with strong scores on their placement test, and may admit students as young as 16 with parental consent. Trade and vocational schools are usually commuter-based.

  • Average cost—$11,389 per year

Example careers include radiation therapist, dental hygienist, licensed practical nurse

Private colleges and universities

Funded by tuition and private contributions, private universities have the highest tuition rates among all higher education institutions. Private colleges offer smaller student population and class sizes and a narrower range of majors compared to larger colleges and universities.

State residency doesn’t affect tuition rate creating a more diverse student body by encouraging out-of-state students to attend without needing to pay increased fees. Compared to community colleges, trade, and vocational schools, private colleges have considerably stricter admissions requirements. Applicants need a high school diploma or equivalent, and SAT or ACT and GPA scores within a particular range stipulated by the individual college. Students in private colleges usually live on or near campus.

Both liberal arts and Ivy League colleges and universities are private. Liberal arts colleges usually award undergraduate degrees and are known for their interdisciplinary approach. Amherst and Wellesley Colleges are well-known liberal arts colleges. Ivy League schools are high-competitive and have low acceptance rates. There are 8 total, including Yale and Princeton.

  • Average cost—$44,662 per year
  • Examples of liberal arts careers include marketing manager, accounting manager, elementary school teacher
  • Examples of Ivy League career fields: financial services, consulting

Public universities

Funded by state governments, public universities have state boards and trustees who oversee their operations. These institutions offer in-state tuition, which is usually lower than private colleges and universities. Public institutions generally have a large student population, offer a wider spectrum of disciplines, and confer graduate degrees.

Admissions requirements for public universities are similar to private institutions. Most public universities support research by master’s and doctoral students. The University of Florida, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and University of California at Berkeley are traditional public universities.

  • Average cost—$20,598 per year
  • Example public university graduate career fields: healthcare, logistics, information technology

Other institutions

In addition to the basic types of higher educational institutions, there are colleges and universities designed to meet more specific student needs. These schools cater to select student bodies and disciplines.

Art and design schools

Students with an interest in the arts can opt to enroll in programs offered by art and design schools. These schools are sometimes extensions of existing universities, like the School of Art and Design at the University of Illinois. Other schools exist independently, such as the Parsons School of Design, the Pratt Institute, or the Julliard School.

Art and design schools offer associate, bachelor’s, and graduate degrees in specializations like fine art, film, illustration, graphic design, drama, dance, and photography. The most common degree awarded is a bachelor of fine art, or BFA. Admissions to these schools can be extremely competitive. In addition to a high school diploma, GPA and test scores, applicants typically submit a portfolio of sample works and may need to audition.

Institutes of technology

Students who know they want to specialize in engineering, technology, applied sciences, and natural sciences often attend institutes of technology. This type of school includes career-oriented programs and awards both undergraduate and graduate degrees. These schools include public institutions such as Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) as well as private schools like California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)

These unique colleges and universities emerged in the 1860s as a result of racial discrimination in existing institutions of the time. HBCUs now accept all races, though the majority of the student population in most continues to be Black. Some well-known HBCUs include Howard University, Morehouse College, and Spelman College. Of the 100 total HBCUs currently available, 51 are public.

Religiously affiliated

Historically, many colleges and universities were associated with a religion. Religiously affiliated institutions only accepted students identified with the target affiliated faith and incorporated religious themes in their coursework and campus culture. Today, some still operate based on religious traditions, maintaining certain rules and practices based on their affiliation.

Brigham Young University, for example, is operated by the Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-day Saints (BYU). While BYU also accepts students of other faiths, all students have to follow certain rules based on the university’s religiously-oriented code of conduct.

There are far more colleges with historical affiliations than active faith-based practices. At these colleges, the student body is largely unaffected by their school’s affiliation. Boston College, for example, maintains a Roman Catholic Jesuit affiliation.

Women’s only

Although women are enrolling in college at considerably higher rates than men, the number of colleges originally founded to admit only women is declining. In the 1950s, it was determined that these colleges violated the Equal Protection Clause, causing many to dissolve. Still, today there are 37 women’s colleges and universities.

While these colleges admit all genders, student populations are majority female, ranging from 87%-100%. These often private, liberal arts colleges are designed to offer women an opportunity to thrive in areas like STEM fields where they are traditionally underrepresented. Women who attend women’s colleges and universities are more likely to graduate and develop marketable skills compared to those studying at public universities.

Tribal schools

Tribal colleges and universities were founded to preserve and restore the languages and cultural traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. There are currently 32 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) offering degrees, certificates, and even apprenticeships. These institutions are often located in economically depressed, rural areas and sometimes serve as a base for their local community’s social services. With a graduation rate of 86%, these schools serve an important role in supporting those most underserved by the traditional higher education system.

Military colleges

There are 5 service academies provided by the United States military. Each institution is divided into service academics, senior military colleges, and military junior colleges. The basic academies are as follows:

  • Military Academy
  • Naval Academy
  • Air Force Academy
  • Coast Guard Academy
  • Merchant Marine Academy

These schools provide students an opportunity to simultaneously serve in the military while pursing a college degree. Students at these schools undergo military instruction along side a bachelor of science degree, and most graduates aim to find a job in the military upon graduation. In exchange for a service commitment of at least 5 years, accepted applicants do not pay tuition, or room and board.

Closing words

Your final choice of school ultimately depends on a culmination of factors. Your career goals, academic interests, and personal circumstances can all contribute to the final decision. It is not uncommon to attend more than one school, whether to complete certain career credentials or when finding the right institution for your academic goals. With plenty of research and clear goals, you can find the school that is best for you.

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity | Definition, Facts, & Types

Electricity, phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electric charges. Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and is borne by elementary particles. In electricity the particle involved is the electron, which carries a charge designated, by convention, as negative. Thus, the various manifestations of electricity are the result of the accumulation or motion of numbers of electrons.


Electrostatics is the study of electromagnetic phenomena that occur when there are no moving charges—i.e., after a static equilibrium has been established. Charges reach their equilibrium positions rapidly because the electric force is extremely strong. The mathematical methods of electrostatics make it possible to calculate the distributions of the electric field and of the electric potential from a known configuration of charges, conductors, and insulators. Conversely, given a set of conductors with known potentials, it is possible to calculate electric fields in regions between the conductors and to determine the charge distribution on the surface of the conductors. The electric energy of a set of charges at rest can be viewed from the standpoint of the work required to assemble the charges; alternatively, the energy also can be considered to reside in the electric field produced by this assembly of charges. Finally, energy can be stored in a capacitor; the energy required to charge such a device is stored in it as electrostatic energy of the electric field.

Coulomb’s law

Static electricity is a familiar electric phenomenon in which charged particles are transferred from one body to another. For example, if two objects are rubbed together, especially if the objects are insulators and the surrounding air is dry, the objects acquire equal and opposite charges and an attractive force develops between them. The object that loses electrons becomes positively charged, and the other becomes negatively charged. The force is simply the attraction between charges of opposite sign. The properties of this force were described above; they are incorporated in the mathematical relationship known as Coulomb’s law. The electric force on a charge Q1 under these conditions, due to a charge Q2 at a distance r, is given by Coulomb’s law,Equation.

Calculating the value of an electric field

In the example, the charge Q1 is in the electric field produced by the charge Q2. This field has the newtons per coulomb (N/C). (Electric field can also be expressed in volts per metre [V/m], which is the equivalent of newtons per coulomb.) The electric force on Q1 is given newtons. This equation can be used to define the electric field of a point charge. The electric field E produced by charge Q2 is a vector. The magnitude of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from Q2; its direction is away from Q2 when Q2 is a positive charge and toward Q2 when Q2 is a negative charge. Using equations (2) and Electricity and Magnetism. Electricity. Electrostatics. Static electricity. [Calculating the value of an electric field – equation 4], the field produced by Q2 at the position of Q1 newtons per coulomb.

Superposition principle

This calculation demonstrates an important property of the electromagnetic field known as the superposition principle. According to this principle, a field arising from a number of sources is determined by adding the individual fields from each source. The principle is illustrated by Figure 3, in which an electric field arising from several sources is determined by the superposition of the fields from each of the sources. In this case, the electric field at the location of Q1 is the sum of the fields due to Q2 and Q3. Studies of electric fields over an extremely wide range of magnitudes have established the validity of the superposition principle.

Electric potential

The electric potential is just such a scalar function. Electric potential is related to the work done by an external force when it transports a charge slowly from one position to another in an environment containing other charges at rest. The difference between the potential at point A and the potential at point B is defined by the equation

Deriving electric field from potential

The electric field has already been described in terms of the force on a charge. If the electric potential is known at every point in a region of space, the electric field can be derived from the potential. In vector calculus notation, the electric field is given by the negative of the gradient of the electric potential, E = −grad V. This expression specifies how the electric field is calculated at a given point. Since the field is a vector, it has both a direction and magnitude. The direction is that in which the potential decreases most rapidly, moving away from the point. The magnitude of the field is the change in potential across a small distance in the indicated direction divided by that distance.


A useful device for storing electrical energy consists of two conductors in close proximity and insulated from each other. A simple example of such a storage device is the parallel-plate capacitor. If positive charges with total charge +Q are deposited on one of the conductors and an equal amount of negative charge −Q is deposited on the second conductor, the capacitor is said to have a charge Q. As shown in Figure 11, it consists of two flat conducting plates, each of area A, parallel to each other and separated by a distance d.

Principle of the capacitor

To understand how a charged capacitor stores energy, consider the following charging process. With both plates of the capacitor initially uncharged, a small amount of negative charge is removed from the lower plate and placed on the upper plate. Thus, little work is required to make the lower plate slightly positive and the upper plate slightly negative. As the process is repeated, however, it becomes increasingly difficult to transport the same amount of negative charge, since the charge is being moved toward a plate that is already negatively charged and away from a plate that is positively charged. The negative charge on the upper plate repels the negative charge moving toward it, and the positive charge on the lower plate exerts an attractive force on the negative charge being moved away. Therefore, work has to be done to charge the capacitor.

Dielectrics, polarization, and electric dipole moment

The amount of charge stored in a capacitor is the product of the voltage and the capacity. What limits the amount of charge that can be stored on a capacitor? The voltage can be increased, but electric breakdown will occur if the electric field inside the capacitor becomes too large. The capacity can be increased by expanding the electrode areas and by reducing the gap between the electrodes. In general, capacitors that can withstand high voltages have a relatively small capacity. If only low voltages are needed, however, compact capacitors with rather large capacities can be manufactured. One method for increasing capacity is to insert between the conductors an insulating material that reduces the voltage because of its effect on the electric field. Such materials are called dielectrics (substances with no free charges). When the molecules of a dielectric are placed in the electric field, their negatively charged electrons separate slightly from their positively charged cores. With this separation, referred to as polarization, the molecules acquire an electric dipole moment. A cluster of charges with an electric dipole moment is often called an electric dipole.

Direct electric current

Basic phenomena and principles

Many electric phenomena occur under what is termed steady-state conditions. This means that such electric quantities as current, voltage, and charge distributions are not affected by the passage of time. For instance, because the current through a filament inside a car headlight does not change with time, the brightness of the headlight remains constant. An example of a nonsteady-state situation is the flow of charge between two conductors that are connected by a thin conducting wire and that initially have an equal but opposite charge. As current flows from the positively charged conductor to the negatively charged one, the charges on both conductors decrease with time, as does the potential difference between the conductors. The current therefore also decreases with time and eventually ceases when the conductors are discharged.

Conductors, insulators, and semiconductors

Materials are classified as conductors, insulators, or semiconductors according to their electric conductivity. The classifications can be understood in atomic terms. Electrons in an atom can have only certain well-defined energies, and, depending on their energies, the electrons are said to occupy particular energy levels. In a typical atom with many electrons, the lower energy levels are filled, each with the number of electrons allowed by a quantum mechanical rule known as the Pauli exclusion principle. Depending on the element, the highest energy level to have electrons may or may not be completely full. If two atoms of some element are brought close enough together so that they interact, the two-atom system has two closely spaced levels for each level of the single atom. If 10 atoms interact, the 10-atom system will have a cluster of 10 levels corresponding to each single level of an individual atom. In a solid, the number of atoms and hence the number of levels is extremely large; most of the higher energy levels overlap in a continuous fashion except for certain energies in which there are no levels at all. Energy regions with levels are called energy bands, and regions that have no levels are referred to as band gaps.

Electromotive force

A 12-volt automobile battery can deliver current to a circuit such as that of a car radio for a considerable length of time, during which the potential difference between the terminals of the battery remains close to 12 volts. The battery must have a means of continuously replenishing the excess positive and negative charges that are located on the respective terminals and that are responsible for the 12-volt potential difference between the terminals. The charges must be transported from one terminal to the other in a direction opposite to the electric force on the charges between the terminals. Any device that accomplishes this transport of charge constitutes a source of electromotive force. A car battery, for example, uses chemical reactions to generate electromotive force. The Van de Graaff generator shown in Figure 13 is a mechanical device that produces an electromotive force. Invented by the American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in the 1930s, this type of particle accelerator has been widely used to study subatomic particles. Because it is conceptually simpler than a chemical source of electromotive force, the Van de Graaff generator will be discussed first.

Direct-current circuits

The simplest direct-current (DC) circuit consists of a resistor connected across a source of electromotive force. The symbol for a resistor is shown in Figure 15; here the value of R, 60Ω, is given by the numerical value adjacent to the symbol. The symbol for a source of electromotive force, E, is shown with the associated value of the voltage. Convention gives the terminal with the long line a higher (i.e., more positive) potential than the terminal with the short line. Straight lines connecting various elements in a circuit are assumed to have negligible resistance, so that there is no change in potential across these connections. The circuit shows a 12-volt electromotive force connected to a 60Ω resistor. The letters a, b, c, and d on the diagram are reference points.

Resistors in series and parallel

If two resistors are connected in Figure 16A so that all of the electric charge must traverse both resistors in succession, the equivalent resistance to the flow of current is the sum of the resistances.

Kirchhoff’s laws of electric circuits

Two simple relationships can be used to determine the value of currents in circuits. They are useful even in rather complex situations such as circuits with multiple loops. The first relationship deals with currents at a junction of conductors. Figure 17 shows three such junctions, with the currents assumed to flow in the directions indicated.

Alternating electric currents

Basic phenomena and principles

Many applications of electricity and magnetism involve voltages that vary in time. Electric power transmitted over large distances from generating plants to users involves voltages that vary sinusoidally in time, at a frequency of 60 hertz (Hz) in the United States and Canada and 50 hertz in Europe. (One hertz equals one cycle per second.) This means that in the United States, for example, the current alternates its direction in the electric conducting wires so that each second it flows 60 times in one direction and 60 times in the opposite direction. Alternating currents (AC) are also used in radio and television transmissions. In an AM (amplitude-modulation) radio broadcast, electromagnetic waves with a frequency of around one million hertz are generated by currents of the same frequency flowing back and forth in the antenna of the station. The information transported by these waves is encoded in the rapid variation of the wave amplitude. When voices and music are broadcast, these variations correspond to the mechanical oscillations of the sound and have frequencies from 50 to 5,000 hertz. In an FM (frequency-modulation) system, which is used by both television and FM radio stations, audio information is contained in the rapid fluctuation of the frequency in a narrow range around the frequency of the carrier wave.

Transient response

Consider a circuit consisting of a capacitor and a resistor that are connected as shown in Figure 19. What will be the voltage at point b if the voltage at a is increased suddenly from Va = 0 to Va = +50 volts? Closing the switch produces such a voltage because it connects the positive terminal of a 50-volt battery to point a while the negative terminal is at ground (point c). Figure 20 (left) graphs this voltage Va as a function of the time.

Alternating-current circuits

Certain circuits include sources of alternating electromotive forces of the sinusoidal form V = V0 cos(ωt) or V = V0 sin(ωt). The sine and cosine functions have values that vary between +1 and −1; either of the equations for the voltage represents a potential that varies with respect to time and has values from +V0 to −V0. The voltage varies with time at a rate given by the numerical value of ω; ω, which is called the angular frequency, is expressed in radians per second. Figure 22 shows an example with V0 = 170 volts and ω = 377 radians per second, so that V = 170 cos(377t). The time interval required for the pattern to be repeated is called the period T, given by T = 2π/ω. In Figure 22, the pattern is repeated every 16.7 milliseconds, which is the period. The frequency of the voltage is symbolized by f and given by f = 1/T. In terms of ω, f = ω/2π, in hertz.

Behaviour of an AC circuit

The way an AC circuit functions can be better understood by examining one that includes a source of sinusoidally varying electromotive force, a resistor, a capacitor, and an inductor, all connected in series. For this single-loop problem, only the second of Kirchhoff’s laws is needed since there is only one current. The circuit is shown in Figure 23 with the points a, b, c, and d at various positions in the circuit located between the various elements. The letters R, L, and C represent, respectively, the values of the resistance in ohms, the inductance in henrys, and the capacitance in farads. The source of the AC electromotive force is located between a and b. The wavy symbol is a reminder of the sinusoidal nature of the voltage that is responsible for making the current flow in the loop. For the potential between b and a,

Electric properties of matter


Some solids, notably certain crystals, have permanent electric polarization. Other crystals become electrically polarized when subjected to stress. In electric polarization, the centre of positive charge within an atom, molecule, or crystal lattice element is separated slightly from the centre of negative charge. Piezoelectricity (literally “pressure electricity”) is observed if a stress is applied to a solid, for example, by bending, twisting, or squeezing it. If a thin slice of quartz is compressed between two electrodes, a potential difference occurs; conversely, if the quartz crystal is inserted into an electric field, the resulting stress changes its dimensions. Piezoelectricity is responsible for the great precision of clocks and watches equipped with quartz oscillators. It also is used in electric guitars and various other musical instruments to transform mechanical vibrations into corresponding electric signals, which are then amplified and converted to sound by acoustical speakers.

Electro-optic phenomena

The index of refraction n of a transparent substance is related to its electric polarizability and is given by n2 = 1 + χe/ε0. As discussed earlier, χe is the electric susceptibility of a medium, and the equation P = χeE relates the polarization of the medium to the applied electric field. For most matter, χe is not a constant independent of the value of the electric field, but rather depends to a small degree on the value of the field. Thus, the index of refraction can be changed by applying an external electric field to a medium. In liquids, glasses, and crystals that have a centre of symmetry, the change is usually very small. Called the Kerr effect (for its discoverer, the Scottish physicist John Kerr), it is proportional to the square of the applied electric field. In noncentrosymmetric crystals, the change in the index of refraction n is generally much greater; it depends linearly on the applied electric field and is known as the Pockels effect (after the German physicist F. R. Pockels).


When two metals are placed in electric contact, electrons flow out of the one in which the electrons are less bound and into the other. The binding is measured by the location of the so-called Fermi level of electrons in the metal; the higher the level, the lower is the binding. The Fermi level represents the demarcation in energy within the conduction band of a metal between the energy levels occupied by electrons and those that are unoccupied. The energy of an electron at the Fermi level is −W relative to a free electron outside the metal. The flow of electrons between the two conductors in contact continues until the change in electrostatic potential brings the Fermi levels of the two metals (W1 and W2) to the same value. This electrostatic potential is called the contact potential ϕ12 and is given by eϕ12 = W1 − W2, where e is 1.6 × 10−19 coulomb.

Thermionic emission

A metal contains mobile electrons in a partially filled band of energy levels—i.e., the conduction band. These electrons, though mobile within the metal, are rather tightly bound to it. The energy that is required to release a mobile electron from the metal varies from about 1.5 to 6 electron volts, depending on the metal. In thermionic emission, some of the electrons acquire enough energy from thermal collisions to escape from the metal. The number of electrons emitted and therefore the thermionic emission current depend critically on temperature.

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships For High School Students

Scholarships given based on academic achievement and your financial aid info from the FAFSA can open up college scholarship opportunities for high school students.

High school students should take advantage of every opportunity to apply for high school scholarships. Many organizations offer scholarships for high schoolers and the awards may be very generous. Even if you don’t think you’ll qualify for need-based financial aid, it’s often still a good idea to fill out the college opportunities that otherwise wouldn’t be available without these awards!

What Scholarships Are Available for High School Students?

A number of scholarship programs are available to those who have achieved good grades in their studies. You could also use interests and goals to find scholarships for minority students, the sport you play, by state or college major. Don’t overlook ones like Navy Seal Foundation Scholarships if you are the child of a military service member.

Scholarships for high school students can be a great way to help with college costs. There are many types of high school scholarships 2022 programs, each giving you different opportunities and benefits!

10 Scholarships For High School Students You Should Apply For in 2022

As a high school student, you have plenty of options when it comes to scholarships. You can find awards given by organizations, companies, and even the government to help pay for college. Here are the 10 high school scholarships 2022 that you should apply for:

  1. Coca-Cola Scholars Program
  2. Burger King Scholars Program
  3. Gates Millennium Scholars Program
  4. Google Lime Scholarship
  5. National Merit Scholarship Program
  6. QuestBridge National College Match Program
  7. Ron Brown Scholar Program
  8. Tall Clubs International Scholarship Program
  9. United Negro College Fund Scholarships
  10. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc./Frederick Douglass

When Should High School Students Start Applying For Scholarships?

Scholarships are a great way to fund your education. If you have been thinking about college scholarships for high school students, don’t wait until it’s too late! Deadlines can range from one year before college starts up through senior year in some cases so make sure that you apply as soon as possible and work on scholarship searches during summer break or after grades come out each semester.

How To Get Scholarships For High School?

Getting scholarships for high schoolers can be a difficult process. There are many different types of scholarships, and it can be hard to know where to start your search. However, there are a few tips that you can follow to help you find the best scholarships for your needs.

  1. Start early: The sooner you start looking for scholarships, the better your chances will be of finding one that suits your needs.
  2. Talk to your guidance counselor: Your guidance counselor may be able to help you find scholarships that are specifically for high school students.
  3. Look online: There are many different scholarship databases available online. You can search for scholarships by keyword, type of scholarship, or even location.

Ask for help: If you’re having trouble finding scholarships, don’t be afraid to ask for help from your parents, teachers, or even friends. They may know of scholarships that you haven’t found yet.

Once you’ve found some scholarships to apply for, make sure you understand the eligibility requirements and deadlines. Then, put together a strong application that includes your best academic work, extracurricular activities, and personal statement.

Don’t forget to fill out and file a Free Application for Federal Student Aid. The FAFSA could help you qualify for federal and state aid based on financial need. Some grantors also use it to narrow the applicant pool to those who can’t afford higher education.

Documents Needed To Apply For Scholarship

A scholarship provider is likely to ask for various documents along with a complete scholarship application. For easy scholarships, this could be as simple as a name and email. Many high school scholarship applications, tend to ask for the following supporting documents:

Official high school transcripts. Ones that show your cumulative GPA and classes you’ve taken.
Standardized test scores. If you have them but many colleges are now test optional.
Recommendation letters. Usually from a coach, teacher, boss or someone other than family are often among these requirements. These references help a scholarship committee get to know you more as a person.

Resume. A list of work experience, awards, honors and extracurricular activities. This could be a place to discuss what clubs you belong to, sports teams and or community service you do.&
An essay. Some applications ask for a personal essay. Expressing your goals, for e.g., and why you deserve to win.

Identification. Some providers may also want a color photo of you. You might also need to prove residency, US citizenship, and / or ethnicity.
College plans. What kind of bachelor’s degree program you plan to enroll in as a full time undergraduate student.

What Mistakes Should High School Students Avoid When Applying For A Scholarship?

There are some common mistakes many high school students make when they apply for scholarships. Here is a list of mistakes you should avoid when you’re applying for college scholarships for high school students:

1. Applying for too many scholarships: Applying for too many scholarships can actually hurt your chances of winning any of them. Stick to a few that you are really interested in and that you have a good chance of winning.

2. Not meeting eligibility requirements: Make sure you understand the eligibility requirements for each scholarship you apply for. If you don’t meet the requirements, your application will likely be rejected.

3. Waiting until the last minute: Start working on your scholarship applications early so that you can take your time and do a good job. Applications that are rushed tend to be of lower quality and are less likely to be successful.

4. Not proofreading: Always proofread your essays and other materials before submitting them. Typos and other errors can make you look careless and can hurt your chances of winning a scholarship.

5. Applying for scholarships you don’t qualify for: Don’t waste your time applying for scholarships that you don’t qualify for. Stick to scholarships that are a good fit for you and your situation.

How To Increase Your Chances Of Getting High School Scholarships?

To increase your chances of landing a college scholarship for high school students, there are a few things you could do in and out of the high school classroom. Here are some tips:

  1. Start early. The sooner you start looking for scholarships, the better. There are many scholarships that have early deadlines, so it’s important to get a head start.
  2. Grades matter. Many colleges use your high school GPA and test scores when giving out academic merit scholarships. Maintain good grades throughout all of your classes. You could also show initiative and take Advanced Placement courses.
  3. Get organized. Create a system for keeping track of the scholarships you’re applying for. This will help you stay on top of deadlines and ensure that you don’t miss any important steps in the process.
  4. Help out to stand out. Some scholarships go to students who volunteer or do community service work. These efforts show leadership and that you care about your environment. All great qualities to have when applying for scholarships.
  5. Build professional relationships. At some point, you may need a recommendation letter and it typically must come from either your school counselor, teacher, or employer who knows you for a period of time.
  6. Look for jobs that relate to what you’ll be majoring in. It could be as simple as starting an online business which shows an entrepreneurial spirit. You could also be a tutor, cashier, or lifeguard. These part time jobs may help you save for college and build up your resume at the same time.
  7. Fill in the financial gaps with state and federal grants. Let’s say worst case and you don’t get big scholarship bucks. Many American students file the FAFSA (and state paperwork) to access government aid. Find out if you qualify!
Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology

Math, Science, and Technology courses introduce students to the basic concepts, processes, ways of thinking, and applications in math and natural science, and promotes an understanding of central issues related to the impacts of science and technology on society. These courses prepare students to:

  • Identify key concepts in one of the natural sciences
  • Explain the process of scientific research and the methods for reaching consensus within the scientific communities
  • Explain the process by which scientific knowledge is applied through technology
  • Critique the impact of technology on society for selected issues
  • Express aspects of the joy, wonder, and excitement of science, mathematics, and technology as evidence of God’s creative work

Why study Math, Science, and Technology?

Mathematics, science, and technology are driving forces in our society, impacting all areas of life. Everyone must make choices in their personal and professional lives for which understanding of these disciplines and their ethical dimensions is essential. To make those choices, we must be able to:

  • Use laboratory skills appropriate to at least one of the sciences
  • Apply mathematical, computational, and/or logical principles to problem solving
  • Make competent, critical, Biblical, and ethical judgments about the use of scientific information and technology
Gaji Pemain Poker Profesional

Gaji Pemain Poker Profesional

Gaji Pemain Poker Profesional

Orang sering bertanya kepada saya akhir-akhir ini berapa gaji rata-rata pemain poker profesional? Dan sejujurnya, jawabannya bervariasi tergantung pada tingkat keahlian Anda, taruhan apa yang Anda mainkan, berapa banyak volume yang Anda masukkan, dan sebagainya.

Jadi dalam artikel ini saya akan memecah semuanya untuk Anda. Ini adalah panduan utama untuk gaji pemain poker profesional.

Gaji Pemain Poker Profesional Per Jam

Jadi ada banyak cara berbeda untuk melihat gaji pemain poker profesional. Yang pertama adalah upah per jam mereka.

Ini adalah yang paling akrab bagi banyak orang karena di sebagian besar pekerjaan tradisional Anda dibayar dengan upah per jam. Namun, dalam poker ini sebenarnya bukan metrik yang sering kita gunakan.

Dan alasannya adalah karena poker tidak seperti pekerjaan biasa di mana Anda mendapatkan upah tetap yang konsisten untuk setiap jam Anda bekerja.

Sebaliknya, hasil Anda akan ada di mana-mana di poker.

Beberapa jam Anda akan menang besar atau menang kecil. Beberapa jam Anda akan kehilangan besar atau kehilangan kecil. Hal yang sama berlaku selama berhari-hari dan bahkan berminggu-minggu di meja poker.

Jadi tidak ada yang namanya upah per jam biasa untuk pemain poker profesional. Tetapi jika kami memperkirakan selama katakanlah satu tahun, kami bisa mendapatkan gaji rata-rata per jam untuk seorang pemain poker profesional.

Jika kita fokus pada pemain poker profesional taruhan kecil dan menengah, mereka akan rata-rata selama setahun mendapatkan upah per jam antara $20 per jam dan $500 per jam.

Ini akan sangat bervariasi seperti yang Anda lihat tergantung pada taruhan apa yang mereka mainkan, berapa jam yang mereka habiskan, dan seberapa keras mereka bekerja untuk meningkatkan permainan poker mereka jauh dari meja.

Untuk pemain poker profesional dengan taruhan tinggi, upah rata-rata per jam mereka selama setahun bisa berkisar antara $500 per jam dan $10.000 per jam atau lebih.

Ada sangat sedikit pro poker taruhan tinggi karena Anda secara sah harus menjadi salah satu pemain poker terbaik di dunia untuk secara konsisten mengalahkan taruhan ini.

Omong-omong, di video terbaru saya, saya membahas cara menghasilkan $5000 sebulan dengan bermain poker.

Gaji Tahunan Pemain Poker Profesional

Bagaimana dengan gaji tahunan untuk pemain poker profesional? Berapa banyak yang biasanya mereka bawa pulang dalam satu tahun kalender?

Yah, ini sangat bergantung pada seberapa banyak volume yang mereka masukkan. Atau dalam bahasa Inggris yang sederhana, berapa banyak poker yang mereka mainkan.

Beberapa pro poker sejujurnya agak malas dan hanya berusaha seminimal mungkin untuk membayar tagihan. Karena bagaimanapun mereka bisa melakukan ini.

Tidak ada bos yang memberi tahu mereka apa yang harus dilakukan!

Ini adalah salah satu bagian terbaik tentang menjadi pro poker. Dan begitulah cara saya bertindak selama beberapa tahun pertama karir poker profesional saya.

Artinya, hanya berusaha seminimal mungkin. Hanya bermain beberapa jam di akhir pekan, yang cukup untuk membayar tagihan saya.

Tetapi akhirnya saya menjadi pintar dan menyadari bahwa saya perlu menjadi seorang poker pro dengan lebih serius.

Jadi saya mulai bermain lebih konsisten, seringkali 7 hari seminggu selama 8-12 jam setiap hari. Dan kemudian karir pro poker saya akhirnya mulai lepas landas.

Saya juga menghabiskan beberapa jam lagi per hari untuk mempelajari permainan saya sendiri dan mempelajari strategi poker tingkat lanjut sebagai sampingan.

Mari kita fokus pada pro poker rata-rata yang memainkan sejumlah poker di suatu tempat di tengah dua ekstrem ini.

Artinya, seorang profesional poker yang bermain sekitar 5 hari seminggu selama 4-8 jam per hari. Gaji tahunan seperti apa yang bisa diharapkan oleh pemain poker profesional seperti ini?

Nah, gaji tahunan pemain poker profesional taruhan kecil atau menengah dalam kasus ini adalah antara $ 25.000 per tahun dan $ 500.000 per tahun.

Sekali lagi, ini akan sangat bervariasi pada taruhan apa yang mereka mainkan dan seberapa banyak mereka bekerja untuk meningkatkan tingkat kemenangan mereka (bb/100 atau bb/jam).

Dan gaji tahunan pemain poker profesional taruhan tinggi bisa antara $500.000 per tahun dan $10.000.000 atau lebih.

Tetapi sekali lagi perlu disebutkan bahwa hanya ada sedikit pemain poker yang mampu secara konsisten mengalahkan permainan taruhan tinggi yang penuh dengan pemain profesional kelas dunia.

Hasilkan $5000 Per Bulan dalam Permainan Poker Taruhan Rendah Dengan Cheat Sheet Poker Gratis Saya.

Apakah Anda kesulitan mengalahkan permainan poker taruhan rendah online atau langsung? Apakah Anda ingin mendapatkan penghasilan paruh waktu yang konsisten dengan memainkan game-game ini?

Itulah mengapa saya menulis lembar contekan poker kecil 50 halaman gratis ini untuk memberi Anda strategi yang tepat untuk mulai secara konsisten menghasilkan $1000 (atau lebih) per bulan dalam permainan poker taruhan rendah saat ini.

Ini adalah strategi poker yang tepat yang telah saya gunakan sebagai pemain poker profesional 10+ tahun.

Dan saya memaparkan semuanya untuk Anda langkah demi langkah dalam panduan gratis ini. Masukkan detail Anda di bawah ini dan saya akan mengirimkan lembar contekan poker gratis saya ke kotak masuk Anda sekarang.

Bagaimana Cara Meningkatkan Gaji Anda Sebagai Pemain Poker Profesional?

Jika Anda sudah menjadi pemain poker profesional, atau Anda berencana untuk menjadi pemain poker profesional, bagaimana Anda akan meningkatkan gaji Anda?

Cara termudah untuk melakukannya adalah dengan meningkatkan level keahlian Anda.

Misalnya, ada banyak sekali program pelatihan poker tingkat tinggi yang tersedia saat ini seperti Universitas Poker Elite saya yang baru.

17+ jam dari strategi poker paling canggih yang tersedia saat ini, ratusan contoh tangan dan “lembar contekan” yang menunjukkan kepada Anda tangan mana yang harus dimainkan, kapan harus bertaruh menaikkan dan menggertak.

Jika Anda berjuang untuk mengalahkan pemain bagus dalam permainan taruhan tinggi, ini adalah cara tercepat untuk mulai menghancurkan pemain ini dan mempelajari keterampilan pemain poker profesional.

Mendaftar di BlackRain79 Elite Poker University

Dapatkan Diskon $100 gunakan kode: ELITE100

Intinya, ikuti pelatihan poker Anda dan belajar jauh dari tabel dengan serius, untuk menjadi pemain yang jauh lebih efisien, dengan upah per jam rata-rata yang lebih tinggi.

Sebagai pemain poker profesional, saya sangat menyarankan Anda berinvestasi dalam pengetahuan poker Anda, dengan mempelajari strategi mutakhir terbaru, jika Anda ingin tetap berada di puncak permainan.

Kembali ke Dasar

Bagaimana jika Anda masih baru memulai dan berjuang untuk menghasilkan keuntungan dengan taruhan terendah?

Jika Anda masih berjuang di batas bawah, maka Anda mungkin belum siap untuk sesuatu yang canggih seperti The Upswing Lab. Anda perlu memastikan bahwa Anda telah menguasai dasar-dasarnya terlebih dahulu.

Dalam hal ini saya akan merekomendasikan untuk memeriksa buku strategi poker terlaris saya Menghancurkan Microstakes dan kursus video opsional yang menyertainya juga.

Di sini saya mengajari Anda strategi poker dasar yang Anda butuhkan untuk mulai mengalahkan batas terendah dengan percaya diri dan meningkatkan taruhan Anda.

Karena saya memiliki beberapa hasil terbaik sepanjang masa dalam game online ini, Anda tahu bahwa Anda sedang mempelajari strategi terbaik untuk menang besar dalam game ini.

Terakhir, saya juga sangat merekomendasikan menggunakan program pelacakan poker yang bagus seperti PokerTracker untuk meninjau tangan Anda dan mempelajari lawan Anda.

Saya telah menghabiskan waktu berjam-jam untuk meningkatkan permainan poker saya jauh dari tabel di PokerTracker selama bertahun-tahun. Dan itu benar-benar salah satu kunci kesuksesan saya.

Pajak Pemain Poker Profesional

Sekarang, sesuatu yang juga banyak orang tanyakan kepada saya adalah pajak apa yang harus dibayar oleh pemain poker profesional.

Dan sejujurnya, ini adalah pertanyaan yang sulit untuk saya jawab karena tentu saja akan sangat bervariasi tergantung di mana Anda tinggal (atau di mana tempat tinggal pajak Anda).

Misalnya, beberapa negara memandang kemenangan poker sebagai “rejeki nomplok perjudian” seperti keberuntungan di roda roulette dan oleh karena itu, mereka tidak kena pajak.

Sedangkan negara lain mendefinisikan poker sebagai permainan keterampilan, yang memang terbukti, dan karena itu membuat pemain poker profesional mengajukan pengembalian pajak.

Dan tentu saja ada banyak negara lain di mana pajak pemain poker profesional pada dasarnya adalah satu area abu-abu besar yang terbuka untuk interpretasi.

Hal terbaik yang harus dilakukan dalam semua kasus ini jika Anda seorang pemain poker profesional adalah berkonsultasi dengan seorang profesional pajak yang kompeten, dan terutama yang memiliki pengalaman khusus dalam menangani pendapatan terkait poker atau perjudian.

Ini akan menjadi taruhan terbaik Anda untuk memastikan bahwa Anda mematuhi semua undang-undang perpajakan yang berlaku untuk pemain poker profesional di yurisdiksi tempat Anda tinggal.

Mereka juga akan dapat membantu Anda mungkin menyiapkan tempat tinggal pajak yang lebih menguntungkan untuk menurunkan beban pajak Anda sebagai ahli poker, sekali lagi jika berlaku (berkonsultasilah dengan spesialis pajak profesional).

Peluang Menjadi Pemain Poker Profesional

Sekarang dengan semua itu, apa peluang Anda untuk menjadi pemain poker profesional akhir-akhir ini? Berapa banyak orang yang bahkan perlu mengkhawatirkan semua hal ini?

Sejujurnya, peluang menjadi pemain poker profesional cukup rendah.

Seperti yang baru-baru ini saya bahas di blog ini, kebenaran tentang menjadi pemain poker profesional akhir-akhir ini seringkali jauh berbeda dari persepsi umum tentangnya.

Dan kebanyakan orang sejujurnya tidak berhasil sebagai pemain poker profesional karena berbagai alasan.

Faktanya, kebanyakan orang bahkan tidak menang di poker sejak awal dalam jangka panjang!

Ini karena poker adalah permainan yang sangat sulit untuk selalu diunggulkan, baik dari segi teknis maupun mental.

Ini adalah sesuatu yang telah dibahas berkali-kali oleh para profesional poker kelas dunia seperti Daniel Negreanu.

Anda harus bekerja keras, bersemangat, memiliki kemampuan alami dan memiliki watak yang tenang dan tenang untuk memandu Anda melalui semua kekalahan beruntun yang tak terelakkan.

Kebanyakan orang memiliki satu tetapi tidak keduanya.

Menjadi pemain poker profesional bisa menjadi pilihan karir yang bagus untuk beberapa orang. Itu mengubah seluruh hidup saya dan memberi saya kebebasan untuk berkeliling dunia dan menjadi bos bagi diri saya sendiri.

Tetapi kenyataannya adalah hal itu tidak berjalan dengan baik bagi kebanyakan orang. Kebanyakan orang menurut pendapat saya harus mempertahankan pekerjaan harian mereka.

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Jadi berapa gaji rata-rata pemain poker profesional saat ini?

Nah, jika Anda seorang pro poker taruhan kecil atau menengah, Anda dapat mengharapkan untuk mendapatkan upah rata-rata per jam kira-kira antara $20 per jam dan $500 per jam.

Di sisi lain, pemain poker profesional taruhan tinggi biasanya akan menghasilkan lebih dari ini karena mereka bermain poker untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak uang.

Adapun gaji tahunan seorang profesional poker. Sekali lagi pemain poker profesional taruhan kecil atau menengah akan menghasilkan antara $25.000 per tahun dan $500.000 per tahun.

Dan pro poker taruhan tinggi akan menghasilkan jauh lebih banyak dari ini, biasanya lebih dari 7 angka per tahun.

Menjadi pemain poker profesional akhir-akhir ini jelas tidak mudah dan membutuhkan banyak kerja keras, kesabaran, dan disiplin.

Saya tidak merekomendasikannya untuk kebanyakan orang!

Untungnya, jauh lebih mudah untuk mempelajari cara cepat mulai menghasilkan pendapatan paruh waktu yang bagus dari poker hari ini sambil mempertahankan pekerjaan harian Anda.

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Philosophy of Education

Philosophy of Education

Philosophy of Education

1. Problems in Delineating the Field

The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy of education alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, of giving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhat complicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips 1985, 2010). Suffice it to say that some philosophers, as well as focusing inward on the abstract philosophical issues that concern them, are drawn outwards to discuss or comment on issues that are more commonly regarded as falling within the purview of professional educators, educational researchers, policy-makers and the like. (An example is Michael Scriven, who in his early career was a prominent philosopher of science; later he became a central figure in the development of the field of evaluation of educational and social programs. See Scriven 1991a, 1991b.) At the same time, there are professionals in the educational or closely related spheres who are drawn to discuss one or another of the philosophical issues that they encounter in the course of their work. (An example here is the behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner, the central figure in the development of operant conditioning and programmed learning, who in works such as Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1972) grappled—albeit controversially—with major philosophical issues that were related to his work.)

What makes the field even more amorphous is the existence of works on educational topics, written by well-regarded philosophers who have made major contributions to their discipline; these educational reflections have little or no philosophical content, illustrating the truth that philosophers do not always write philosophy. However, despite this, works in this genre have often been treated as contributions to philosophy of education. (Examples include John Locke’s Some Thoughts Concerning Education [1693] and Bertrand Russell’s rollicking pieces written primarily to raise funds to support a progressive school he ran with his wife. (See Park 1965.)

Finally, as indicated earlier, the domain of education is vast, the issues it raises are almost overwhelmingly numerous and are of great complexity, and the social significance of the field is second to none. These features make the phenomena and problems of education of great interest to a wide range of socially-concerned intellectuals, who bring with them their own favored conceptual frameworks—concepts, theories and ideologies, methods of analysis and argumentation, metaphysical and other assumptions, and the like. It is not surprising that scholars who work in this broad genre also find a home in the field of philosophy of education.

As a result of these various factors, the significant intellectual and social trends of the past few centuries, together with the significant developments in philosophy, all have had an impact on the content of arguments and methods of argumentation in philosophy of education—Marxism, psycho-analysis, existentialism, phenomenology, positivism, post-modernism, pragmatism, neo-liberalism, the several waves of feminism, analytic philosophy in both its ordinary language and more formal guises, are merely the tip of the iceberg.

2. Analytic Philosophy of Education and Its Influence

Conceptual analysis, careful assessment of arguments, the rooting out of ambiguity, the drawing of clarifying distinctions—all of which are at least part of the philosophical toolkit—have been respected activities within philosophy from the dawn of the field. No doubt it somewhat over-simplifies the complex path of intellectual history to suggest that what happened in the twentieth century—early on, in the home discipline itself, and with a lag of a decade or more in philosophy of education—is that philosophical analysis came to be viewed by some scholars as being the major philosophical activity (or set of activities), or even as being the only viable or reputable activity. In any case, as they gained prominence and for a time hegemonic influence during the rise of analytic philosophy early in the twentieth century analytic techniques came to dominate philosophy of education in the middle third of that century (Curren, Robertson, & Hager 2003).

The pioneering work in the modern period entirely in an analytic mode was the short monograph by C.D. Hardie, Truth and Fallacy in Educational Theory (1941; reissued in 1962). In his Introduction, Hardie (who had studied with C.D. Broad and I.A. Richards) made it clear that he was putting all his eggs into the ordinary-language-analysis basket:

The Cambridge analytical school, led by Moore, Broad and Wittgenstein, has attempted so to analyse propositions that it will always be apparent whether the disagreement between philosophers is one concerning matters of fact, or is one concerning the use of words, or is, as is frequently the case, a purely emotive one. It is time, I think, that a similar attitude became common in the field of educational theory. (Hardie 1962: xix)

About a decade after the end of the Second World War the floodgates opened and a stream of work in the analytic mode appeared; the following is merely a sample. D. J. O’Connor published An Introduction to Philosophy of Education (1957) in which, among other things, he argued that the word “theory” as it is used in educational contexts is merely a courtesy title, for educational theories are nothing like what bear this title in the natural sciences. Israel Scheffler, who became the paramount philosopher of education in North America, produced a number of important works including The Language of Education (1960), which contained clarifying and influential analyses of definitions (he distinguished reportive, stipulative, and programmatic types) and the logic of slogans (often these are literally meaningless, and, he argued, should be seen as truncated arguments), Conditions of Knowledge (1965), still the best introduction to the epistemological side of philosophy of education, and Reason and Teaching (1973 [1989]), which in a wide-ranging and influential series of essays makes the case for regarding the fostering of rationality/critical thinking as a fundamental educational ideal (cf. Siegel 2016). B. O. Smith and R. H. Ennis edited the volume Language and Concepts in Education (1961); and R.D. Archambault edited Philosophical Analysis and Education (1965), consisting of essays by a number of prominent British writers, most notably R. S. Peters (whose status in Britain paralleled that of Scheffler in the United States), Paul Hirst, and John Wilson. Topics covered in the Archambault volume were typical of those that became the “bread and butter” of analytic philosophy of education (APE) throughout the English-speaking world—education as a process of initiation, liberal education, the nature of knowledge, types of teaching, and instruction versus indoctrination.

Among the most influential products of APE was the analysis developed by Hirst and Peters (1970) and Peters (1973) of the concept of education itself. Using as a touchstone “normal English usage,” it was concluded that a person who has been educated (rather than instructed or indoctrinated) has been (i) changed for the better; (ii) this change has involved the acquisition of knowledge and intellectual skills and the development of understanding; and (iii) the person has come to care for, or be committed to, the domains of knowledge and skill into which he or she has been initiated. The method used by Hirst and Peters comes across clearly in their handling of the analogy with the concept of “reform”, one they sometimes drew upon for expository purposes. A criminal who has been reformed has changed for the better, and has developed a commitment to the new mode of life (if one or other of these conditions does not hold, a speaker of standard English would not say the criminal has been reformed). Clearly the analogy with reform breaks down with respect to the knowledge and understanding conditions. Elsewhere Peters developed the fruitful notion of “education as initiation”.

The concept of indoctrination was also of great interest to analytic philosophers of education, for, it was argued, getting clear about precisely what constitutes indoctrination also would serve to clarify the border that demarcates it from acceptable educational processes. Thus, whether or not an instructional episode was a case of indoctrination was determined by the content taught, the intention of the instructor, the methods of instruction used, the outcomes of the instruction, or by some combination of these. Adherents of the different analyses used the same general type of argument to make their case, namely, appeal to normal and aberrant usage. Unfortunately, ordinary language analysis did not lead to unanimity of opinion about where this border was located, and rival analyses of the concept were put forward (Snook 1972). The danger of restricting analysis to ordinary language (“normal English usage”) was recognized early on by Scheffler, whose preferred view of analysis emphasized

first, its greater sophistication as regards language, and the interpenetration of language and inquiry, second, its attempt to follow the modern example of the sciences in empirical spirit, in rigor, in attention to detail, in respect for alternatives, and in objectivity of method, and third, its use of techniques of symbolic logic brought to full development only in the last fifty years… It is…this union of scientific spirit and logical method applied toward the clarification of basic ideas that characterizes current analytic philosophy [and that ought to characterize analytic philosophy of education]. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 9–10])

After a period of dominance, for a number of important reasons the influence of APE went into decline. First, there were growing criticisms that the work of analytic philosophers of education had become focused upon minutiae and in the main was bereft of practical import. (It is worth noting that a 1966 article in Time, reprinted in Lucas 1969, had put forward the same criticism of mainstream philosophy.) Second, in the early 1970’s radical students in Britain accused Peters’ brand of linguistic analysis of conservatism, and of tacitly giving support to “traditional values”—they raised the issue of whose English usage was being analyzed?

Third, criticisms of language analysis in mainstream philosophy had been mounting for some time, and finally after a lag of many years were reaching the attention of philosophers of education; there even had been a surprising degree of interest on the part of the general reading public in the United Kingdom as early as 1959, when Gilbert Ryle, editor of the journal Mind, refused to commission a review of Ernest Gellner’s Words and Things (1959)—a detailed and quite acerbic critique of Wittgenstein’s philosophy and its espousal of ordinary language analysis. (Ryle argued that Gellner’s book was too insulting, a view that drew Bertrand Russell into the fray on Gellner’s side—in the daily press, no less; Russell produced a list of insulting remarks drawn from the work of great philosophers of the past. See Mehta 1963.)

Richard Peters had been given warning that all was not well with APE at a conference in Canada in 1966; after delivering a paper on “The aims of education: A conceptual inquiry” that was based on ordinary language analysis, a philosopher in the audience (William Dray) asked Peters “whose concepts do we analyze?” Dray went on to suggest that different people, and different groups within society, have different concepts of education. Five years before the radical students raised the same issue, Dray pointed to the possibility that what Peters had presented under the guise of a “logical analysis” was nothing but the favored usage of a certain class of persons—a class that Peters happened to identify with (see Peters 1973, where to the editor’s credit the interaction with Dray is reprinted).

Fourth, during the decade of the seventies when these various critiques of analytic philosophy were in the process of eroding its luster, a spate of translations from the Continent stimulated some philosophers of education in Britain and North America to set out in new directions, and to adopt a new style of writing and argumentation. Key works by Gadamer, Foucault and Derrida appeared in English, and these were followed in 1984 by Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition. The classic works of Heidegger and Husserl also found new admirers; and feminist philosophers of education were finding their voices—Maxine Greene published a number of pieces in the 1970s and 1980s, including The Dialectic of Freedom (1988); the influential book by Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, appeared the same year as the work by Lyotard, followed a year later by Jane Roland Martin’s Reclaiming a Conversation. In more recent years all these trends have continued. APE was and is no longer the center of interest, although, as indicated below, it still retains its voice.

As was stressed at the outset, the field of education is huge and contains within it a virtually inexhaustible number of issues that are of philosophical interest. To attempt comprehensive coverage of how philosophers of education have been working within this thicket would be a quixotic task for a large single volume and is out of the question for a solitary encyclopedia entry. Nevertheless, a valiant attempt to give an overview was made in A Companion to the Philosophy of Education (Curren 2003), which contains more than six-hundred pages divided into forty-five chapters each of which surveys a subfield of work. The following random selection of chapter topics gives a sense of the enormous scope of the field: Sex education, special education, science education, aesthetic education, theories of teaching and learning, religious education, knowledge, truth and learning, cultivating reason, the measurement of learning, multicultural education, education and the politics of identity, education and standards of living, motivation and classroom management, feminism, critical theory, postmodernism, romanticism, the purposes of universities, affirmative action in higher education, and professional education. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education (Siegel 2009) contains a similarly broad range of articles on (among other things) the epistemic and moral aims of education, liberal education and its imminent demise, thinking and reasoning, fallibilism and fallibility, indoctrination, authenticity, the development of rationality, Socratic teaching, educating the imagination, caring and empathy in moral education, the limits of moral education, the cultivation of character, values education, curriculum and the value of knowledge, education and democracy, art and education, science education and religious toleration, constructivism and scientific methods, multicultural education, prejudice, authority and the interests of children, and on pragmatist, feminist, and postmodernist approaches to philosophy of education.

Given this enormous range, there is no non-arbitrary way to select a small number of topics for further discussion, nor can the topics that are chosen be pursued in great depth. The choice of those below has been made with an eye to highlighting contemporary work that makes solid contact with and contributes to important discussions in general philosophy and/or the academic educational and educational research communities.

3.1 The Content of the Curriculum and the Aims and Functions of Schooling

The issue of what should be taught to students at all levels of education—the issue of curriculum content—obviously is a fundamental one, and it is an extraordinarily difficult one with which to grapple. In tackling it, care needs to be taken to distinguish between education and schooling—for although education can occur in schools, so can mis-education, and many other things can take place there that are educationally orthogonal (such as the provision of free or subsidized lunches and the development of social networks); and it also must be recognized that education can occur in the home, in libraries and museums, in churches and clubs, in solitary interaction with the public media, and the like.

In developing a curriculum (whether in a specific subject area, or more broadly as the whole range of offerings in an educational institution or system), a number of difficult decisions need to be made. Issues such as the proper ordering or sequencing of topics in the chosen subject, the time to be allocated to each topic, the lab work or excursions or projects that are appropriate for particular topics, can all be regarded as technical issues best resolved either by educationists who have a depth of experience with the target age group or by experts in the psychology of learning and the like. But there are deeper issues, ones concerning the validity of the justifications that have been given for including/excluding particular subjects or topics in the offerings of formal educational institutions. (Why should evolution or creation “science” be included, or excluded, as a topic within the standard high school subject Biology? Is the justification that is given for teaching Economics in some schools coherent and convincing? Do the justifications for including/excluding materials on birth control, patriotism, the Holocaust or wartime atrocities in the curriculum in some school districts stand up to critical scrutiny?)

The different justifications for particular items of curriculum content that have been put forward by philosophers and others since Plato’s pioneering efforts all draw, explicitly or implicitly, upon the positions that the respective theorists hold about at least three sets of issues.

First, what are the aims and/or functions of education (aims and functions are not necessarily the same)? Many aims have been proposed; a short list includes the production of knowledge and knowledgeable students, the fostering of curiosity and inquisitiveness, the enhancement of understanding, the enlargement of the imagination, the civilizing of students, the fostering of rationality and/or autonomy, and the development in students of care, concern and associated dispositions and attitudes (see Siegel 2007 for a longer list). The justifications offered for all such aims have been controversial, and alternative justifications of a single proposed aim can provoke philosophical controversy. Consider the aim of autonomy. Aristotle asked, what constitutes the good life and/or human flourishing, such that education should foster these (Curren 2013)? These two formulations are related, for it is arguable that our educational institutions should aim to equip individuals to pursue this good life—although this is not obvious, both because it is not clear that there is one conception of the good or flourishing life that is the good or flourishing life for everyone, and it is not clear that this is a question that should be settled in advance rather than determined by students for themselves. Thus, for example, if our view of human flourishing includes the capacity to think and act autonomously, then the case can be made that educational institutions—and their curricula—should aim to prepare, or help to prepare, autonomous individuals. A rival justification of the aim of autonomy, associated with Kant, champions the educational fostering of autonomy not on the basis of its contribution to human flourishing, but rather the obligation to treat students with respect as persons (Scheffler 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988). Still others urge the fostering of autonomy on the basis of students’ fundamental interests, in ways that draw upon both Aristotelian and Kantian conceptual resources (Brighouse 2005, 2009). It is also possible to reject the fostering of autonomy as an educational aim (Hand 2006).

Assuming that the aim can be justified, how students should be helped to become autonomous or develop a conception of the good life and pursue it is of course not immediately obvious, and much philosophical ink has been spilled on the general question of how best to determine curriculum content. One influential line of argument was developed by Paul Hirst, who argued that knowledge is essential for developing and then pursuing a conception of the good life, and because logical analysis shows, he argued, that there are seven basic forms of knowledge, the case can be made that the function of the curriculum is to introduce students to each of these forms (Hirst 1965; see Phillips 1987: ch. 11). Another, suggested by Scheffler, is that curriculum content should be selected so as “to help the learner attain maximum self-sufficiency as economically as possible.” The relevant sorts of economy include those of resources, teacher effort, student effort, and the generalizability or transfer value of content, while the self-sufficiency in question includes

self-awareness, imaginative weighing of alternative courses of action, understanding of other people’s choices and ways of life, decisiveness without rigidity, emancipation from stereotyped ways of thinking and perceiving…empathy… intuition, criticism and independent judgment. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 123–5])

Both impose important constraints on the curricular content to be taught.

Second, is it justifiable to treat the curriculum of an educational institution as a vehicle for furthering the socio-political interests and goals of a dominant group, or any particular group, including one’s own; and relatedly, is it justifiable to design the curriculum so that it serves as an instrument of control or of social engineering? In the closing decades of the twentieth century there were numerous discussions of curriculum theory, particularly from Marxist and postmodern perspectives, that offered the sobering analysis that in many educational systems, including those in Western democracies, the curriculum did indeed reflect and serve the interests of powerful cultural elites. What to do about this situation (if it is indeed the situation of contemporary educational institutions) is far from clear and is the focus of much work at the interface of philosophy of education and social/political philosophy, some of which is discussed in the next section. A closely related question is this: ought educational institutions be designed to further pre-determined social ends, or rather to enable students to competently evaluate all such ends? Scheffler argued that we should opt for the latter: we must

surrender the idea of shaping or molding the mind of the pupil. The function of education…is rather to liberate the mind, strengthen its critical powers, [and] inform it with knowledge and the capacity for independent inquiry. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 139])

Third, should educational programs at the elementary and secondary levels be made up of a number of disparate offerings, so that individuals with different interests and abilities and affinities for learning can pursue curricula that are suitable? Or should every student pursue the same curriculum as far as each is able?—a curriculum, it should be noted, that in past cases nearly always was based on the needs or interests of those students who were academically inclined or were destined for elite social roles. Mortimer Adler and others in the late twentieth century sometimes used the aphorism “the best education for the best is the best education for all.”

The thinking here can be explicated in terms of the analogy of an out-of-control virulent disease, for which there is only one type of medicine available; taking a large dose of this medicine is extremely beneficial, and the hope is that taking only a little—while less effective—is better than taking none at all. Medically, this is dubious, while the educational version—forcing students to work, until they exit the system, on topics that do not interest them and for which they have no facility or motivation—has even less merit. (For a critique of Adler and his Paideia Proposal, see Noddings 2015.) It is interesting to compare the modern “one curriculum track for all” position with Plato’s system outlined in the Republic, according to which all students—and importantly this included girls—set out on the same course of study. Over time, as they moved up the educational ladder it would become obvious that some had reached the limit imposed upon them by nature, and they would be directed off into appropriate social roles in which they would find fulfillment, for their abilities would match the demands of these roles. Those who continued on with their education would eventually become members of the ruling class of Guardians.

3.2 Social, Political and Moral Philosophy

The publication of John Rawls’s A Theory of Justice in 1971 was the most notable event in the history of political philosophy over the last century. The book spurred a period of ferment in political philosophy that included, among other things, new research on educationally fundamental themes. The principles of justice in educational distribution have perhaps been the dominant theme in this literature, and Rawls’s influence on its development has been pervasive.

Rawls’s theory of justice made so-called “fair equality of opportunity” one of its constitutive principles. Fair equality of opportunity entailed that the distribution of education would not put the children of those who currently occupied coveted social positions at any competitive advantage over other, equally talented and motivated children seeking the qualifications for those positions (Rawls 1971: 72–75). Its purpose was to prevent socio-economic differences from hardening into social castes that were perpetuated across generations. One obvious criticism of fair equality of opportunity is that it does not prohibit an educational distribution that lavished resources on the most talented children while offering minimal opportunities to others. So long as untalented students from wealthy families were assigned opportunities no better than those available to their untalented peers among the poor, no breach of the principle would occur. Even the most moderate egalitarians might find such a distributive regime to be intuitively repugnant.

Repugnance might be mitigated somewhat by the ways in which the overall structure of Rawls’s conception of justice protects the interests of those who fare badly in educational competition. All citizens must enjoy the same basic liberties, and equal liberty always has moral priority over equal opportunity: the former can never be compromised to advance the latter. Further, inequality in the distribution of income and wealth are permitted only to the degree that it serves the interests of the least advantaged group in society. But even with these qualifications, fair equality of opportunity is arguably less than really fair to anyone. The fact that their education should secure ends other than access to the most selective social positions—ends such as artistic appreciation, the kind of self-knowledge that humanistic study can furnish, or civic virtue—is deemed irrelevant according to Rawls’s principle. But surely it is relevant, given that a principle of educational justice must be responsive to the full range of educationally important goods.

Suppose we revise our account of the goods included in educational distribution so that aesthetic appreciation, say, and the necessary understanding and virtue for conscientious citizenship count for just as much as job-related skills. An interesting implication of doing so is that the rationale for requiring equality under any just distribution becomes decreasingly clear. That is because job-related skills are positional whereas the other educational goods are not (Hollis 1982). If you and I both aspire to a career in business management for which we are equally qualified, any increase in your job-related skills is a corresponding disadvantage to me unless I can catch up. Positional goods have a competitive structure by definition, though the ends of civic or aesthetic education do not fit that structure. If you and I aspire to be good citizens and are equal in civic understanding and virtue, an advance in your civic education is no disadvantage to me. On the contrary, it is easier to be a good citizen the better other citizens learn to be. At the very least, so far as non-positional goods figure in our conception of what counts as a good education, the moral stakes of inequality are thereby lowered.

In fact, an emerging alternative to fair equality of opportunity is a principle that stipulates some benchmark of adequacy in achievement or opportunity as the relevant standard of distribution. But it is misleading to represent this as a contrast between egalitarian and sufficientarian conceptions. Philosophically serious interpretations of adequacy derive from the ideal of equal citizenship (Satz 2007; Anderson 2007). Then again, fair equality of opportunity in Rawls’s theory is derived from a more fundamental ideal of equality among citizens. This was arguably true in A Theory of Justice but it is certainly true in his later work (Dworkin 1977: 150–183; Rawls 1993). So, both Rawls’s principle and the emerging alternative share an egalitarian foundation. The debate between adherents of equal opportunity and those misnamed as sufficientarians is certainly not over (e.g., Brighouse & Swift 2009; Jacobs 2010; Warnick 2015). Further progress will likely hinge on explicating the most compelling conception of the egalitarian foundation from which distributive principles are to be inferred. Another Rawls-inspired alternative is that a “prioritarian” distribution of achievement or opportunity might turn out to be the best principle we can come up with—i.e., one that favors the interests of the least advantaged students (Schouten 2012).

The publication of Rawls’s Political Liberalism in 1993 signaled a decisive turning point in his thinking about justice. In his earlier book, the theory of justice had been presented as if it were universally valid. But Rawls had come to think that any theory of justice presented as such was open to reasonable rejection. A more circumspect approach to justification would seek grounds for justice as fairness in an overlapping consensus between the many reasonable values and doctrines that thrive in a democratic political culture. Rawls argued that such a culture is informed by a shared ideal of free and equal citizenship that provided a new, distinctively democratic framework for justifying a conception of justice. The shift to political liberalism involved little revision on Rawls’s part to the content of the principles he favored. But the salience it gave to questions about citizenship in the fabric of liberal political theory had important educational implications. How was the ideal of free and equal citizenship to be instantiated in education in a way that accommodated the range of reasonable values and doctrines encompassed in an overlapping consensus? Political Liberalism has inspired a range of answers to that question (cf. Callan 1997; Clayton 2006; Bull 2008).

Other philosophers besides Rawls in the 1990s took up a cluster of questions about civic education, and not always from a liberal perspective. Alasdair Macintyre’s After Virtue (1984) strongly influenced the development of communitarian political theory which, as its very name might suggest, argued that the cultivation of community could preempt many of the problems with conflicting individual rights at the core of liberalism. As a full-standing alternative to liberalism, communitarianism might have little to recommend it. But it was a spur for liberal philosophers to think about how communities could be built and sustained to support the more familiar projects of liberal politics (e.g., Strike 2010). Furthermore, its arguments often converged with those advanced by feminist exponents of the ethic of care (Noddings 1984; Gilligan 1982). Noddings’ work is particularly notable because she inferred a cogent and radical agenda for the reform of schools from her conception of care (Noddings 1992).

One persistent controversy in citizenship theory has been about whether patriotism is correctly deemed a virtue, given our obligations to those who are not our fellow citizens in an increasingly interdependent world and the sordid history of xenophobia with which modern nation states are associated. The controversy is partly about what we should teach in our schools and is commonly discussed by philosophers in that context (Galston 1991; Ben-Porath 2006; Callan 2006; Miller 2007; Curren & Dorn 2018). The controversy is related to a deeper and more pervasive question about how morally or intellectually taxing the best conception of our citizenship should be. The more taxing it is, the more constraining its derivative conception of civic education will be. Contemporary political philosophers offer divergent arguments about these matters. For example, Gutmann and Thompson claim that citizens of diverse democracies need to “understand the diverse ways of life of their fellow citizens” (Gutmann & Thompson 1996: 66). The need arises from the obligation of reciprocity which they (like Rawls) believe to be integral to citizenship. Because I must seek to cooperate with others politically on terms that make sense from their moral perspective as well as my own, I must be ready to enter that perspective imaginatively so as to grasp its distinctive content. Many such perspectives prosper in liberal democracies, and so the task of reciprocal understanding is necessarily onerous. Still, our actions qua deliberative citizen must be grounded in such reciprocity if political cooperation on terms acceptable to us as (diversely) morally motivated citizens is to be possible at all. This is tantamount to an imperative to think autonomously inside the role of citizen because I cannot close-mindedly resist critical consideration of moral views alien to my own without flouting my responsibilities as a deliberative citizen.

Civic education does not exhaust the domain of moral education, even though the more robust conceptions of equal citizenship have far-reaching implications for just relations in civil society and the family. The study of moral education has traditionally taken its bearings from normative ethics rather than political philosophy, and this is largely true of work undertaken in recent decades. The major development here has been the revival of virtue ethics as an alternative to the deontological and consequentialist theories that dominated discussion for much of the twentieth century.

The defining idea of virtue ethics is that our criterion of moral right and wrong must derive from a conception of how the ideally virtuous agent would distinguish between the two. Virtue ethics is thus an alternative to both consequentialism and deontology which locate the relevant criterion in producing good consequences or meeting the requirements of moral duty respectively. The debate about the comparative merits of these theories is not resolved, but from an educational perspective that may be less important than it has sometimes seemed to antagonists in the debate. To be sure, adjudicating between rival theories in normative ethics might shed light on how best to construe the process of moral education, and philosophical reflection on the process might help us to adjudicate between the theories. There has been extensive work on habituation and virtue, largely inspired by Aristotle (Burnyeat 1980; Peters 1981). But whether this does anything to establish the superiority of virtue ethics over its competitors is far from obvious. Other aspects of moral education—in particular, the paired processes of role-modelling and identification—deserve much more scrutiny than they have received (Audi 2017; Kristjánsson 2015, 2017).

3.3 Social Epistemology, Virtue Epistemology, and the Epistemology of Education

Related to the issues concerning the aims and functions of education and schooling rehearsed above are those involving the specifically epistemic aims of education and attendant issues treated by social and virtue epistemologists. (The papers collected in Kotzee 2013 and Baehr 2016 highlight the current and growing interactions among social epistemologists, virtue epistemologists, and philosophers of education.)

There is, first, a lively debate concerning putative epistemic aims. Alvin Goldman argues that truth (or knowledge understood in the “weak” sense of true belief) is the fundamental epistemic aim of education (Goldman 1999). Others, including the majority of historically significant philosophers of education, hold that critical thinking or rationality and rational belief (or knowledge in the “strong” sense that includes justification) is the basic epistemic educational aim (Bailin & Siegel 2003; Scheffler 1965, 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988, 1997, 2005, 2017). Catherine Z. Elgin (1999a,b) and Duncan Pritchard (2013, 2016; Carter & Pritchard 2017) have independently urged that understanding is the basic aim. Pritchard’s view combines understanding with intellectual virtue; Jason Baehr (2011) systematically defends the fostering of the intellectual virtues as the fundamental epistemic aim of education. This cluster of views continues to engender ongoing discussion and debate. (Its complex literature is collected in Carter and Kotzee 2015, summarized in Siegel 2018, and helpfully analyzed in Watson 2016.)

A further controversy concerns the places of testimony and trust in the classroom: In what circumstances if any ought students to trust their teachers’ pronouncements, and why? Here the epistemology of education is informed by social epistemology, specifically the epistemology of testimony; the familiar reductionism/anti-reductionism controversy there is applicable to students and teachers. Anti-reductionists, who regard testimony as a basic source of justification, may with equanimity approve of students’ taking their teachers’ word at face value and believing what they say; reductionists may balk. Does teacher testimony itself constitute good reason for student belief?

The correct answer here seems clearly enough to be “it depends”. For very young children who have yet to acquire or develop the ability to subject teacher declarations to critical scrutiny, there seems to be little alternative to accepting what their teachers tell them. For older and more cognitively sophisticated students there seem to be more options: they can assess them for plausibility, compare them with other opinions, assess the teachers’ proffered reasons, subject them to independent evaluation, etc. Regarding “the teacher says that p” as itself a good reason to believe it appears moreover to contravene the widely shared conviction that an important educational aim is helping students to become able to evaluate candidate beliefs for themselves and believe accordingly. That said, all sides agree that sometimes believers, including students, have good reasons simply to trust what others tell them. There is thus more work to do here by both social epistemologists and philosophers of education (for further discussion see Goldberg 2013; Siegel 2005, 2018).

A further cluster of questions, of long-standing interest to philosophers of education, concerns indoctrination: How if at all does it differ from legitimate teaching? Is it inevitable, and if so is it not always necessarily bad? First, what is it? As we saw earlier, extant analyses focus on the aims or intentions of the indoctrinator, the methods employed, or the content transmitted. If the indoctrination is successful, all have the result that students/victims either don’t, won’t, or can’t subject the indoctrinated material to proper epistemic evaluation. In this way it produces both belief that is evidentially unsupported or contravened and uncritical dispositions to believe. It might seem obvious that indoctrination, so understood, is educationally undesirable. But it equally seems that very young children, at least, have no alternative but to believe sans evidence; they have yet to acquire the dispositions to seek and evaluate evidence, or the abilities to recognize evidence or evaluate it. Thus we seem driven to the views that indoctrination is both unavoidable and yet bad and to be avoided. It is not obvious how this conundrum is best handled. One option is to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable indoctrination. Another is to distinguish between indoctrination (which is always bad) and non-indoctrinating belief inculcation, the latter being such that students are taught some things without reasons (the alphabet, the numbers, how to read and count, etc.), but in such a way that critical evaluation of all such material (and everything else) is prized and fostered (Siegel 1988: ch. 5). In the end the distinctions required by the two options might be extensionally equivalent (Siegel 2018).

Education, it is generally granted, fosters belief: in the typical propositional case, Smith teaches Jones that p, and if all goes well Jones learns it and comes to believe it. Education also has the task of fostering open-mindedness and an appreciation of our fallibility: All the theorists mentioned thus far, especially those in the critical thinking and intellectual virtue camps, urge their importance. But these two might seem at odds. If Jones (fully) believes that p, can she also be open-minded about it? Can she believe, for example, that earthquakes are caused by the movements of tectonic plates, while also believing that perhaps they aren’t? This cluster of italicized notions requires careful handling; it is helpfully discussed by Jonathan Adler (2002, 2003), who recommends regarding the latter two as meta-attitudes concerning one’s first-order beliefs rather than lessened degrees of belief or commitments to those beliefs.

Other traditional epistemological worries that impinge upon the epistemology of education concern (a) absolutism, pluralism and relativism with respect to knowledge, truth and justification as these relate to what is taught, (b) the character and status of group epistemologies and the prospects for understanding such epistemic goods “universalistically” in the face of “particularist” challenges, (c) the relation between “knowledge-how” and “knowledge-that” and their respective places in the curriculum, (d) concerns raised by multiculturalism and the inclusion/exclusion of marginalized perspectives in curriculum content and the classroom, and (e) further issues concerning teaching and learning. (There is more here than can be briefly summarized; for more references and systematic treatment cf. Bailin & Siegel 2003; Carter & Kotzee 2015; Cleverley & Phillips 1986; Robertson 2009; Siegel 2004, 2017; and Watson 2016.)

3.4 Philosophical Disputes Concerning Empirical Education Research

The educational research enterprise has been criticized for a century or more by politicians, policymakers, administrators, curriculum developers, teachers, philosophers of education, and by researchers themselves—but the criticisms have been contradictory. Charges of being “too ivory tower and theory-oriented” are found alongside “too focused on practice and too atheoretical”; but in light of the views of John Dewey and William James that the function of theory is to guide intelligent practice and problem-solving, it is becoming more fashionable to hold that the “theory v. practice” dichotomy is a false one. (For an illuminating account of the historical development of educational research and its tribulations, see Lagemann 2000.)

A similar trend can be discerned with respect to the long warfare between two rival groups of research methods—on one hand quantitative/statistical approaches to research, and on the other hand the qualitative/ethnographic family. (The choice of labels here is not entirely risk-free, for they have been contested; furthermore the first approach is quite often associated with “experimental” studies, and the latter with “case studies”, but this is an over-simplification.) For several decades these two rival methodological camps were treated by researchers and a few philosophers of education as being rival paradigms (Kuhn’s ideas, albeit in a very loose form, have been influential in the field of educational research), and the dispute between them was commonly referred to as “the paradigm wars”. In essence the issue at stake was epistemological: members of the quantitative/experimental camp believed that only their methods could lead to well-warranted knowledge claims, especially about the causal factors at play in educational phenomena, and on the whole they regarded qualitative methods as lacking in rigor; on the other hand the adherents of qualitative/ethnographic approaches held that the other camp was too “positivistic” and was operating with an inadequate view of causation in human affairs—one that ignored the role of motives and reasons, possession of relevant background knowledge, awareness of cultural norms, and the like. Few if any commentators in the “paradigm wars” suggested that there was anything prohibiting the use of both approaches in the one research program—provided that if both were used, they were used only sequentially or in parallel, for they were underwritten by different epistemologies and hence could not be blended together. But recently the trend has been towards rapprochement, towards the view that the two methodological families are, in fact, compatible and are not at all like paradigms in the Kuhnian sense(s) of the term; the melding of the two approaches is often called “mixed methods research”, and it is growing in popularity. (For more detailed discussion of these “wars” see Howe 2003 and Phillips 2009.)

The most lively contemporary debates about education research, however, were set in motion around the turn of the millennium when the US Federal Government moved in the direction of funding only rigorously scientific educational research—the kind that could establish causal factors which could then guide the development of practically effective policies. (It was held that such a causal knowledge base was available for medical decision-making.) The definition of “rigorously scientific”, however, was decided by politicians and not by the research community, and it was given in terms of the use of a specific research method—the net effect being that the only research projects to receive Federal funding were those that carried out randomized controlled experiments or field trials (RFTs). It has become common over the last decade to refer to the RFT as the “gold standard” methodology.

The National Research Council (NRC)—an arm of the US National Academies of Science—issued a report, influenced by postpostivistic philosophy of science (NRC 2002), that argued that this criterion was far too narrow. Numerous essays have appeared subsequently that point out how the “gold standard” account of scientific rigor distorts the history of science, how the complex nature of the relation between evidence and policy-making has been distorted and made to appear overly simple (for instance the role of value-judgments in linking empirical findings to policy directives is often overlooked), and qualitative researchers have insisted upon the scientific nature of their work. Nevertheless, and possibly because it tried to be balanced and supported the use of RFTs in some research contexts, the NRC report has been the subject of symposia in four journals, where it has been supported by a few and attacked from a variety of philosophical fronts: Its authors were positivists, they erroneously believed that educational inquiry could be value neutral and that it could ignore the ways in which the exercise of power constrains the research process, they misunderstood the nature of educational phenomena, and so on. This cluster of issues continues to be debated by educational researchers and by philosophers of education and of science, and often involves basic topics in philosophy of science: the constitution of warranting evidence, the nature of theories and of confirmation and explanation, etc. Nancy Cartwright’s important recent work on causation, evidence, and evidence-based policy adds layers of both philosophical sophistication and real world practical analysis to the central issues just discussed (Cartwright & Hardie 2012, Cartwright 2013; cf. Kvernbekk 2015 for an overview of the controversies regarding evidence in the education and philosophy of education literatures).

4. Concluding Remarks

As stressed earlier, it is impossible to do justice to the whole field of philosophy of education in a single encyclopedia entry. Different countries around the world have their own intellectual traditions and their own ways of institutionalizing philosophy of education in the academic universe, and no discussion of any of this appears in the present essay. But even in the Anglo-American world there is such a diversity of approaches that any author attempting to produce a synoptic account will quickly run into the borders of his or her competence. Clearly this has happened in the present case.

Fortunately, in the last thirty years or so resources have become available that significantly alleviate these problems. There has been a flood of encyclopedia entries, both on the field as a whole and also on many specific topics not well-covered in the present essay (see, as a sample, Burbules 1994; Chambliss 1996b; Curren 1998, 2018; Phillips 1985, 2010; Siegel 2007; Smeyers 1994), two “Encyclopedias” (Chambliss 1996a; Phillips 2014), a “Guide” (Blake, Smeyers, Smith, & Standish 2003), a “Companion” (Curren 2003), two “Handbooks” (Siegel 2009; Bailey, Barrow, Carr, & McCarthy 2010), a comprehensive anthology (Curren 2007), a dictionary of key concepts in the field (Winch & Gingell 1999), and a good textbook or two (Carr 2003; Noddings 2015). In addition there are numerous volumes both of reprinted selections and of specially commissioned essays on specific topics, some of which were given short shrift here (for another sampling see A. Rorty 1998, Stone 1994), and several international journals, including Theory and Research in Education, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Educational Theory, Studies in Philosophy and Education, and Educational Philosophy and Theory. Thus there is more than enough material available to keep the interested reader busy.

School Management - Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions

School Management – Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions

School Management - Meaning, Concepts, and Definitions


The term ‘management’ is very comprehensive. Management means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.


School management means running the school along the desired educational policies. It takes into account all aspects of the school (policies, material and human resources, programmes, activities, equipments etc.) and integrates them into a fruitful whole.

In simple words it means managing the affairs of a school.


The school management system is a large database system and can be used for managing any school’s day to day business.

It is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of an institution utilizing human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish the function of teaching, extension work and research for the purpose of achieving the aims and goals of school.


There is no single accepted definition of educational management as its development has drawn heavily on several disciplines like economics, sociology and political science.

But some specialists in this area have propounded their views in the form of giving their definitions on educational management which are given below.

Paul Monroe (1913) – “School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers”.

G. Terry page and J.B. Thomas (1978) – “Theory and practice of the organisation and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.”

Shelly Umana – “Management is a method of operation and good management should result in an orderly integration of education and society”.


The followings are the aims and objectives of school management,

  • To reflect and conserve basic values.
  • To carry out educational futures.
  • To manage social change.
  • To profit by experience.
  • To carry out modernisation.
  • To propagate science.
  • To adopt technology.
  • To realise National Integration.
  • To form character and values.


  • Objective Based: It means to attain the objectives of education and schooling.
  • Quality of Education: Good school management is concerned with the quality of education being given in schools.
  • The best use of resources: In order to promote efficient functioning of the school, it makes the best possible use of the material resources.
  • Joint Enterprise: It involves the joint enterprise all the personnel connected with the school – Teacher, supervisors, pupils, parents etc.
  • Professional growth: It brings out the best in the teacher and supervisors and takes steps to promote their professional growth.
  • Efficiency and Improvement: It tries to bring out over all improvement and efficiency in the school.
  • Continuous process: It is a continuous process. It always concerned with improvement and development of the institution.
  • Input–Output Model: It works on the input-output model. It takes into account the efforts made and the outcomes achieved.
  • Community oriented: It is alive to social needs and requirement as the school is meant to serve the society.


Anything done to improve the quality of education at any stage may be ranging from the supply of material, human and financial resources to the highest cultural or academic needs-comes under the scope of educational management.

This scope of school management is very vast. It includes everything regarding the efficient functioning of the educational institution, securing the greatest benefit to the greatest number through an adoption of practical measures.

It interprets and clarifies the functions and the activities of an educational programme in fruitful relationships and harmonizes their mutual action. It ensures sound planning, good direction and efficient and systematic execution.

We shall consider the scope of educational management under the following heads.

Goal Development:

Society is in a constant process of change, needs of the society change and so do the goal specifications. It is necessary for the educative process to be responsive to these changing expectations and it is through the educational management system that persons involved in the process of management can continuously examine, evaluate and change (if appropriate) the goals of education

Programme Planning and Actualization:

Planning is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in the future and directed towards realising some goals by the best possible means.

Program planning involves multiple steps including the identification of a problem, selection of desired outcomes, assessment of available resources, implementation, and evaluation of the program.

The responsibility for the planning and actualization of programmes rests with the management system. It is therefore essential that the management system should provide technological support to the educative process in the form of consultations and services. The management system should initiate, coordinate, provide services and to be a part of these activities.


Organization has been a problem in the field of education. If conventional biases and prejudices can be replaced by decisions made logically and scientifically, with the achievement of objectives as the only consideration modern principles and techniques of organization will provide a basis for effective distribution and co-ordination of functions.


School organization and management is simply the way of managing whole tasks of school properly so that better results could be obtained and ultimately goodwill of school enhanced.

The significance of school management has all the more increased due to an increase in the number of students and knowledge and expectation for the transfer of knowledge. In India, there are more than 8lakh schools and 18 crore students, and their management is not that simple.

Some United States Musical Instruments

Some United States Musical Instruments


The United States is known for its colorful culture and especially for its upbeat, upbeat music. Various cultures played a large role in the creation of styles of music and dance in the United States. Traditional musical instruments vary in different countries. Here are some examples of United States musical instruments.

United States Musical Instruments


This musical instrument resembles a tambourine. It is hand-held and comes with small cymbals around the sides. It is very popular in Brazilian music especially capoeira and samba. Pandeiro instruments are considered quite versatile because they can be tuned according to your wishes. It can also be played in a number of ways including using the fingers and the whole palm. idn slots


Originating from Cuba, these single-headed drums usually come in sets of two. Each drum is tuned to a specific pitch, giving the drums a rhythmic beat. You can use various sounds with the conga by hitting the head of the instrument with your hand.


The Guiro handheld instrument is believed to have originated in Cuba. It is made with a single piece of metal or wood. It is perforated and provided with grooves that run horizontally along the sides. Another way to play it is by hitting it with a stick.


The lead is similar to the conga. However, tin comes with a metal rim and is shallower than the conga. The lead heads produce resonant notes and high notes because the drum heads are set high. It can be played by attaching a stick to a metal head or casing.


Maracas are believed to have come from various places including Venezuela and Puerto Rico. Maracas are not only popular in United States music but are also used throughout the world as a backup instrument. Maracas are made of hollow shells with handles. Inside the shell are dried grains, so when the tool is shaken, the maracas make a crackling sound.

Some United States Musical Instruments


This United States musical instrument that is widely used in Cuban music looks quite simple. However, it is one of the most distinct instruments in the region. This is a hand-held block of wood about the size of a large cigar. To use the instrument, you must ring two claves.


This musical instrument is usually played in the Caribbean islands. This instrument is said to have originated in Cuba and was later used by Puerto Rican people. It is clearly built on the idea of ​​a guitar based on its appearance. In some places, this instrument is called a bandola or triple. El tres has six strings much like a guitar, but the strings are grouped into three.

The marimba

La marimba is a musical instrument originating from Central America. Others believe that this instrument was invented during the maya civilization while others say that it was made by slaves as their own version of an African instrument. Costa Rica and Guatemala are still known to use the instrument today.

Get to Know Music in the United States

Music in the United States is a reflection of a multi-ethnic population with a variety of musical styles. Music in the United States is a mix of music influenced by (among others) West African, Irish, Scottish, Mexican, and Cuban music.

American music that is quite well known internationally is jazz, blues, bluegrass, country, rock, ragtime, rhythm & blues, hip-hop, pop, dance, and rock and roll. The United States has the largest music market with total retail sales of Rp. 69,855,577,606 in 2014, and music us. heard all over the world. Since the early 20th century, some US pop music has been listened to and followed globally.

That’s a review of Some Musical Instruments in the United States, hopefully this is useful.

Also read:

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin Dances List: 15 Popular Styles, Names & History

Latin dances are rather a large group of dance styles that are united by their place of origin – Latin America and invariably passionate rhythms and performances. Latin American dances are a type of ballroom and club dances that spread throughout Europe in the 19th century and became very popular. They owe their wide popularity to curiously mixed cultures of the Americas, including European and local folk dances. Thus, the Spanish folk dance, the elements of which were performed by bullfighters during a bullfight, became known throughout the world as a paso doble. Samba was brought to Brazil, and then to Europe, African influence is seen in rumba and cha cha cha which originated in Cuba and Haiti.

The traditional program of Latin Ballroom Dances, adopted by the World DanceSport Federation, since 1930 includes five dances in the Latin American section. These are Samba, Rumba, Cha-Cha-Cha, Paso Doble and Jive (United States origine). All of them are performed in a pair, a man and a woman and, unlike the European dances, the partners during the performance can either separate the contact, or cling to each other very closely. All Latin American dances are rhythmic and emotional, and some of them are particularly sensual.

The other large group of Latin dances is so-called Social (or ”club” Latina) includes Salsa, Bachata, Merengue, Reggaeton, Mambo, Kizomba, Zouk and Argentine tango. It has long been one of the most popular group of mass dance, both in Latin America and in the United States, Europe and Asia. Salsa and bachata, merengue and mambo – these dances do not require perfected skill, it is more important to reveal them completely, turning movements into meaningful love and passionate stories. For many years, the cult for all Latin dancers is the movie “Dirty Dancing” with Patrick Swayze, where the most popular amateur dances are shown in all its glory.

Here is a List of Social Latin American dances:


Salsa dancing initially developed into a particular style in the 1940s and comes from a tradition of Latin dance styles that dates back to the early 1900s. It is heavily influenced by Afro-Cuban traditions and dance styles such as mambo, guaguanco and danzon. The brief history of salsa dance is that people moved to new locations and assimilated into new cultures, where salsa evolved into fresh styles. There are several different salsa styles influenced by cultures of the cities they originated. For instance, most famous in North America in United States are New York Salsa (also known as dancing ‘On 2’) and Los Angeles Salsa (known as dancing ‘On 1’). Many dance aficionados actually claim that New York Style salsa is the original style of salsa, as the term and the dance were coined in the Big Apple. Other styles include Cuban salsa, Cumbia, Rueda de Casino (read more on salsa dance types here). Besides New York and Los Angeles in USA, major cities around the world where salsa is most popular are: Toronto Salsa and Vancouver Salsa in Canada and in United Kingdom: London Salsa. There are numerous Salsa Festivals around the world that attract thousand of Salseros every year as well as Salsa Congress which is a multi-day dance festival featuring workshops, social dancing, performances and competitions focusing on Salsa dancing.


Bachata dance is known for its love stories, and its syncopated rhythm. The dance actually was born of the music in the Dominican Republic during the 1960’s. Unfortunately, a dictatorship that found Bachata to be an art form of low standing held the music and the dance back for decades. The music was first developed with a heavy guitar emphasis and heartrending love stories as its basis. However, it grew primarily within bars and brothels, and this led to Bachata being held back for literally decades. Although the Bachata dance itself is a spinoff of the music, in recent years the music has grown more slowly than the dance. Bachata dance continues to grow and thrive all over the world, and has finally reached a place where it is widely accepted.


The Merengue is a couple dance that has roots in the Dominican Republic. There are many theories of how precisely it became the dance that it is today. It is certain, however, that Dictator Rafael Trujillo deemed it the Dominican official dance and musical style after his rise to power in the 1930’s. A similar style is enjoyed in neighboring Haiti. The Merengue is one of the recognized Latin dance that has evolved over the years and widely enjoyed in many parts of the world.


Mambo is a Latin dance of Cuba which was developed in the 1940s when the music genre of the same name became popular throughout Latin America. The word mambo comes from the name of the god of war. In immemorial times, the Cubans dedicated a ritual dance to him, with the aim of deserving location and ensuring patronage. The mambo dance has much in common with rumba and cha-cha (at first, the famous cha-cha-cha was even called syncopated mambo), but it has a great temperament, freedom in expressing feelings and emotions, luxurious music. Incendiary rhythms of mambo are widely used in cinema. This dance is both a means of seduction and a way to express your feelings. Among the most famous films in which dance is used is the film “Mambo” with starring Antonio Banderas and Arman Assante and the more modern film Dirty Dancing starring Patrick Suezi.


Kizomba is a new direction of latin dance culture that originated in Angola in the 1980s under the influence of French Creole music and African folk rhythms. And in Europe, it has spread widely in the twenty-first century. Kizomba has similar features with samba, bachata and Argentine tango, but this style is smoother, moderate and calm. Energy of Kizomba is more sensual and romantic, not expressive but rather flirtatious. Nowadays, Kizomba is winning the hearts and minds of modern youth. Everyone wants to learn how to dance Kizomba, everyone wants to shine at parties, to be fashionable and modern. There are numerous Latin Festivals around the world that include Kizomba as one of their featured dances.


In the late 20th century, dramatized concert performances with bright costumes and lively ethnic music were popular in Haiti, Martinique and the Cape Verde Islands. This is how the Zouk dance style emerged, combining the intonation of authentic Haitian music, the calypso style, the sound of “black” Angolan music. “Zouk” in French Creole means “party” or “festival.” Dancing evenings with live music have won wild popularity not only on the islands. France, Canada, Brazil and the countries of Asia and latey United States have not resisted the pressure of the sensual rhythm.

Zuk dance is a social dance that is performed on three counts and is saturated with beautiful curves of the upper part of the body and deflections, and the steps and turns are complemented by circular rotations, wave-like movements and turns of the head. This style of dance is much more sensual than others, its turns and “falls” are spectacular, so the flexibility of the partner is of particular importance. Acrobatics are allowed. There are many Latin Festival events around the world that include Zouk dance as an essential part of their program.


Reggaeton is a musical style that originated in Puerto Rico and Panama in 1970-1980. It was born under the influence of such directions as reggae, dancehall, hip-hop and very quickly became popular in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. And how a separate style was highlighted in the 1990s, spreading its popularity to the USA, where immigrants brought it. A characteristic feature of this musical direction is overt and even somewhat aggressive sexuality, a clear reggae rhythm and a recipe in Spanish. Nando Boom and El General are considered to be the fathers of this musical direction.

Argentine tango

Tango is a very sensual dance, and is among some of the most famous couple dances today. Prior to the birth of Tango, which happened in the poorer sections of Buenos Aires in the early 1900’s, there were only a few dances that required that a couple become so intimate as to face each other. The history of Argentine Tango is a little muddled, as it began in the lower classes, and it has faced many trials over the years. However, Tango has survived and grown into a dance that is enjoyed worldwide. Around 1911, Tango made the trip overseas and became a sensation in Paris, London and Berlin. 1913 saw it strike New York City in full force, although less authentic Tango dancing was already practiced there to some extent.

Tango scenes have been featured in many tango films. Tango scenes have been featured in many tango films. Today we see many thriving tango communities around the world, with the biggest one in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in USA: New York tango and Seattle tango are among the largest, in Europe: Berlin and more. You can catch the best tango performances at many Milongas (social tango dancing). There are as well many Tango Festivals around the world that attract thousand of Tangueros and fans.


Bomba is one of the traditional dances and musical styles of Puerto Rico, which arose at the intersection of African and Spanish cultures and the Indian culture of native Taino. Bomba got its name from the drums made out of rum barrels. The base rhythm of Bomba is performed on two or more drums. The meaning of bomba is similar to the meaning of Cuban rumba – it is a competition between a singer, a dancer and a percussionist.

The main trait of Bomba is that the musicians in it follow the dancer (and not vice versa). The vocal part consists of the recitals of the soloist and choir (at least three voices). In this case, the soloist will improvise poetry, and the chorus will respond to him.The dance is still extremely popular in Puerto Rico and New York.


Puerto rican style of music and dance, used as a means of social and political expression. This traditional dance uses a panderet (tambourine), has a 4/4 pace and does not follow the clave. Plena was created 100 years ago in the working class barrios of Ponce, Plena’s roots could be traced back into the changes in society brought on by Puerto Rico’s move from Spanish into U.S. rule. Plena was born of African American roots and has been changed to a distinctively Puerto Rican dance style from the consequences of Jíbaro, indigenous Taino, and European musical traditions, along with the contribution of freed slaves out of English-speaking Caribbean Islands who travelled to Puerto Rico.

Plena primarily existed within folklore nevertheless, in the 1990s Plena has been given new life due to musical bands from Puerto Rico and New York who updated its sound to be fresh and modern. Whether folklore or contemporary audio, it is the panderos — three or more handheld drums of distinct sizes/pitches (seguidor, segundo, and requinto), along with also the guiro — a gourd percussion tool of native Taino source — which collectively create the unique rhythm of Plena.

Here is a list of Latin Dances included in the program of Ballroom dancing (International Latin):


Samba is a dance rich in history, and one that is known for the joy it expresses. The traditional Brazilian Samba is a national favorite each year at Rio’s Carnival Celebration. Both men and women, each known as a Sambista, present the rhythmic celebratory dance throughout the city during the festivities. The Ballroom Samba varies greatly from many of the styles, but does maintain some of the Brazilian Samba characteristics. Ballroom Samba is recognized as one of five International Style of Latin Dancing partner dances. The Samba as seen today developed in Rio near the close of the 19th century. In 1917, Samba was beginning to be viewed as a dance style in its own right. The year of 1930 saw it become an accepted form of ballroom dance — Ballroom Samba has made a lasting impact on partner dancing throughout the world.


Rumba, one of the five international Latin dances, is a sultry story in motion. This particular Latin dance is widely acknowledged as the most sensuous. Rumba has humble beginnings. As with many others, at least some of Rumba’s roots can be traced back to African tribal dances. However, it is in the nation of Cuba where it became the Rumba that is still so popular today. It is commonly referred to as the grandfather of Latin dance. Rumba hit the United States during the 1920’s, and laid the groundwork for all Latin dances thereafter.


Originally known as Cha-Cha-Cha, the name of this flirtatious and upbeat partner dance has been shortened a little over the years to simply Cha-Cha. This particular dance style was developed originally in Cuba, and then picked up by dancers visiting Havana from all over the world. The dance’s fun, flamboyant and quick nature made it appealing then, and certainly adds to its appeal now. The more authentic Cuban style is very sensual, somewhat teasing and a bit contagious. Not only is the Cha-Cha still danced across the globe and is one of the International Style of Latin Dancing partner dances, the musical genre can be heard sung by incredibly popular musical artists even today.

Paso Doble

Paso Doble (Spanish for “two steps”) is a Spanish dance imitating a bullfight. Paso doble was one of the many Spanish folk dances associated with various aspects of Spanish life. The partner represents the torero, and the partner – his cloak (muleta), sometimes – the second torero, and very rarely – the bull, as a rule, defeated by the final blow. The nature of the music corresponds to the procession in front of the bullfight. The dance was first performed in France in 1920, became popular in Parisian high society in the 1930s, therefore many steps and figures have French names. After the Second World War, Paso Doble was included in the Latin-American program of sports ballroom dancing.


Jive is a dance of African American origin that appeared in the USA in the early 1940s. Jive is a type of swing with fast and free movements. Modern jive is very different from swing in style, although it often uses the same shapes and movements. Jive dance is performed at ballroom dancing competitions. Of the five dances of the Latin American program, the jive is always the last and is the apotheosis of the competitive program. This dance is very fast and sparkling. Thus, it allows couples not only to demonstrate technical skills, but also to show their physical fitness.

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

10 Tips to Learn French Fast

Learning a new language can be daunting, but with a good attitude and a little bit of motivation, learning French in France can become child’s play.

Here are 10 tips to learn French fast:

1. Watch films

Watching films in French with French subtitles is one of the best ways to learn. Not only will you discover everyday idiomatic expressions and new vocabulary, but you will also be able to read words as the actors pronounce them: an ideal way to train your ear and improve your accent.

2. Learn with songs

Just like films, songs are an excellent way to learn French in a playful way. Translate the texts and sing them along. You will finally understand what your favorite French songs actually mean!

3. Read

Alternate between traditional study methods and more playful ones. You love detective novels? Why not read them in French? If you prefer lighter reads, buy magazines and use them to learn new vocabulary in relation to your passions. Comics? Comics are a very useful way to learn French, a mix of text and images facilitate the understanding and learning of French.

4. Find a partner

Find a native French speaker wishing to learn your mother tongue and alternate between conversations in French and in English. Everyone wins! If your spouse or a friend is also learning French, speak in French when you are together! Progress and fun guaranteed!

5. Don’t be scared to try and make mistakes

A lot of people don’t make progress simply because they don’t dive in — especially when it comes to speaking. Don’t be scared to make mistakes! The persons you speak to will gladly correct you and help you progress.

6. Listen!

Actively listen to other people speaking: notice how they use certain expressions and do not hesitate to ask for explanations. Even when you are busy doing something else, put on a French radio program: passive listening can also help you progress.

7. Practice

Take advantage of your moments of solitude to repeat the words and expressions you have learnt out loud. Don’t be scared to talk to yourself in order to work on your pronunciation!

8. Sign up for an intensive course

Whether it is in full immersion or in your home country, an intensive French courses can be an excellent way to learn French quickly. Be careful not to relax in your efforts once the course is over. To make sure you don’t lose what you have learnt, you need to keep practicing. Which brings us to the next point: consistency.

9. Be consistent

To learn quickly and efficiently, one must work everyday, even if it is only for five minutes each time.

10. Go for a full immersion

The best way to learn is certainly through full immersion. This can be daunting at first, but you will learn French in no time and will live unforgettable experiences. To avoid feeling completely lost, you can reach out to a French language school implanted in France. CIA itself is located on the French Riviera and offers tailored programs for all levels. Do not hesitate to contact us for further information!